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To a question of structure and activity of the Kazan educational and district center



i. E. Krapotkina

To the QUESTION of STRUCTURE AND ACTIVITY of the KAZAN EDUCATIONAL and DISTRICT CENTER *

The end of XIX — the beginning of the 20th centuries — the difficult and dynamic period in the history of domestic education. Effective functioning of educational institutions was carried out thanks to skillful coordination of actions from the Ministry of Public Education and administration of the educational districts presented by Management of the district and Office of the trustee.

I. Krapotkina

TO THE ISSUE OF THE STRUCTURE AND ACTIVITIES KAZAN EDUCATIONAL DISTRICT CENT1763+ RE

The end of XIX — the beginning of XX centuries — is a complicated and dynamic period in the history of Russian education. Effective functioning of the educational establishments was realized due to skillful coordination of Ministry of Education and the management of educational districts represented by the district administration the office of the curator.

In the 19th century the educational space of the Russian Empire was presented by educational districts. By the end of the 19th century there was an accurate control system of all educational administrative units of the district center as: Management of the district, Office of the trustee, directorate of national schools, administration of separate educational institutions.

At the head of the Kazan educational and district center there was a management consisting on the ministerial states approved on January 27, 1881 of the trustee, the assistant to the trustee and three district inspectors, one of whom supervised the Chuvash schools [22]. At a boundary of the 19-20th centuries the general scheme of Management of the Kazan district was following:

Management of the Kazan educational district (1894-1917)

The research is executed within research draft No. P319 "Conceptualization of microhistorical researches at studying the Russian country town" of the Federal target program "Scientific and Research and Educational Personnel of Innovative Russia" for 2009-2013.

The head of the educational district — the trustee — acted as the representative of the Ministry of Public Education in the region entrusted to it. Each of the heads heading the Kazan district from 1894 to 1917 made an indisputable contribution to development of education of the people of the Volga region. Activity of trustees deserves special attention as each of them owing to the opportunities sought to present adequately the district before the ministry.

All officials of Management, Office, directorates of national schools and the administration of educational institutions of the Kazan district entirely submitted to the trustee. Definition and dismissal from service, increase in positions, granting a holiday and representation to an award depended on it. Especially it should be noted that the trustee could appoint or fire applicants to some positions on educational department only from permission of the minister of education [26, page 959].

During absence of the trustee (because of an illness, an official journey, vacation or on pension) its duties were imputed to the assistant to the trustee. In case there was no assistant also, Management was headed by one of district inspectors, at the same time on perfect changes was reported in the ministry [18]. Similar information extended Office of the trustee on all subordinated institutions, informing at circular orders directorate of schools on on what name the required documents have to arrive now. Besides, in "The Kazan provincial sheets" announcements of this kind were published: "The trustee of the Kazan educational district, the privy councilor Nikolay Gavrilovich Potapov, going... in a holiday, transferred control of the district to the assistant to the trustee, the valid councilor of state Sergey Fedorovich Speshkov". Or: "The managing director Kazan -

the sky educational district, the assistant to the trustee, the valid councilor of state Sergey Fedorovich Speshkov, being sent on the resolved leave, transferred control of the district to the district inspector, the councilor of state Alexander Glebovich Dedov"

According to Situation of June 25, 1835 in all managements of educational districts the position of the assistant to the trustee was established. In the Kazan district this position began to be replaced only since 1846 though the Kazan publicist N.Ya. Agafonov speaks about 1845 [1, page 14]. But, anyway, emergence in Management of the district of the new official speaks about expansion of activity of the educational and district center and need of division of work between the trustee and his assistant.

During the period from 1894 to 1917 the duties of the assistant to the trustee of the Kazan uchebnookruzhny center executed: V.V. Latyshev, S.F. Speshkov, A.A. Ostroumov, P.D. Pogodin and S.I. Lyubomudrov [27]. The assistant to the trustee was the second person in Management of the district and performed functions of the managing director of the district in the absence of the trustee, monitored performance of duties from district inspectors.

