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MANUFACTURING TECHNIQUES of WARE of FEDOROVSKY CULTURE of the SETTLEMENT the BIRD CHERRY BUSH (on materials of dwellings 1-3)



TEKHNOLOGIYA of PRODUCTION of WARE of FEDOROVSKY CULTURE of the SETTLEMENT the BIRD CHERRY BUSH (on materials of dwellings 1-3)1

V.V. Ilyushina

New data on technology of ceramic production of fedorovsky culture on settlement materials the Bird cherry Bush are introduced for scientific use. As a result of the technical and technological analysis of ceramics, traditions of selection and preparation of initial plastic raw materials, drawing up forming masses, processing of surfaces of products, possible temperature condition of roasting are revealed.

Settlement Bird cherry Bush, fedorovsky culture, ceramics, technical and technological analysis, initial raw materials, forming mass, chamotte, organic chemistry, dresva, designing of vessels, processing of surfaces, roasting.

The problem of origin and development of fedorovsky culture still is one of the most debatable in archeology of the Trans-Ural region. Up to the end not solved are questions of chronology, the territory and a genetic basis of its emergence. Most of the researchers concerning an andronovsky phenomenon as kulturodiagnostiruyushchy signs consider separate elements and the whole compositions of an ornament on ceramics and, being based only on these data, build hypotheses of origin, development and disappearance of cultures. In our opinion, the research of technology of pottery of cultures of andronovsky community, the native cultures of the Southern Trans-Ural region will allow to solve a number of the problems connected with culture genesis of the ancient population of Western Siberia of a bronze era. Studying technology of potter's production of alakulsky and fedorovsky cultures of Northern, Central and East Kazakhstan, the Southern Cisural area, Central Priirtyshje, the Top Priobye was already carried out (E.E. Kuzmina, T.M. Teplovodskaya, O.V. Sofeykov, V.G. Loman, I.B. Glushkov), however due attention was not paid to the ceramic complexes received at a research of monuments of Nizhny Novgorod Pritobolya. For identification of local features of ceramic production of fedorovsky culture we carried out the technical and technological analysis of a part of a collection of dwellings 1-3 settlements the Bird cherry Bush.

The settlement the Bird cherry Bush is located in the Yalutorovsk district of the Tyumen Region near. Old Kavdyk between boggy lakes Long and Round. The settlement was revealed and explored during 1984-1985 and 1988 by V.A. Zakh [1985, 1989]. In work flow entirely or six dwellings and four ashpits relating to an andronov-sky era were partially dug out. The statistical analysis of a ceramic complex which is carried out by the author of excavation from filling and from half of dwellings, holes and wells, based on features of morphological features (profiling of vessels, a nimbus cut) and ornament elements, showed that, despite some differences, all set of ceramics forms a uniform cultural and chronological complex [Zaha, 1995. Page 44-49]. According to the researcher, the majority of vessels find direct analogies in ceramics of fedorovsky culture of which also poorly pro-thinned out pots, vessels of a can form sometimes ornamented with any one element are characteristic well: vertical, the horizontal edge or drawn "fir-tree", flutes, oval poles, but most often the ornament represents a various combination of these elements; also vessels were ornamented with geometrical patterns [In the same place. Page 49-50]. Except the main, fedorovsky complex of ceramics in separate groups the author allocated vessels with rollers, ware, on a number of lines to a degree comparable to alakulsky and cherkaskulsky complexes and also group of the vessels finding analogies in ceramics of late bronze cultures — barkhatovsky and suzgunsky [In the same place. Page 50-53].

1

The author expresses huge gratitude to N.P. Salugina and I.N. Vasilyeva for the help in development of a technique of studying potter's production and a technological research of materials of the settlement the Bird cherry Bush.

Fig. 1. Ceramics of fedorovsky culture from the dwelling of 1 settlement the Bird cherry Bush

For the technical and technological analysis from a collection of ceramics of the fedorovsky culture relating to objects (dwellings and the related holes and wells and also ashpits) the top parts (nimbuses) of various vessels were selected. The sample of copies was made for the analysis proceeding from their size (fragments not less than 9-10 cm2).

