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Soviet power and spiritual educational institutions of Russian Orthodox Church



sovetsky power and spiritual educational institutions of Russian Orthodox Church

tannik who were not going to connect the life with vicarial service. All this was the reason of active disorders of pupils in days of the first Russian revolution which did not stop with the end of revolution, and desire of the clergy to reform the system of spiritual education. On the eve of 1917 among clergy, offers about transfers of a general education course of theological seminaries and all system of women's diocesan schools to secular department were actively discussed. However at meetings of the Local Council of 1917 — 1918 the resolution on preservation of a system of men's theological seminaries and women's diocesan schools under the authority of ROC with the subsequent them reformirovaniyem1 is accepted.

The church met events of February, 1917 not only in confusion, but also with a certain share of hope for the solution of the problems. Also it aspired to the constructive relations with the new power and after October, 1917. However the new power took frankly hostile stand, having set the purpose to release the person from re-ligii2. And one of the first blows was directed against the system of spiritual educational institutions.

Already on December 11, 1917. The commissariat of national education adopted the resolution in which it was said: "to submit the cases of education and education to maintaining the Commissariat of national education from spiritual department. All parish schools, teacher's seminaries, spiritual schools and seminaries, women's diocesan schools, academies and other high and higher schools and schools of spiritual department with states and movable and immovable property" 3 are subject to transfer. On January 23, 1918 "The decree about freedom of conscience, church and religious societies" which Paragraph 9 also proclaimed office of school from tserkvi4 was published. Teaching religious dogmas in all public and public institutions was not allowed.

The last law corresponded to the developed world practice and, speaking to the modern language, to norms of civil society. In a number of the countries, in particular in France, the separation of the state from church occurred during an era of bourgeois-democratic revolutions. In the conditions of multi-religious Russia the disestablishment could provide equal existence of all church organizations and also the right of citizens to practise any religion.

However the new power understood freedom of conscience very peculiar — not as freedom of religion and as the country, free from all religions, and began to provide this freedom to all without fail. At the same time it is made the mentality of the Russian society most of which could not present an education system without obligatory teaching dogma was not considered. Therefore many apprehended these two normative documents as a shock of bases. So, the prior of the Sukhumi cathedral Georgy Golubtsov who arrived to Cathedral on January 30 (on February 12), 1918 wrote in the diary that he read the last document with horror, especially lines about separation of school from church made an impression on it: "To Sukhumi and could not come to our mind that the power which announced itself state, can issue such law!" 5. However "government" confirmed the intentions with the resolution of February 23, 1918 on transfer of all educational institutions to department of the Commissariat of national education "for transformation of teaching and educational business, for association and its updating on the basis of new pedagogics and socialism" 6. For these purposes the interdepartmental commission was created. On May 30, 1918 the Decree about merging of all educational and educational institutions and institutions in department of the Commissariat of national education according to which all initial, average, the highest, from - is accepted

the covered and closed general education and special educational institutions were transferred to the jurisdiction of it vedomstva7. Respectively all finance and all property had to pass into the same department.

The church did not wish even to say goodbye to the existing system of educational institutions mentally. Educational committee St. The synod not only hoped for preservation of already existing institutions, but even opened new. So, definition St. The synod of January 30, 1918 one more diocesan school was born: it was authorized to transform the Ural second-class school to Ural women's diocesan uchilishche8. And it in seven days after the publication of the decree "About disestablishment and schools from church"! Moreover, councils of educational institutions both diocesan schools, and theological seminaries, sought to give classes even in the most adverse conditions. So, the building of the Novgorod theological seminary even before seizure of power by Bolsheviks was engaged in Novgorod by troops numbering up to 2 thousand people. Especially many troubles were caused to seminarists by the arrived hospital No. 106 which medical personnel personally occupied seminar hospital. Pupils were forced to sleep on a floor, and during lessons were engaged, sitting at windows and stoya9. And news of seizure of power by Bolsheviks and existence of very bad bread was not a reason for disorders and disorders as it would be earlier. 1917/18 academic year in a number of educational institutions more or less tolerably, but took place.

