The Science Work
History
Site is for sale: mail@thesciencework.com
Category: History

PROBLEMS of DEMOGRAPHY of NENETS of YAMAL IN the FIRST THIRD of the 20th century.



PROBLEMA of DEMOGRAPHY of NENETS of YAMAL IN the FIRST THIRD of the 20th century

E.A. Volzhanina

Dynamics of number and demographic characteristics of Nenets of Yamal in the first third of the 20th century are considered. Formation of accounting of the nomadic population and influence on demographic statistics of a traditional way of life and ideas of the person, time, family, language distinctions and the relations with Russians are shown. The calculated demographic indicators demonstrate simple reproduction of generations and lack of extinction among Nenets. On the basis of the analysis of these censuses and land management expeditions it is proved that the fixed high pure gain is result of specification of number and assimilatory processes.

Throughout XVII — the beginnings of the 20th century of data on peoples of the North collected mainly foreign justices in the fiscal purposes. Events of the All-Russian population census of 1897 during which the scientific principles of account were for the first time used were dated for an exit of foreigners to points of payment of a yasak (generality, self-determination, a poimennost, etc.). After the end of Civil war the practical problems of administrative-territorial, judicial, cultural and economic and economic reorganization in northern areas persistently demanded the organization of statistics on a scientific basis for obtaining authentic, full and various information about "the Siberian foreigners".

During the considered period in the center of attention of researchers there was still a problem of gain of indigenous people of Siberia lifted in pre-revolutionary literature. If at the end of XIX — the beginning of the 20th century they were characterized as impractical and being on the verge of extinction or "slow fading" [Yakoby, 1897; Patkanov, 1911a; Dunin-Gorkavich, 1995; Yadrintsev, 2000], in the first third of the 20th century the increase in their number forced some authors to come to a conclusion that the matter was decided by the Siberian oblastnik "with the purpose to draw the attention of the government to natives" [Plotnikov, 1925. Page 25].

Analyzing materials of the Subpolar census on three categories of the population: to the Russian, settled and nomadic "native" people, P.E. Terletsky on the basis of average values noted falling of birth rate and growth of mortality with complication of living conditions that, according to him, "creates a certain order in increase in population; the Russian more cultural population leading settled lifestyle has quite safe gain; settled natives with considerably the lowered cultural level give smaller gain and, at last, the nomadic population which is in the relation of birth rate and mortality in extremely adverse conditions, gives very modest coefficient of birth rate, high mortality and extremely low natural increase..." [1932. Page 48]. He paid attention that for "the nationalities incorporating both the settled, and nomadic population higher gain of the last is observed." [In the same place. Page 57]. At the same time, according to the calculated coefficients, most of the nomadic people of the European and Tobolsk North (Nenets, the Komi, ostyak) had a quite favorable demographic situation, being characterized by high birth rate and low mortality [In the same place. Page 50, 53, 60].

In the submitted article on materials of the 1920-1930th demographic characteristics of the Siberian Nenets living in the territory of the modern Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Area of the Tyumen region are considered. In 1924-1930 this territory concerned Obdorsky and partially Surgut (the basin of the Pyaku-Pur River) to the district of the Tobolsk district of the Ural Region. Results of forwarding researches of medical and ethnographic groups in the Obdorsky North in the 1920th demonstrated lack of degeneration and existence of small gain or balance among nomadic groups [GUTO GAT. T. 687. Op. 3. 51. L. 223 about.; T. 695. Op. 1. 78. L. 96]. And materials of censuses show that the number of Nenets grew from 1926 to 1939 more than by 1.5 times here. The analysis made in the real work is given -

age groups, ny about distribution, number of children in families with use of methods of demography allows to find out demographic trends among Nenets during the considered period and factors of significant increase in their number.

Sources. Demographic characteristics are received from the published materials of the All-Union census of 1926 [1928] and organized in its framework of the Subpolar census [the List..., 1928] complemented with primary documents. Pokhozyaystvenny cards of the Subpolar census concern the last [GUTO GAT. T. 690. Op. 1. 49, 54], pokhozyaystvenny forms and cards of North managemental expeditions: Yamal 1932-1933 (580 forms), Nadym 1933-1934 (221 pokhozyaystvenny cards) and Tazovsko-Purovskoy 1934-1935 (327 cards) [GAYaNAO. T. 12. Op. 1. 51-56, 90-91, 128, 135].

Organization of accounting of the nomadic population and number of Nenets. Features of fiscal system XVII — the beginning of the 20th century, the payment of a yasak tied to points, a nomadic way of life (under the Charter of 1822 the Samoyeds were carried to vagrant foreigners), residence in remote areas, the self-sufficient nature of reindeer-breeding economy caused systematic underestimation of Nenets. Besides, action of epidemic diseases affected change of indicators of their number in separate years. In the winter of 1897. The All-Russian census captured first of all the foremen of the Samoyed bands and Samoyeds who personally were for payment of a yasak in foreign justices. Their total number in the Tobolsk province, by S. Patkanov's calculations on the basis of data on the native language, was 4431 people [1911 b. Page 26].

At the beginning of 1920 abolished foreign justices, having formed instead of them foreign department at the Tyumen provincial executive committee [The fate of the people., 1994. Page 63]. With Obdorsko-go's creation of the district at the end of 1923 the questions related to nomads, the foreign section at Obdorsky district executive committee solved, one of important problems of which consisted in their registration for collecting the agricultural tax which replaced yasak [In the same place. Page 84]. The problems connected taking into account the nomadic population tried to solve at the same time and on places, organizing the current account, and at the state level, including them in the program of general population censuses and developing the special events directed to improvement of quality of their account.