Executive duties in Management of the district were a prerogative of district inspectors. The resolution of December 24, 1863 instead of the position of the inspector of state schools approved in 1835 the position of the district inspector appeared. In the Moscow, Kazan, Odessa and Vilensky educational districts of district inspectors about two persons were established. The trustee of the district could distribute between them duties at discretion. Primary activity of district inspectors consisted in implementation of auditing surveys of educational institutions, in rendering the methodical and methodological help to the teacher's structure of schools and in record keeping

Managements of the Kazan educational district. Since February 11, 1867 the third position of the district inspector was founded [23, page 2066-2068].

In March, 1872 the Ministry of Public Education suggested to establish by the circular order the following operating procedure of district inspectors: to distribute all their activity according to types of educational institutions, i.e. one manages gymnasiums, another — schools [21, page 205-206]. Establishment of similar rules allowed to distribute functional duties between inspectors and to define a way of implementation of auditing visits of educational institutions of the district. During the studied period in the Kazan district this principle was reflected first of all in foreign schools. In particular, one district inspector supervised the Chuvash schools [29].

Since July 1, 1903 the position of the district inspector on the Chuvash schools in the Kazan district was abolished. According to I.Ya. Yakovlev fulfilling these duties, this measure was caused by attempt of the Ministry of Public Education and the educational and district administration led by trustee S.F. Speshkov to carry out administrative merging of all comprehensive schools, including and foreign [14]. Adoption of this decision did not simplify work of inspectors, on the contrary, the problems connected with foreign schools of the Kazan educational district were added to their usual duties.

Processing of all information coming to management from all educational institutions of the district belonged to duties of district inspectors. The large territory of the Kazan district, growth of number of new educational institutions, adoption of new governmental and ministerial decrees led to expansion of their office-work. For successful performance of all duties assigned on district in-

spektor of the Kazan district, they needed to know all resolutions and orders of the ministry and circular instructions of the trustee of the educational institutions which are rather entrusted to them, to own practical skills according to the management of schools. In 1871. The department of education developed the instruction for district inspectors for which their duties in detail undersigned (at a boundary of the 19-20th centuries they remained almost invariable). So, at implementation of audits of educational institutions the inspectors had to pay attention to a teaching and educational and economic part and also check maintaining documentation at schools. As a rule, the sphere of district inspectors was much wider, for example, consideration of the reports coming to management from Directorates of initial schools [9]. In this regard the educational and district administration considered that the persons who previously studied in practice all nuances of a teaching and educational and administrative case have to hold a position of the district inspector. Similar conditions were created for the leaders of the district by some difficulties when there was a need to accept the new person to a position of the district inspector.

In general forms and methods of work of district inspectors of the Kazan educational district in 1894-1917 consisted in the following:

>- visit of educational institutions with the inspection purpose;

>- registration of all noticed shortcomings of the special magazine which was in each school;

>- demonstration to teachers of the new methodical receptions used in educational process;

>- application of administrative impact on those teachers who evaded from performance of the direct duties [12].

Under "The provision on Educational districts of MNP" 1835 at Management of the Kazan district the Board of trustees was organized. It was the collegial body designed to resolve the issues connected with the organization of teaching and educational work in all educational institutions. The chairman of the board was the trustee, as permanent members acted: assistant to the trustee, district inspectors, directors of gymnasiums and real schools, chiefs of the Kazan pro-gymnasiums, directors of teacher's institutes and seminaries, averages and the lowest technical schools [4]. For the solution of the questions connected with rendering the educational and methodical help to teachers six teachers of the Kazan university were elected as a member of the Board of trustees.

by

during the meetings of the Board of trustees considered the problems of uchebnoadministrativny character:

1) announcement of the resolutions concerning various types of schools;
2) control and the guide to business management at all schools of the district;
3) discussion of annual reports and auditing reviews of educational institutions of the district;
4) opening or closing of educational institutions;
5) economic problems of educational institutions;
6) any question offered for discussion by the trustee [26, page 960-961].

Besides, council had the right "to discuss the issues relating before improvement of a teaching department, to collect materials for statistics of school business and also to consider and give an assessment to manuals" [30, page 87].

Since 1868 at Management of the Kazan educational district the Test committee which purpose is to carry out so-called "tests" (peculiar analog of examinations) at receipt or the termination educational zavede-began to function

a niya, on enrollment of students or for conducting teaching activity [23, page 2108]. The organization of tests was assigned to the Kazan university.

