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Preparation of military shots of a stock of Ground forces of RKKA (1921 June, 1941)



vestnik of the Military university. 2009. No. 4 (20). Page 151 - 157

I.V. Tsymbalov

PREPARATION of MILITARY SHOTS of the STOCK of GROUND FORCES of RKKA (1921 - June, 1941)

In the activities for strengthening of defense capability of the country in 19211941 the state and military governing bodies considered the objective factors causing need of creation of a reserve of the command and commanding structure of a stock for army and the fleet. The system of its preparation created during the specified period for Ground forces demonstrates to it. Formation and improvement of a system was the complex work aiming at accumulation of necessary quantity of the trained stock shots for expansion of army of wartime and completion of losses in the command and commanding structure during war.

The system of preparation and accumulation of military shots of a stock of Ground forces began to be created at once after the end of Civil war. To the middle of the 30th it included: extra army preparation of a nachsostav of a stock; army preparation of a nachsostav of a stock; preparation and retraining of the commanding structure of a stock on courses at academies, military schools and on courses of retraining of the command and commanding structure of a stock; bodies of the management and account. At the same time the system of preparation of a komnachsostav of a stock solved two main tasks: first, the organization of training for assignment of a rank of the average command and commanding structure of a stock; secondly, maintenance of fighting skill of shots of a stock during service and also their retraining on new military specialties.

The important place in the considered system of training of the commanding structure of a stock was taken by extra army preparation. Its essence consisted in study military science by civilians: students of higher education institutions and technical schools - in the course of training; workers and employees at special educational schools of Osoviakhim - on the job with their further transfer on a training. It allowed to reduce them service life and to prepare from them shots of the command and commanding structure of a stock of Ground forces.

The main directions of extra army preparation were the highest preconscription military training (further - VDVP) students of higher education institutions and technical schools, vys-

Shae extra army preparation (further - GDP) and the highest military industrial training (further - VVPP).

The highest preconscription military training of students of higher education institutions and technical schools was entered by the resolution of the Central Election Commission and SNK of the USSR of August 20, 1926 [1, Article 435]. The purpose and the maintenance of VDVP - to prepare pupils of civil higher education institutions and technical schools for replacement of positions of the command and commanding structure of a stock of RKKA and providing in wartime of parts and institutions, institutions of army with an average komnachsostavy all types of military forces and specialties, and the military-industrial enterprises the skilled workers having military preparation.

After completion of training in educational institution where VDVP was entered, the graduates were called up for service for military service for 9 months. After the term of military service they took examinations on a rank of the commander of an average link. Successfully passed examination were transferred to the reserve with a rank of the commander of a stock [2, page 194].

For overcoming the shortcomings revealed during VDVP according to the proposal of the management of higher education institutions, UVUZ RKKA, the CEC and SNK USSR, the resolution "About Enforcement of the Law on Obligatory Military Service in the New Edition" of August 13, 1930 instead of the highest preconscription military training entered the highest extra army preparation. At first it was entered into 205 of 420 higher education institutions originally on 10 military specialties (biases) [3, l. 50]. The feature of GDP consisted that students, depending on a profile of higher education institution, took a theoretical course of military preparation within 430-580 hours and training sessions at military units lasting 3-4 months then they took examinations for a rank of the commander of a stock. Stood them were enlisted in a stock as the average commanding structure of RKKA. Further they served in accordance with general practice with all average commanding structure of a stock [4, Article 751].

In some higher educational institutions, according to the Law on a general conscription in the new edition (1930), the highest voyennoproizvodstvenny preparation including a theoretical course in volume of 330 hours and 1.5-month collecting in military units was entered. To the persons who had this training in a year of successful work in the industry the military ranks of the average commanding structure of a stock were given without tests.

The experts who ended higher educational institutions and technical schools into whom the highest extra army preparation was not entered and also graduates of workers' faculties and high schools of the second step served in personnel army one year, and then passed tests on a rank of the average commander of a stock [4, Article 423424].

Huge successes of our country in the field of cultural construction, expansion of network of higher education institutions and technical schools in 1926-1936 allowed to increase number of specialties on which training of the commanding structure of a stock was carried out. In 1932 the highest extra army and highest preconscription training captured pupils of 162 higher education institutions and 49 technical schools [5, l. 5; 6, l. 86]. Preparation of a reserve of military shots in higher education institutions was carried out on 17 specialties. At the same time much attention was paid to training of average command structure of a stock for technical types of military forces. Humanitarian higher education institutions annually let out about 1,400-1,500 experts who had training as political workers of a stock.