Analytical researches were conducted within historical and cultural approach to studying the potter's production developed by A.A. Bobrinsky [1978, 1999]. This approach allows to consider each separate clay vessel as "result of action of the certain skills of work used by the master for production of a vessel and fixed in the cultural traditions which are transferred from generation to generation within a certain human collective" [Tsetlin, 2001. Page 68]. Allocation of technological information was carried out on the basis of the structure of potter's production including 10 obligatory and two optional steps which are united in three stages: preparatory, creative and fixing [Bobrinsky, 1999. Page 9-11]. With use of binocular microscopy 47 fragments from dwellings 1, 2 and 3 (19, 11, and 17 samples respectively) were analyzed (fig. 1-3).

Fig. 2. Ceramics of fedorovsky culture from the dwelling 2 settlements the Bird cherry Bush

For providing identical conditions for observation of plastic raw materials and impurity the small fragments from each copy were heated in the muffle furnace to 800-850 °C. Unfortunately, results of an analytical research of ceramics from a settlement collection the Bird cherry Bush do not allow to distinguish technological information on such important steps of production yet as designing of a nachin and a hollow body of vessels and giving of a form to them. Information on production steps on all processed fragments of three dwellings is given in a generalized view.

Selection, production and preparation of initial raw materials (steps 1-3). In the history of pottery three main groups of plastic materials are allocated: And — mineral and organic, presented by muddy deposits; The B is organic, animal origin; In — mineral, made of variously painted clays (i.e. various degree of an ozheleznennost and neozheleznenny) [Bobrinsky, Vasilyeva, 1997. Page 193]. For production of ceramics of the settlement the Bird cherry Bush two types of initial raw materials were selected: muddy clay (MC) and clay (Hl) (tab. 1). The main signs of muddy clays are investigated and in detail analyzed in a number of works as I.N. Vasilyeva [In the same place. Page 193-217; Vasilyeva, 2005. Page 76-77]. On the material investigated at the moment it is possible to speak only about one kind of muddy clay, so

as from all copies only one is made of these raw materials. Muddy clay incorporates the following natural impurity: a small amount of quartz sand transparent and color, presented by generally dust-like fraction and grains of sand up to 0.2-0.3 mm in size, grains of 1.0-1.5 mm are also single; hematite of an oolitic form up to 0.5 mm in size; a small amount of rounded fragments of a sink of white and brownish colors from less than 0.1 to 0.5-0.7 mm in size (easily collapses at touch by a needle); vegetation of water origin in the form of the long threadlike bound prints, stalks of tubular plants and leaves up to 8.0 mm long. This type of raw materials, most likely, was used in naturally humidified state what hematite inclusions can testify whole to (not subject to crushing).

Fig. 3. Ceramics of fedorovsky culture from the dwelling 3 settlements the Bird cherry Bush

Table 1

Features of initial plastic raw materials, number of copies of ceramics

Initial plastic raw materials Dwelling 1 Dwelling 2 Dwelling 3 Total

Chapter 1 6 4 4 14

Chapter 2 10 3 7 20

Chapter 3 2 3 2 7

Chapter 4 1 1 3 5

IS — — 1 1

Total 19 11 17 47

Most likely, potters of the settlement as initial plastic raw materials generally used slabozapesochenny and zapesochenny ozheleznenny clays, each of which on features of qualitative composition of natural impurity was conditionally divided by us into two types. Slabozapesochenny clay No. 1 (Chapter 1) in qualitative structure has a small amount of quartz sand of different degree of an okatannost generally transparent, presented by dust-like fraction and grains of sand up to 0.2-0.3 mm in size with single inclusions of grains of sand from 0.5-0.8 to 1.2-2.0 mm in size, hematite of an oolitic form from 0.3-0.5 to 1.5-3.0 mm in size. Some copies of the studied fragments also have natural inclusions of transparent leaflets of mica colourless or golden coloring, presented by generally dust-like fraction and inclusions up to 0.1 mm. Slabozapesochenny clay No. 2 (Chapter 2) except above-mentioned natural impurity includes rounded fragments of sinks of river mollusks of white and brownish coloring from single inclusions less than 0.1 mm in size to fragments of plates from 0.2-2.0 to 5.0 mm. At some copies along with a sink there is a limestone detrital an amorphous and tablitchaty form of gray and white-gray coloring from 0.5 to 2.0 mm in size.