In 1894-1917 all educational institutions of department of the Ministry of Public Education were under authority of Management of the Kazan district: Kazan and Saratov universities, Kazan veterinary institute, the high female courses, averages and the lowest educational institutions.

All work of the Educational and district center was quite saturated what the reports on activity of Management of the district which remained in National archive of the Republic of Tatarstan (Kazan) in fund of the trustee confirm. The analysis of documents showed that reporting information was provided by a certain scheme in which it was said: 1) about staff of Management of the district (it is in detail told about those who made administration of the Educational and district center and since what time they fulfill the duties);

2) about office-work and orders on the district (the number of the papers which are in office-work of management is shown, at the same time all documents were divided into three categories: the highest commands, orders of the Ministry of Public Education and orders of Management of the Kazan educational district); 3) about the Board of trustees and Test committee (their activity with number of the held meetings, with the number of last tests and the certificates granted on them is characterized); 4) about the commissions, audits and congresses (data on auditing visits by members of Management of educational institutions of the district are submitted, it is told about the organization of congresses for developing the skills of teachers and about arrival to the Kazan district of officials from the Ministry of Public Education if similar cases were) [8].

This information allows to judge activity of Management Kazan

the educational district at a boundary of the XIX—XX centuries, about the measures taken by the leaders of the district not only on administrative questions but also concerning setting of teaching and educational matter in educational institutions of the Volga region region.

Another, important, aspect of activity of Management of the Kazan educational district creation of relationship with various bodies of the local provincial government was. In particular, documents concerned establishment of political reliability of the contingent of pupils and teachers. Requests for providing lists of students came also from the Kazan provincial gendarme management [19]. Except the above-stated information the trustee of the district sent to the governor of data of rather temporary closure of educational institution or because of mass incidence of pupils, or owing to disorders [16].

To Management of the district circulars came from Department of Orthodox confession. At the end of XIX — the beginning of the 20th century the Scripture was one of the objects taught at one and all schools. In this regard the archbishop Kazan and Sviyaga paid special attention to quality of teaching this discipline. The trustee of the district was informed that for all educational institutions the Department of orthodox confession will appoint special observers whose task is to control teaching the Scripture [11].

The Kazan educational and district center maintained also close contact with some educational districts of the Russian Empire. It is possible to carry to their number Kharkiv, Kiev, Odessa, Orenburg and West Siberian. As a rule, managements of the called educational districts corresponded, concerning decision-making on the current questions, performed with the general

offers in the ministry of an occasion of the problems characteristic of all districts, exchanged printed materials [15].

In general objects of department of Management of the Kazan educational district were following:

>- coordination of actions in all educational institutions of the district;

>- organization of activity of the Board of trustees and Executive committee;

>- control over execution of the accepted disciplinary norms;

>- assistance in development of foreign education.

Successful activity of the Kazan educational and district center depended on the correct organization of work of Office of the trustee of the district. Thanks to accurate and harmonious work of officials of this department, in archive depositories the unpublished sources allowing to present fully functioning of the Kazan educational district remained.

According to "The provision on Educational districts of MNP" 1835, at all Russian educational and district centers the offices headed by governors for the purpose of implementation of office-work on managements of districts were organized. The main objective of the governor of Office consisted in work with the entering documentation and in drawing up protocols of the Board of trustees [26, page 961]. In addition, the Office of the trustee had to carry out collecting data on a situation in the district. Having collected all necessary materials, clerks processed them for what used various methods. General information then was presented in the form of reports, sheets and tables.

Office office-work included: a) put an order of receipt;

b) the movement of affairs in office; c) sending affairs; d) audit of work of office [28].

In 1881 when the ministry approved new states for Management of the Kazan educational district, office-work in Office of the trustee was fulfilled to trifles. The governor was aware of all legislative changes concerning not only structural elements of the Uchebnookruzhny center, but also educational institutions of the district. It one of the first got acquainted with all documentation coming to the address of the Kazan district. Then the governor of Office distributed the entering and outgoing papers on direct "addressees" — either sent to the trustee, or distributed them between the subordinates [23, page 2047-2167].