The order of training of the command and commanding structure of a stock considered above existed till July 14, 1938 when the highest extra army preparation in higher education institutions was cancelled by the order of the people's commissar of defense No. 0135.

Thus, higher educational institutions, technical schools and other special educational institutions till 1937 were an important source of preparation and accumulation of qualified personnel of the command and commanding structure of a stock of an average link.

Other source of replenishment of the commanding structure of a stock in the system of extra army preparation was the leading and technical structure of the civil organizations and institutions. Many of them served in ranks of army and had, thus, a certain military experience. The formation and practical skills acquired by some of them on civil service were close to specialties of an average nachsostav of RKKA. All this allowed without big material and financial inputs, by certification and training at short-term courses in separate narcomats to train from them the average commanding structure of a stock.

One more of sources of replenishment of a reserve of command and technical shots of a stock were the former officers and officials of the Russian (royal) army.

Training of the command commanding structure of a stock in troops osushche-

stvlyalas by service of a komnachsostav of a shot of RKKA and dismissal it in a stock; services in army of the younger command and commanding structure of long service within three years and more and transfers to the reserve; services in army of the persons having the higher and secondary education within one-two years and successful delivery of tests on a rank of the average commanding structure of a stock of RKKA; training on average command and technical structure of a stock of the military personnel of conscription service, first of all the junior commanders who proved on military service; retraining of the younger commanding structure of a stock of Ground forces at a position of an average komsostav of the stock called for this purpose in RKKA.

Thus, having considered essence and the main problems of preparation of the command and commanding stock shots in 1921-1936, it is possible to conclude that in general by 1937 in RKKA there was a certain system of preparation, retraining and accounting of the command commanding structure of a stock of Ground forces. In terrible pre-war years this system gained the further development.

Shortage of the command commanding structure of a shot and a stock in Ground forces, carrying out mass repressions in 1937-1938, repeated increase in number of troops in 1939-1941 was objectively caused by aggravation of a problem of preparation of the command and commanding stock shots, need of increase in its quantitative structure and improvement of a qualitative state during the period since 1937 prior to the beginning of the Great Patriotic War.

In preparation of the command and commanding shots of a stock of Ground forces in 1937-1941 there were three main objectives: the first - the organization and carrying out primary training of a stock in enough and necessary quality; the second - maintenance of fighting skill and improvement of knowledge, skills and abilities of a komnachsostav of a stock and also retraining of its part on new military specialties; the third - accumulation of a stock of military shots, their account and the correct distribution.

For performance of these tasks various ways both applied earlier, and which are again found were chosen. For creation of a stock of the command and commanding structure of a stock, its preparation and retraining the following directions were chosen: a) transfer in a stock of the komnachsostav dismissed from active duty; b) creation of courses at military units and soyedine-

niya for training of command structure of a stock from younger command structure and from the best Red Army men who served long (urgent) service; c) increase in quantity of advanced training courses of military shots of a stock; d) increase in intensity and duration of the gatherings of the command and commanding structure of a stock which are carried out at military academies, schools, advanced training courses of command structure of a shot and military units; e) training of command structure of a stock in the highest and average civil educational institutions; e) organization of commander study of command structure of a stock on the job, including correspondence.

Respectively the main sources of accumulation of the command and commanding structure of a stock in pre-war years were: a) the personnel komandnonachalstvuyushchy structure enlisted in a stock when translating from RKKA shots; b) the faces of younger command structure of conscription and long service which passed examinations on the second lieutenant of a stock as a result of passing of special courses; c) the best part of the ordinary and younger command structure of the stock which grew on civil service, got during a state in a stock vocational education and had military training at military schools and on collecting in RKKA; d) the persons with the higher and secondary education prepared on second lieutenants and lieutenants of a stock in troops, special educational divisions during passing of active duty by them; e) the military personnel and persons liable for call-up who passed without attending lectures of examinations for a course of military school; e) the persons with the higher and secondary vocational education who had special military training in civil higher education institutions and technical schools. The main part of these sources of completing of military shots of a stock was defined by the Provision on service by the command and commanding structure of RKKA approved on September 22, 1935 the Central Election Commission and SNK of the USSR, and legally all of them were fixed by the Law of the USSR "About a General Conscription" (1939).

The problem of preparation, improvement and retraining of komandnonachalstvuyushchy structure of a stock since 1939 was to some extent mentioned at discussion of military matters at the XVIII congress of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks), the XVIII party conference, plenums of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) of the Central Committee, especially March 1940, summed up the results of the Soviet-Finnish war and laid the foundation of reorganization of the National Commissariat of defense (further - NPO, Narkomat defenses), in resolutions of the Central Committee

All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks), decrees, laws and resolutions of the public legislative and executive bodies, such as Presidium of the Supreme Council of the USSR, SNK USSR and CEC of the USSR. The considerable attention to this problem was paid Narkomat by defenses and the Main Council of War of RKKA.