Though would be incorrect to claim that pupils of spiritual educational institutions absolutely tried not to notice the changes happening in the country. The revolutionary spirit got into severe walls of spiritual educational institutions, but already a little in other form, than in days of the first Russian revolution. So, the pupil of the Kaluga diocesan school M.S. Preobrazhenskaya remembers that new conditions

influenced behavior of pupils. It was free, independent, exempted from former constraint. Innovations were noticeable in suits and in hairstyles of girls — elegant collars and uniform dresses were altered closer to modern styles. The most brave began to join Komsomol. Elective from among schoolgirls began to be a part pedsoveta10. However in this situation the habitual form of a protest — refusal of classes — began to consign to the past as classes appeared under the threat, and keeping them, pupils in such a way expressed the disagreement with the policy of the new power.

Originally Soviet power was in principle not against to keep under the authority of church spiritual educational institutions for vocational training of priests according to observance of some provisions of "The decree about Freedom of conscience" which allowed holding religious practices. At the beginning of June on dioceses the circular letter distributed the decree of the Most Saint Patriarch in which the relation of the Commissioner of national education signed by A.V. Lunacharsky was given to the State commission on education of the following contents: "I ask to hurry the most obedient in consideration of questions of theological seminary and schools as those are vocational schools for training of clergy. Personally I believe that if desired local community to take on contents these schools of obstacles to continuation of their existence irrespective of the Commissariat of national education it should not appear, buildings and stock have to be transferred to the jurisdiction of the local church communities" 11. In this regard the Patriarch offered on places the approximate estimate of income for the maintenance of such schools. Already existing contributions from churches and monasteries to spiritual educational institutions and also established

had to become sources of means

Lucia is had to, as well as all educational institutions, under the authority of the Commissariat of national education. As for buildings of educational institutions and their property, according to the resolution they were subject to confiscation on the ground that "they were constructed not only on special means of church, but also in the enormous majority of cases on funds nation-wide, raised from all people without its direct consent on that" 17. Educational rooms could only be provided by local authorities in use of church. The question of women's diocesan schools sank in a stream of discussion and did not find reflection in the resolution. So, at the moment the decision of the commission on education corresponded to the main ideas of the secular state and independent church. However such loyal solution of this question did not get full support at all members of the commission, and some suggested to return to discussion of this question in the expanded structure of the commission. Once again this issue was discussed on July 22, 1918. However and this time it was considered a little developed. According to Shapiro's proposal the consideration of the resolution was postponed until formation of the Big State commission, according to the new Constitution.

On August 24 signs, and the 30th same month the instruction of Narkomyu-sta (NKYu) "About carrying out order in life of the decree & #34 is published; About disestablishment and schools from церкви"". Originally for creation of this instruction quite representative interdepartmental commission into which representatives of seven narcomats and various religious faiths entered was created. At first sight, such structure of the commission could provide democratic discussion and the solution of all questions in the relations of church and state. However its big structure and also persistent upholding of the positions from church which were perceived by the commission as "a performance against wasps -

novny provisions of the decree", did not lead to fruitful rabote18. "The department of carrying out in decree life about disestablishment" which employees possess authorship of this instruction was as a result created. The instruction contrary to hopes and expectations completely liquidated any opportunities for existence of religious education and training and preservation of spiritual educational institutions. It was specified in paragraph 33 of the instruction that "in view of separation of school from church the teaching any religious dogmas cannot be allowed in the state, public and private educational institutions, except for special theological at all" 19. So, if the established "Decree about freedom of conscience" the ban on religious education concerned 1918 only the public educational institutions and left a backdoor way for creation of private educational institutions or for vocational training of priests, then now the instruction forbade teaching dogma in any educational institutions, except theological. Also item 34 — 35 destroyed financial and material resources of spiritual school: "All credits for teaching religion at schools have to be immediately closed and teachers of religious dogmas have to be deprived of any allowance. Buildings of spiritual educational institutions of all religions and also parish schools as national property, pass into the order of local councils of Workers and Country Deputies or the National commissariat of education..." 20. This point deprived not only monetary pay of teachers and deprived of them work, but also requisitioned educational buildings in the property of the state, many of which were created at the expense of dioceses and on hardly the collected donations and contributions. Besides, the church completely lost all the property. In such conditions

shchestvo to transfer to storage to city temples the most valuable things and to sell a part of stocks in order to avoid excessive requisitions.