Zapesochenny ozheleznenny clay No. 1 (Chapter 3) in qualitative structure has a large amount of quartz sand of different degree of an okatannost generally transparent, presented by dust-like fraction and grains of sand up to 0.2-0.4 mm in size with a small amount of inclusions of grains of sand from 0.7-0.8 to 1.5-3.0 mm in size and also fragments of minerals of crystal structure of an amorphous and tablitchaty form (sometimes with mica inclusions) 0.5-3.0 mm in size, hematite of an oolitic form from 0.5-0.8 to 1.5 mm in size. Some copies of the studied fragments also have natural inclusions of transparent leaflets of mica colourless or golden coloring, presented by dust-like fraction and inclusions from 0.3-0.4 to 2.0 mm. Zapesochenny clay No. 2 (Chapter 4) except above-mentioned natural impurity as well as slabozapesochenny clay No. 2, includes rounded fragments of sinks of river mollusks of white and brownish coloring from single inclusions less than 0.1 mm in size to fragments of plates of 0.2-2.0 mm. Sometimes in a break only the slit-like or repeating a form of sinks emptiness from the burned-out inclusions are visible.

The fragments of sinks which are present at a number of copies of the studied material were carried to natural impurity on the basis of the main signs which are marked out to N.P. Salugina speaking or about artificial addition of a shredded sink, or about a natural component of initial plastic raw materials [Salugina, 2005. Page 87-88].

Drawing up forming masses (step 4). As artificial impurity added chamotte, organic matter to initial plastic raw materials (manure, a pressing from manure), the shredded calcinated bone, a talc and sandy dresva. On the studied copies of ceramic fragments it is possible to speak about several types of recipes of forming masses. From them two difficult and two compound. The difficult recipe assumes use along with initial raw materials of two functionally different types of impurity, and compound — additive to initial raw materials more than one type of the impurity having the same function.

The chamotte prepared for addition in clay dough was not calibrated by potters — the prevailing size of particles less than 0.5 and 0.5-2.0 mm, however are often observed grains up to 3.0-5.0 mm. Observations showed that the forming mass of the ceramics used after utilization as chamotte most often contains chamotte and organic chemistry, sometimes a shredded bone, a dresva (talc, mica). The fixed grains of chamotte of a tablitchaty form quite often have under - a glossy surface. Concentration of chamotte in forming weight generally 1:4/5.

The organic component of forming weight is fixed on the following signs: prints or the charred remains of the vegetation split along fibers, amorphous emptiness with a brown raid and residues of vegetable substance, light gray and light brown friable lumps. These signs indicate that manure (in liquid state) and a pressing from manure of ruminants was added to forming weight. Friable lumps are usually fixed in ceramics with manure impurity, connect their education with removal from an organism of the animal excess minerals which were a part of plants [Bobrinsky, 1999. Page 19]. Concentration of an organic component of forming weight did not manage to be defined so far.

the Shredded calcinated bone in forming weight is presented to

by not calibrated inclusions of white, light gray, dark gray and black shades from less than 0.5 to 2.0-4.0 mm in size. Most often it is a bone of animals, only in one case are recorded braids -

points of fishes. Concentration of a bone in relation to forming weight generally makes 1:6-8 and only in one case 1:4.

Dresva who is a part of forming mass of the studied copies is presented by talc and sandstone. Talc inclusions transparent scaly, sometimes with a brownish shade, have greasy and nacreous luster, the size of particles from dust-like to 3.0-5.0 mm, however the main fraction makes 0.5-2.0 mm. Concentration of talc in relation to forming weight most often 1:2-4. The sandy dresva is presented in the single copy from the studied ceramics fragments so far, it is shredded almost transparent mineral of crystal structure. In the forming mass of a dresv it is presented generally by inclusions of 0.5-2.0 mm, to concentration 1:4.

Thus, on the studied material several recipes of the forming masses (tab. 2) are selected:

— initial raw materials & #43; chamotte & #43; organic chemistry;

— initial raw materials & #43; chamotte & #43; bone & #43; organic chemistry;

— initial raw materials & #43; chamotte & #43; dresva talc & #43; organic chemistry;

— initial raw materials & #43; chamotte & #43; dresva sandy & #43; organic chemistry;

— initial raw materials & #43; dresva talc & #43; organic chemistry.