In 1937 the General Staff of RKKA together with Management on the command and commanding structure of RKKA was counted that for warfare within one year it is necessary to train in addition only commanders of a stock 189,000 people, including 78,100 people of infantry [7, l. 46-47]. When calculating, as a matter of experience World War I, was considered that in military units within a year there will be 100% of fighting losses of command structure. After these calculations it was validated during the Soviet-Finnish war as a result of which RKKA lost 17,533 people of the command and commanding structure that made 21.7% of its total. It turns out that average monthly fighting losses in the Soviet-Finnish war were 6.2%, average annual losses - 74.4% of the command commanding structure [8, l. 10].

Due to the become complicated international situation in 1939 the plan of the accelerated preparation and accumulation of the command commanding structure of a stock was developed. This plan planned to prepare within three years (19391941) of 520 thousand people [9, page 60]. The specified events considerably managed to be held by the beginning of the Great Patriotic War that gave the chance to fill up mobilization resources of a komnachsostav of a stock.

In pre-war years the role and the maintenance of elements of a system of training of the command commanding structure of a stock considerably changed. So, on the first places the training of the command and commanding structure of a stock in troops, HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS and on courses of preparation and improvement moved forward.

Training of the command commanding structure of a stock in troops. Transfer in a stock of the personnel command commanding structure dismissed from active duty remained one of the most important solutions of a problem of replenishment of a personnel pool of a stock of Ground forces from 1937 to June, 1941 still. At his expense shots of a stock continued to be replenished as average, so with the senior and highest komnachsostav which had vast experience of military activity.

Due to the become complicated international situation in 1939 the plan of the accelerated preparation and accumulation command commanding was developed

structure of a stock. This plan planned to prepare within three years (19391941) at the expense of the commanders transferred from a personnel of the Red Army to the reserve - 69 thousand people [9, page 60].

Another, not less important, a solution of a problem of accumulation of a personnel pool of a stock of Ground forces creation of courses at military units and connections for training of command structure of a stock from younger command structure was and from the best Red Army men as served long (urgent) service, and it continuing.

The big group of superconscripts joined ranks of average command structure of a stock in 1939 Due to the adoption of law on a general conscription by the management of RKKA the decision on reduction of number of superconscripts in army to a minimum was made. All reduced superconscripts were transferred to the reserve as an average komsostav [10, page 9].

The system of preparation and accumulation of a komnachsostav of a stock gained the further development due to attraction to training on the average command and commanding structure of a stock of the military personnel of conscription service. In the majority it were the junior commanders who proved on military service.

According to the plan of the accelerated preparation and accumulation of shots of a stock it was planned to train during 1939-1941 only from younger command structure about 285,900 commanders and technicians of a stock that made more than 50% of the planned replenishment of shots of a stock, including: on courses of junior commanders of offices, assistants to commanders of platoons and to them corresponding - 190 thousand people, and from a part of commanders of offices, assistants to commanders of platoons and corresponding upon termination of the term of active duty - 60 thousand people; in teaching tank and autotractor departments - 35 thousand people [9, page 60].

In pre-war years, in connection with increase of military danger to the USSR, from the management of RKKA the attention to younger command structure of a stock as to a source of training of the average command and commanding structure of a stock amplified. So, according to the plan of the accelerated preparation and accumulation of shots of a stock it was planned to prepare within three years (1939-1941) from a younger komsostav of a stock - on courses of second lieutenants - from the persons liable for call-up doing military service at positions of commanders of offices, assistants to commanders of platoons and to them corresponding, - 190 thousand people [9 page 60], including about 70,000 persons of an average komsostav of a stock [11, l. 2]. Their preparation it was planned osushche-

to stvit by passing of three-months training at specially created courses at military colleges, advanced training courses of command structure.

Training of the command and commanding structure of a stock of Ground forces from the Red Army men who had the higher and secondary education in pre-war years, as well as till 1937, also remained one of important elements of a system of preparation and accumulation of military shots of a stock.

The important role in preparation of a komnachsostav of a stock of Ground forces was played by increase in intensity and duration of the gatherings of the command and commanding structure of a stock which are carried out at military units. Them there passed the best part of the ordinary and younger command structure of the stock which grew on civil service, got during a state in a stock vocational education and had military training on collecting in RKKA earlier.