Riots and in Petrograd took place when closing the St. Petersburg Spiritual academy and seminary. Seminarists were thrown out from windows, arranged fires from books and icons. And many seminaries and schools had the hugest collection of various books both theological, and educational. So, the Voronezh theological seminary had the largest library, the third most important in the Russian Empire among libraries of spiritual educational institutions. The new power did not care at all to keep this property in spite of the fact that the Decree about protection of libraries and knigokhranilishch41 was adopted on July 17, 1918. In many cities the library stock just was thrown out on the street. The famous figure of the Ryazan region — the graduate of the Ryazan theological seminary — Ivan Ivanovich Prokhodtsov wrote in the diary on March 10, 1919: "The main library of seminary in 17 thousand volumes was thrown out on the street. The room was required for comfort under bedrooms to cadets" 42. The Soviet power did not consider these books value. Moreover, in the Ryazan province in all Commissariats of national education of the province the letter signed by the Provincial Commissioner of national education V. Shulgin in whom it was recommended is distributed: "immediately to make the order on schools about withdrawal of school libraries of all books of religious character" 43. In January, 1918 in the building of the Novgorod theological seminary, searches were repeatedly conducted. Breakings were as a result found, a lot of things were gone from physical to a cabin-ta44. However it is necessary to notice that not only spiritual educational institutions underwent defeat and desecration. Robberies of churches, monasteries, murders of attendants of an altar — all this took place still to ok -

tyabrya 1917. The power of Bolsheviks also did not try to stop a wave of violence and grabezha45 in any way.

So, actions of the Soviet power concerning church and its educational institutions were dual. First of all, it selected general education function at church — for all children the uniform school was created. In general such step from modern positions met standards of civil society. Moreover, in pre-revolutionary discussions about reform of spiritual school the thought sounded more than once that it is necessary to separate vicarial education from general education and to transfer the last to the jurisdiction of the Ministry of national education. As for elimination of obligatory teaching religious disciplines, it also corresponded to the principles of secular education. However, considering the orthodox nature of the state, and the corresponding mentality of the people, this principle it was necessary to put into practice very carefully and gradually. The new power in the main documents declared the right of believers to teach the children to religion privately and the right of church to support the educational institutions for vocational training. On the same position there were most educated members of the government. In practice it liquidated financial and material resources of spiritual school, and the revolutionary elements finished destruction of all system of spiritual educational institutions which disappeared almost completely in October, 1918 almost for seventy years. The right of believers to study bases of religious literacy, and church to train priests was not carried out. Spiritual educational institutions were closed in the most injurious way, with defeat of their property. In the Soviet Union there were only four theological seminaries for training for the needs of church, women's educational institutions similar to women's diocesan schools, was not in general.