Table 2

Recipes of forming masses, (number of copies of ceramics)

Forming weight Dwelling 1 Dwelling 2 Dwelling 3 Total

IS & #43; Highway & #43; About 13 10 12 35

IS & #43; Highway & #43; To & #43; About 3 1 4 8

IS & #43; Highway & #43; Dt & #43; About 2 — 1 3

IS & #43; Highway & #43; Dp & #43; About — — 1 1

IS & #43; Dt & #43; About 1 — — 1

Total 19 11 17 47

Note: IS — initial plastic raw materials; Highway — chamotte; About — organic chemistry; Dt — a dresva talc; Dp — a dresva sandy.

Technical and technological analytical data of ceramics of the population of fedorovsky culture of monuments of the Average Pritobolya, Central Priirtyshje, the East Kazakhstan Priirtyshje, Northern and Central Kazakhstan show other traditions of drawing up forming masses. So, in the territory of the East Kazakhstan Priirtyshje and the Central Kazakhstan a basis for production of fedorovsky ware is the weight made on type "initial raw materials & #43; dresva granite". Further on its basis other types are formed: initial raw materials & #43; dresva granite & #43; organic chemistry; initial raw materials & #43; dresva granite & #43; chamotte; initial raw materials & #43; dresva granite & #43; chamotte & #43; organic chemistry [Yermolaeva, Heatvotic, 1993; Kuznetsova, Heatvotic, 1994. Page 111-163]. E.E. Kuzmina investigated ceramic complexes of fedorovsky culture on materials of a number of burial grounds from territories of the Southern Trans-Ural region, Northern, East and Central Kazakhstan, Central Priirtyshje, the Top Priobye and Yenisei. It gave summarized information on the main artificial impurity to which the author carried sand, a dresva, mica, chamotte (seldom) [Kuzmina, 1994. Page 114]. I.G. Glushkov carried out the technical and technological analysis of fedorovsko-alakulsky ceramics of some monuments of the Average of Priirtyshje. As a result the author selected four recipes of forming masses: pure clay without artificial additives; clay & #43; dresva & #43; organic chemistry; clay & #43; river sand; clay & #43; chamotte [Glushkov, 1996. Page 95-97]. One and all authors celebrate isolated cases of addition in the forming mass of chamotte. T.M. Teplovodskaya connected emergence of the recipe "clay & #43; chamotte" and "clay & #43; chamotte & #43; organic chemistry" in pottery of the fedorovsky population of East and Central Kazakhstan with penetration on this territory of carriers of foreign culture traditions [Kuznetsova, Heatvotic, 1994. Page 137]. I.G. Glushkov notes that shamotny strategy — the priirtyshsky tradition, and connects emergence in fedo-rovsko-alakulskom pottery of compoundings with chamotte with penetration into traditional andro-novsky technological schemes of traditions of local tribes [1996. Page 96].

Designing and giving of a form to vessels (steps 5-7). As we already noted above, the studied material does not allow to obtain full technological information

on these steps of potter's production. Only by one fragment of the top part of a vessel it is possible to assume that it is made by means of small portions of clay (rags) increased, most likely, on a spiral trajectory.

Ways of machining of surfaces (step 8). Features of processing of a surface were revealed not for all studied ceramics fragments in view of the fact that a row from them is covered with a continuous layer of the salt formed during stay in a cultural layer. Surfaces of the studied fragments were processed by way of simple smoothing down by tools with soft or firm working edge. As a soft subject, most likely, the fabric piece most of which often processed an internal surface and a cut of a nimbus was used. As a firm subject the tool with quite smooth working edge was generally used (pebble?) or an edge stamp to which the ornament was applied on a product. Often outer surfaces of fragments of a podloshchena pebble (?) on dried and, more rare, a dry basis.

Giving of durability and elimination of moisture permeability of walls of vessels (steps 9-10) was reached by heat treatment. According to A.A. Bobrinsky, in the history of formation of ideas of heat treatment as means of giving of durability to products the leading role was played by process of development of temperatures of a kaleniye of clay (650-700 °C) that is fixed in three conditions of ideas of heat treatment: not formation, partial formation and full formation [Bobrinsky, 1999. Page 90]. Practically all copies from the studied material in a break have dark gray or black coloring and brown only from internal, only from external or from those and other parties of a surface inside. For clarification of information on approximate temperatures of roasting of products several fragments for day were placed in water, at the same time draft was not formed, and samples kept initial hardness. In general these signs speak, first, about partial formation of ideas of heat treatment and, secondly, about incomplete action of temperatures of a kaleniye when temperature in the calcination device quickly rose, not for long influenced a product and quickly fell [In the same place. Page 95-96]. In this case the center remains not calcinated, and layers, adjacent to a surface, get various coloring depending on degree of an ozheleznennost of initial raw materials.