The great value for accumulation of the trained contingent of a komnachsostav of a stock was played by a conscription on partial mobilization, in the taken place fall of 1939 and winter of 1940. It allowed to pass a long training of more than 200 thousand people at various command positions [12, l. 15].

Training of the command and commanding structure of a stock was carried out also in military schools: on the advanced training courses of command structure of a stock (ATCCSS), evening and correspondence departments (faculties) of military academies and also on collecting at military academies, advanced training courses of command structure of a shot (KUKS) and military colleges.

The major place in the system of preparation of a komsostav of a stock was taken by advanced training courses of command structure of a stock. At the beginning of 1937 on the basis of the district, case and divisional centers 26 two-month courses for improvement and preparation of a nachsostav of a stock with the number of staff 6,900 people (in a year trained more than 40 thousand people) were created. In their 1940 already was 78 with the number of staff 54,700 persons. In four years (1937-1940) they prepared 342,310 people of the command commanding structure [13, l. 384, 387; 14, page 27].

Besides, gatherings of the command commanding structure of a stock at military academies and advanced training courses of command structure of a shot where the best commanders of companies, battalions and command structure of a stock of the highest group [15, l had training were carried out. 62].

Since 1938, from the moment of creation (reconstruction) at military academies fa-

kultet of the correspondence and evening course, training of the command and commanding structure of a stock began to be carried out also on these offices (faculties). On August 29, 1938 the resolution SNK USSR on the correspondence system of training was accepted. The Soviet government obliged to establish to NPO a correspondence course of commanders and military engineers. Such faculties were formed at 8 academies. The term of training was established 6 months more, than at the relevant day faculties [16, l. 98].

Extra army training of the command commanding structure of a stock. The important place in the system of training of the command commanding structure of a stock of Ground forces and its accumulation was occupied by extra army preparation.

The special direction of extra army training of the command and commanding structure of a stock was its preparation in the highest and average civil educational institutions. Accumulation of a stock of the command and commanding structure of a stock was made by military training of students of higher educational institutions and pupils of technical schools. In 1937 - the first half of 1938 in higher education institutions and technical schools the highest extra army preparation continued to be carried out. Annually each institute (university) let out from 30 to 160 second lieutenants of a stock depending on the general capacity of higher education institution [17, l. 1-7]. Along with the highest extra army preparation to the middle of 1938 in a number of higher education institutions the highest military industrial training continued.

The following form of training of command structure of a stock was the organization of commander study of the command and commanding structure of a stock on the job including correspondence which was carried out on the basis of the Temporary instruction on the organization and carrying out commander study on the job of the command and commanding structure of a stock, the chief of the General Staff of RKKA A.I. Egorov approved in January, 1936.

Thus, the research of archival documents of pre-war years and military and historical literature on activities of bodies of the state and military authorities for improvement of a system of preparation and accumulation of the command and commanding shots of a stock of Ground forces showed that they held the major events in this area. During the period since 1921 on the first half of 1941 all elements of a system of preparation of military shots of a stock of Ground forces of RKKA gained development: training of the command and commanding structure of a stock in troops; retraining of a stock command

the commanding structure on advanced training courses of the command or commanding structure, on advanced training courses of command structure of a stock, in military colleges, on courses and collecting at military academies and military colleges; extra army preparation of a komnachsostav of a stock in network of civil higher education institutions and technical schools; commander study on the job the command and commanding structure of a stock; governing bodies of preparation and retraining of the command and commanding structure of a stock and its account.

The shots of the command commanding structure prepared in pre-war years were one of the main sources of replenishment of the Soviet Armed Forces in severe years of the Great Patriotic War. In RKKA, considering all sources of accumulation of the command commanding structure of a stock only in three years (from 1938 to 1940), 122,904 people of commanders and chiefs of a stock were prepared. For the same time the improvement (retraining) was undergone 65,595 people of an average and the senior nachsostav of a stock. In total for these three years 188,499 people of shots of a stock were saved up and trained. During the period from 1939 to June, 1941, during realization of the stock shots accepted measures for increase in number, by the beginning of war them it was saved up twice more than in 1938. In total by the beginning of war it was succeeded to save up more than one million faces of komandnonachalstvuyushchy structure of a stock that more than by 6 times exceeded their number which was available by the beginning of 1937

The carried-out analysis of military and historical literature and archival documents also showed that, despite all efforts of bodies of the state and military authorities, completely it was not succeeded to provide mobilization requirements of the state for stock shots on separate military specialties nevertheless. The country was forced to prepare quickly in the conditions of war these shots without sufficient theoretical and practical preparation.

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15. RGVA, t. 4, op. 14, 1974.
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Atkins Edward
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