Soviet power and spiritual educational institutions of Russian Orthodox Church

1 State Archive of the Russian Federation (SARF). R-3431. F. Op. 1. 130. L. 43; 128. L. 56.
2 N.A Krivova the Power and church in 1922-1925 - M., 1997. - Page 11.
3 Meeting of legalizations and orders of the working and country government of December 24
1917 years. No. 9. The first department. — Page 131.
4 The decree about freedom of conscience, church and religious societies//Decrees of the Soviet power. T. 1. - M, 1957. - Page 374.
5 Archpriest Georgy Golubtsov. Trip to the All-Russian church Cathedral. On January 29 - April 18, 1918. The diary//the Russian church in days of revolution. 1917-1918 - M., 1995. - Page 151.
6 Meeting of legalizations and orders of the working and country government of March 14
1918 years. No. 28. - Page 353.
7 The decree of Council of People's Commissars about merging of educational and educational institutions and institutions of all departments in department of a national commissariat on education//Decrees of the Soviet power. - T. 2. - M, 1959. - Page 358.
8 Russian State Historical Archive (RSHA). T. 802. Op. 11 (1917). 159. L. 159.
9 Scientific archive of the Novgorod state joint memorial estate. T. 51. Op. 1. 25. L. 133.
10 Funds of the museum of high school of Kaluga No. 9: M.S. Preobrazhenskaya's memoirs.
11 State Archive of the Tver Region (SATR). T. 575. Op. 1. 1299. L. 3 about.
12 GATO. T. 575. Op. 1. 1299. L. 7.
13 In the same place.
14 State archive of the Nizhny Novgorod Region. F. R-120. Op. 2. 140. L. 53, 60.
15 RGIA. T. 802. Op. 11 (1917). 159. L. 37.
16 State Archive of the Yaroslavl Region (SAYR). T. 570. Op. 1. 57. L. 18.
17 State Archive of the Ryazan Region (SARR). R-132. Op. 1. 16. L. 74.
18 M.M. Persits. Disestablishment and schools from church in the USSR. - M, 1958. - Page 111.
19 The resolution of the National Commissariat of Justice on carrying out order in decree life "About disestablishment and schools from church" (Instruction)//Russian Orthodox Church in Soviet period. (1917-1991). Materials and documents on stories of the relations between the state and Church. - M, 1995. Prince 1. - Page 130.
20 In the same place. - Page 131.
21 Sacred cathedral of Orthodox Russian church. 1917-1918. Review of acts. The third session. - M, 2000. - Page 241.
22 In the same place. - Page 242.
23 GARO. F. R-132. Op. 1. 16. L. 155.
24 In the same place.
25 In the same place. L. 156.
26 GARO. F. R-132. Op. 1. 16. L. 157; The Resolution of the 5th meeting of the state commission on education//the Collection of decrees and resolutions of the working and country government on national education. Issue 1. - M, 1919. - Page 28.
27 Provision on uniform labor school of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic//Decrees of the Soviet power. T. 3. - M, 1964. - Page 214.
28 GARO. F. R-132. Op. 1. 3. L. 66.
29 State archive of the Nizhny Novgorod Region. F. R-120. Op. 2. 101. L. 4.
30 State archive of the Nizhny Novgorod Region. F. R-120. Op. 2. 101. L. 11.
31 State archive of the Nizhny Novgorod Region. F. R-120. Op. 2. 101. L. 38.
32 RGIA. T. 802. Op. 11 (1917). 159. L. 46.
33 GARF. F. R-3431. Op. 1. 386. L. 110 about.
34 GAYaO. T. 570. Op. 1. 57. L. 7.
35 GAYaO. T. 570. Op. 1. 57. L. 20-20 about.
36 GARO. F. R-132. Op. 1. 10. L. 153.

HISTORY, SOCIOLOGY

37 Central state historical archive of St. Petersburg (CGIA SPb.). T. 1009. Op. 1. 15. L. 333.
38 GAYaO. 570. Op. 1. 57. L. 46 about.
39 In the same place.
40 State archive of the Nizhny Novgorod Region. F. R-120. Op. 2. 140. L. 188 — 195.
41 The decree about protection of libraries and book-depositories of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic//Decrees of the Soviet power. T. III. — M, 1964. — Page 41.
42 "And we live day by day". I.I. Prokhodtsov's diary. March — July, 1919//Pages of the past. Diaries, memoirs, certificates. — Ryazan, 1998. — Page 112.
43 GARO. F. R-132. Op. 1. 13. L. 28.
44 Scientific archive of the Novgorod state joint memorial estate. T. 51. Op. 1. 25. L. 162, 163.
45 S.L. Firsov. The Russian church on the eve of changes (the end of the 1890th — 1918). — M, 2002. — Page 546.
Alicia Fowler
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