In general the studied material represents rather uniform complex with steady traditions of selection of initial plastic raw materials and drawing up forming masses. Most often potters of the settlement the Bird cherry Bush as initial raw materials used slabozapesochenny ozheleznenny clay, zapesochenny is more rare. For the purpose of comparison of data outside the settlement, samples of clays which analysis showed that products were made of local raw materials were selected.

Chamotte and the organic chemistry presented by manure of ruminants and a pressing from it, sometimes with addition of a shredded bone were in most cases added to initial raw materials. Judging by composition of chamotte in which the same additives, as in a break of crocks, tradition of drawing up masses according to the recipe of Highway & #43 are often fixed; About it is possible to consider developed. At the same time 25% of fragments of the ceramics executed according to the recipe of Highway & #43; Oh, as a part of chamotte have a talc dresva though copies which forming mass as one of the main contains this component are single (tab. 2; fig. 1, 3, 4, 8; 3, 8, 10). Pritobolya on whom there are no natural exits of rocks, and contacts with local tribes for which drawing up forming masses with use of a dresva was not characteristic [Glushkov, 1996 can point it indirectly to gradual disappearance of this tradition, probably, in connection with geological features of the territory forest-steppe. Page 96]. It is still impossible to answer a question of emergence of new tradition of drawing up forming masses in the fedorovsky population in view of insufficient study of technology of pottery of andronovsky cultural and historical community in general and the groups of its population occupying various areas.

The received results

Thus, as a result of the technical and technological analysis of 47 fragments of ceramics of fedorovsky culture from a settlement collection the Bird cherry Bush preliminary conclusions by traditions of selection, production and preparation of initial raw materials, drawing up forming masses on the basis of five recipes from which the basic is "clay & #43 were drawn; chamotte & #43; organic chemistry" and also machining of surfaces of products. Fragmentirovannost is-

sledovanny material does not allow to reveal technological features of designing of nachin and a hollow body of vessels and also giving of a form to them yet. The research of technology of potter's production of fedorovsky culture of this settlement will be continued.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Sources

V.A. Zaha. The report on work of the Amanadsky archaeological expedition in the Tyumen region and on the Ine River in the Novosibirsk region in 1984. Tyumen, 1985//LA IPOS Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science Archive.

V.A. Zaha. The report on work of the fourth group of the Tyumen archaeological expedition in 1988 in the Tyumen region. Tyumen, 1989//LA IPOS Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science Archive.

Literature

A.A. Bobrinsky. Pottery of Eastern Europe. Sources and methods of study. M.: Science, 1978. 272 pages

A.A. Bobrinsky. Potter's technology as object of historical and cultural study//Current problems of studying ancient pottery. Samara: Publishing house of SamGPU, 1999. Page 5-109.

A.A. Bobrinsky, I.N. Vasilyeva. About some features of plastic raw materials in the history of pottery//Problems of ancient history of Northern Prikaspiya. Samara: Publishing house of SamGPU, 1997. Page 193-217.

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A.S. Yermolaeva, Heatvotic T.M. A ceramic complex from fedorovsky burials of the East Kazakhstan Priirtyshje//Problem reconstruction of economy and technologies for data of archeology. Petropavlovsk: NAN news Agency of the Republic of Kazakhstan, 1993. Page 89-100.

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Yu.B. Tsetlin. Evolution of research approaches to studying ceramics in archeology//Ancient handicraftsmen of Cisural area: Materials of Vseros. nauch. konf. (Izhevsk, November 21-23, 2000). Izhevsk: UIIYAL OURO RAHN, 2001. Page 54-74.

Tyumen, IPOS Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science

Subject to introduction into the scientific circulation being new data on technology of pottery production with the Fyodorovo culture, basing on the materials of the settlement of Tcheryomukhovy Koust. Resulting from technical and technological analysis of the pottery, author identifies the traditions of selection and preparation of the initial plastic raw material, preparation of molding masses, treatment of articles’ surfaces, possible temperature conditions of roasting.

The settlement of Tcheryomukhovy Koust, Fyodorovo culture, pottery, technical and technological analysis, initial raw material, molding mass, chamotte, organic substances, gruss, making of vessels, treatment of surfaces, roasting.

Ferdinand Klaus
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