The office of the trustee coordinated office-work of the Kazan uchebnookruzhny center, carried out communication of the trustee both in management, and in the office, with institutions and various provincial authorities accountable to the district. For implementation of technical work the following staff of employees was provided in offices: the governor, heads of a desk, assistants to heads of a desk, the accountant, the journalist and the registrar in one person, the architect [23, page 55-57]. Except the ranks determined by the staff list, the trustee of the district could accept in case of need the lowest officials with payment on hiring (as a rule, it were copyists) [17].

By 1894. The office of the trustee of the Kazan educational district consisted of three tables, in 1905 the fourth table was formed. Tables were headed by heads of a desk at whom assistants were under supervision. Affairs in all productions were distributed on types of educational institutions. So, the 1st table dealt with issues of women's educational institutions; in the 2nd table office-work on men's average educational institutions and private schools was concentrated; in the 3rd — on initial and foreign educational institutions;

in the 4th — on higher education institutions, technical schools, teacher's schools and seminaries. Affairs of all-administrative character were distributed equally between all presented productions. In a separate table were allocated accounts department where affairs on financial questions, and all statistics on educational institutions of the district, credit and debit estimates on the funds for needs of management and Office of the trustee and also for all schools allocated by the government budget concentrated [17].

The basis of office-work of each table was formed by orders of the Ministry of Public Education and circulars of the trustee. F.F. Korolev notes that "the organization of management of business of national education... it was constructed on the basis of the most strict hierarchy, a petty regulation and guardianship... All control system was extremely bureaucratic both on the construction, and by work methods" [5, page 45]. But it is necessary to recognize that the form of circular instructions and orders was the most widespread and approved in scales all Russian Empire.

Except the presented officials the Office of the trustee had a position of the journalist and registrar. But neither in ministerial resolutions, nor in archival funds us time of establishment of this position was not revealed. It is only possible to assume that it was the beginning of the 19th century as during work of the Kazan educational district the materials characterizing activity of the Educational and district center were laid. Formation by the registrar of archive materials on the district turned out to be consequence of it. Functions of the journalist could comprise registration of the entering and outgoing documentation.

On June 5, 1834 in Office of the trustee of the Kazan district the position of the architect in whose duty was founded

drawing up plans, estimates and production of construction works on the being under construction educational institutions and on repair of old buildings entered [20].

In practice of the Kazan educational and district center cases when complaints from trustees of the district concerning what cannot be attracted on office service of capable and diligent people came to Department of education took place. The reason for that was one — low salaries of officials of Office [24, page 2053]. Quite often trustees of the Kazan district brought up a question and of expansion of structure of Office in the ministry. So, trustee S.F. Speshkov in 1903 directed about it the circular offer addressed to the minister of education, reasoning the step with a number of the facts:

1. Acceptance in 1884. The university charter under which autonomy of higher education institutions was reduced caused transfer of a large number of affairs to competence of the trustee, and, as a result, the Office undertook record keeping on the Kazan university. Besides, since 1884 from the Kazan university the cases on the Test commission were submitted to Office of the trustee that also increased office-work of one of tables (the head of a desk had to make the draft of the publication of announcements in regional newspapers of a term of applications for implementation of tests, and then collected all documentation necessary for test examinations).
2. In 1893 the Internal Kyrgyz horde is carried to the Kazan educational district from the Orenburg educational district. In this regard the area entrusted to the trustee of the district increased and office correspondence on men's and women's educational institutions of again attached territory grew. Besides, the volume of the questions connected with setting of teaching and educational process in the environment of the foreign population of the district extended.
3. At a boundary of the 19-20th centuries the active development was gained by home schooling. Since 1897 the ministry allowed to hold on the basis of gymnasiums, pro-gymnasiums and real schools exams at the children who received house education. And as the result one of office tables undertook this work on paperwork. In addition, growth of number of women's educational institutions, initial national schools, industrial and craft schools also promoted expansion of duties of three heads of a desk of Office of the trustee of the district.

In this regard S.F. Speshkov asked about establishment of one more position of the head of a desk and assistant to the head of a desk. The Ministry of Public Education approved a request, and since January 1, 1905 in staff of Office of the trustee of the Kazan educational district positions of the fourth head of a desk and his assistant appeared [13].

This measure could solve a personnel problem only for some time as work volume in Office of the trustee of the educational district was not reduced, and, on the contrary, increased every academic year. Therefore in 1907. The department of common causes of the Ministry of Public Education the circular order to the trustee of the Kazan educational district of December 20 suggested to consider a question of need of expansion of states of the uchebnookruzhny centers. The trustee had to adhere in the response circular of the established form: 1) Office of the trustee — embarrassment degree paper work of employees; estimated quantity of tables and distribution of duties between them; sums necessary for delivery of salaries to ranks of Office of the trustee; office and economic requirements; 2) District inspection — the number of educational institutions of the district which are assigned to district inspectors; quantity made

auditing surveys; necessary staff of district inspectors and their contents; 3) Traveling on official business is the sums necessary for delivery to the sent persons of Management of the district [7].

Having studied the project of the planned changes on Management of the Kazan educational district, the ministry stopped on a thought "about reduction of districts of some educational districts with simultaneous creation of two new educational and district centers" (The Kazan, Vyatka, Perm and Ufa provinces had to make the Kazan educational district, and again founded educational districts had to become Saratov and Yaroslavl) [7]. However in practice of new states of managements of educational districts the ministry did not take decisive action for introduction, as well as did not found the new uchebnookruzhny centers. In our opinion, similar actions could cause unforeseen financial difficulties which the Ministry of Public Education sought to avoid in every possible way.

In 1894-1917 all office-work and the reporting of trustee Office were as follows:

>- registration and work with documentation coming to the address of the Kazan educational and district center;

>- organization of the current office-work for Management of the district;

>- consideration and the solution of the affairs concerning all educational institutions of the district;

>- business management and implementation of correspondence concerning setting of teaching and educational process at schools.

According to the researcher L.N. Goncharenko, in historical literature the opinion on the uncountable army of officials existing in pre-revolutionary Russia which embodiment was the official uniform took roots [2, page 58]. It was valid so. Having founded on January 25, 1803 educational districts, the government

began to develop an individual form for each of them. On November 10, 1809 there was a uniform of the Kazan educational district [31, page 194]. According to the decree of April 5, 1834. "About uniforms of civil department", it had dark blue color, on a collar and cuffs the silver sewing in the form of the intertwining oak branches, a button smooth white color was located [6].

All ranks of management and Office of the trustee of the Kazan district were recommended to come to the office in shape which was made: civil semi-caftan, mundirny dress coat, double-breasted frock coat and road uniform [25, page 3-8]. The appearance of the employee defined his belonging to the duties assigned to it. So, the uniform of the trustee of the district had full sewing on a collar, cuffs and pocket valves. At the assistant to the trustee and district inspectors the sewing went on a collar and cuffs. The uniform of clerks had half sewing [6]. With some changes the form of the Kazan uchebnookruzhny center existed till 1917

Besides performance of the current tasks, the Office of the trustee was engaged in publishing, in particular, there was almost regularly "A circular on the Kazan educational district" in which all information on educational department was published [23, page 2119]. At a boundary of the XIX—XX centuries this edition appeared regularly, however because of financial difficulties Management of the district stopped release of "Circular" in 1916

Besides the publication of the official publication, the Office of the trustee subscribed to a number of newspapers, somehow: "Official gazette", "Senatorial sheets", "MNP Magazine", "Moscow sheets", "Modern times", "Orthodox interlocutor", "Diocese News", "Volga bulletin", "Saratov diary",

"Translator", "Samara messenger",

"Samara Newspaper", "Astrakhan leaf", "Samara provincial sheets", "Simbirsk provincial sheets", "Vyatka provincial sheets". Subscribed to the first thirteen Office editions for a fee, and three last — in exchange for "The circular on KUO" [10].

The analysis of activity of Management of the Kazan educational district and Offices of the trustee allows to mark out some features in the organization of work of the district center.

First, work of structural units of the Kazan educational and district center represents the coordinated mechanism with accurate distribution of functional duties between ranks of management and Office of the trustee. The administration of the Kazan district develops the principles of the activity soglas-

but to the establishments accepted in the Ministry of Public Education concerning the organization of teaching and educational process in the Volga region region.

Secondly, process of bureaucratization of a control system of education could negatively affect functioning of the Kazan educational and district center. However similar process restrained thanks to maintaining by the Ministry of Public Education of strict norms on quantity of established posts in Management of the Kazan district and Office of the trustee.

Thirdly, the administration tried to focus attention on the solution of the most important and timely tasks facing the regional educational power.

In general the educational and district model of management of an education system in Russia in 1894-1917 confirmed the solvency.

LIST OF REFERENCES

1. N.Ya. Agafonov. To the 100 anniversary of establishment of educational districts (The short historical essay of the Kazan educational district chitanny in day of anniversary, on January 24, 1903). Kazan, 1903; On the project of new states for Managements of educational districts//the Collection of resolutions on the Ministry of national education. T. 7. SPb., 1878. Stb. 2059-2060.
2. L.N. Goncharenko. The cities of Central and Lower Volga area in the second half of the 19th century (Social and economic research). Cheboksary, 1994.
3. Kazan provincial sheets. 1894. No. 66. Page 1; In the same place. No. 70. Page 2.
4. Kazan. The highest commanding figures, provincial, district and city institutions. B. m, b. of Page 29-30; About inclusion in the structure of the boards of trustees of directors of averages and the lowest technical schools//the Collection of resolutions on the Ministry of national education. T. 15. SPb., 1902. Stb. 1031-1032.
5. F.F. Korolev. National education in Russia on the eve of the February revolution of 1917//the Soviet pedagogics. 1951. No. 12.
6. HA PT (National archive of the Republic of Tatarstan, Kazan). T. 92. Op. 1. 4032. NN. 1-75.
7. HA PT. T. 92. Op. 1. 8741. — L. 10.
8. HA PT. T. 92. Op. 1. HH. 21394, 24163; In the same place. Op. 2. HH. 736, 6244, 19579; RGIA. T. 744. Op. 7. — 304; In the same place. Op. 9. 128.
9. HA PT. T. 92. Op. 1. 21703. L. 4; 22444. L. 26.
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19. HA PT. — T. 160. Op. 1. 727. L. 32; RGIA (Russian state historical archive, St. Petersburg). T. 740. Op. 18. 214. L. 40.
20. About definition of special architects at educational districts//the Collection of resolutions on the Ministry of national education. T. 2. SPb., 1875. Stb. 777.
21. About assignment from the Kazan educational district of some provinces and about formation of the Orenburg educational district//Collection of resolutions on the Ministry of national education. T. 6. SPb., 1878.
22. On the project of new states for Managements of educational districts//the Collection of resolutions on the Ministry of national education. T. 7. SPb., 1878. Stb. 2047-2167; The List of officials on KUO for 1894-1903 Kazan, 1894-1903; The Circular on KUO. 1894-1903.
23. On the project of new states for Managements of educational districts//the Collection of resolutions on the Ministry of national education. T. 7. SPb., 1878. Stb. 2066-2068.
24. On the project of states for Managements of educational districts//the Collection of resolutions on the Ministry of national education. T. 7. SPb., 1878.
25. The provision on a uniform for ranks of department of MNP. Kazan, 1898.
26. The provision on Educational districts of MNP//the Collection of resolutions on the Ministry of national education. T. 2. SPb., 1875.
27. RGIA. T. 740. Op. 18. 214. NN. 71-72 about.; The List of officials on KUO for 1894-1914 Kazan, 1894-1914.
28. Russian legislation of the 10-20th centuries. T. 6. Legislation of the first half of the 19th century of M., 1988. Page 97-98; L.E. Shepelev. The high-ranking world of Russia XVIII — the beginnings of the 20th century SPb., 1999. Page 47-55.
29. The list of officials on KUO for 1894-1903 Kazan, 1894-1903.
30. G.A. Falbork, V. Charnolusky. National education in Russia. SPb., b.
31. L.E. Shepelev. The high-ranking world of Russia XVIII — the beginnings of the 20th century SPb., 1999.

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gg. Kazan&, 1894-1903; Cirkuljar po KUO. 1894-1903.

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31. Shepelev L. E. Chinovnyj mir Rossii XVIII — nachala XX v. SPb., 1999.
de Vries Ferdinand
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