According to the "Provisional regulations for management of native tribes on the northern outskirts of the Tobolsk district" adopted in 1925, patrimonial councils had to carry out the accounting of the nomadic population. They reserved this function with transition in 1926 to "Provisional regulations for management of native nationalities and tribes of the northern outskirts of RSFSR" [In the same place. Page 101, 114]. In 1926-1927 were organized Ural, Tazovsky and Yamal native nomadic councils from which without breaks in work there was only the last. Were the reasons of it weak security material and vehicles, a low wage and difficult living conditions [GASPITO. T. 105. Op. 1. 8. L. 127]. In particular, the Ural native council a long time could not get to work because of the absence of the secretary and vehicles [In the same place. L. 127].

An indicator of work of nomadic councils is the following fact. If for a year of existence (1926-1927) the settled native councils registered all population living in their territory, then nomadic councils considered only "about 25 farms with quantity to 90 souls of both sexes." [Fate of the people., 1994. Page 135]. For a census of the nomadic population the Yamal nomadic native council was forced to resort to coercive measures. To the trading stations which are in its territory, some time was not allowed to trade with the Samoyeds of the Yamal tundra who do not have the reference from council of statement them on account [In the same place. Page 144]. In 1928. The Yamal TuzRIK mastered only the Southern Yamal to the Yuribey River. The Nenets wandering to the north did not know it and did not recognize [Evladov, 1992. Page 216].

Registration of indigenous people was complicated by its negative relation to any censuses in general because of fear that "Russians, probably, will take them in soldiers, to take away from them children and to send to schools." (tsit. on: [Fate of the people., 1994. Page 143]; see also: [GASO. F. R-1812. Op. 2. 181. T. 4. L. 2]). Nenets at the general meeting which was taking place in April, 1927 in Hadytt's area of the Yamal tundra refused to correspond, explaining it so: "First: when there came a companion on the All-Union census, said that more you nobody will rewrite. and the second: their main reason. what when all foreign natsmenovsky population learns about it and will agree, then also we will agree." [Fate of the people..., 1994. Page 128].

In the course of expansion of the Soviet construction in the north, foldings of management personnel in the 1930th were practically absent contacts with the nomadic population that could not but be reflected in statistical data. At this time difficult relationship of Nenets and Russians in connection with collectivization, a dispossession of kulaks, disfranchisement, the organization of new councils, opening of trading stations, etc. is noted. All actions sharply contradicted traditional tenor of life of nomads who did not want to be reconciled with it. Their discontent was shown in various forms: meetings and elections were disrupted, names and surnames, family composition, a livestock of deer were concealed. Sometimes indignations developed into armed conflicts, the largest of which received the name Mandalada [Petrova, 1998. Page 102; Alekseeva, 2005. Page 111-118]. Not accidentally in reports of the Yamal district statistical office of this time it was emphasized that data on nomads are indicative [GAYaNAO. T. 34. Op. 1. 2. L. 2], and in office work documents divergences in figures [the Report..., are observed 1935. Page 7; GASPITO. T. 23. Op. 1. 258. L. 3-8; GAYaNAO. T. 12. Op. 1. 189. L. 124].

Divergences in quantitative data in sources of the considered period are connected with use of different accounting units (the person or economy) and categories of the population (cash or constant), chosen season, duration and the territory covered by census works. During the Subpolar census of 1926-1927 pokho-zyaystvenny survey was conducted. All-Union population censuses considered each person separately.

In 1926 within the Subpolar census for the maximum accounting of nomads special expeditions to areas of their traditional seasonal movements were for the first time organized [GASO. F. R-1812. Op. 2. 181. T. 1. L. 3 about.], questionnaires were filled at direct communication with people, control actions for identification of a share of the nedouchtenny population were provided. Obdorsky Samoyeds were rewritten by members of several groups (Yamal, Tazovsky, Nadymo-Poluysky and Son Kunovatsky) working at the territory of Obdorsky district [GASO. F. R-1812. Op. 2. 181. T. 4. L. 3]. Because of a disease of the registrar, inaccessibility of the places of residence and limitation of means of data on forest Nenets wrote down according to patrimonial foremen in Nore and Surgut [the List., 1928. C. 210-211; GASO. F. R-1812. Op. 2. 181. T. 4. L. 6 about.]. Data on gydansky Nenets of Obdorsky district were obtained mainly by the registrar of the IV census site in the Dudinsky volost of Turukhansky district [Turukhan-Skye an expedition., 2005. Page 129, 343-348].

In general the census of 1926-1927 took place at the level high for those times, only from 115 to 140 Samoyed farms that makes from about 575 to 700 people, or from 7.7 to 9.4% of total number of the considered population were not registered, at the average size of economy 5 people (this indicator is given in reports of the first third of the 20th century [GAYaNAO. T. 12. Op. 1. 189. L. 24 about.]). So, according to messages of Tazovsky of group, were passed by it "no more than two or three dozen farms" local Samoyeds [GASO. F. R-1812. Op. 2. 181. T. 4. L. 6]. Concerning forest Nenets fear of underestimation from 15 to 30 was expressed [In the same place. L. 6 about.], Yamal — about 80 farms [In the same place. L. 7]. For elimination of admissions three groups of Obdorsky veterinary bacteriological institute sent for works as summer of 1927 to Yamal, Northern Urals and to the basin of the Taz River received forms and certificates for registration of the nomads who for any of several reasons did not pass it earlier [GASO. F. R-1812. Op. 2. 181. T. 4. L. 12]. An additional census in Tazovsky the district obliged to spend the secretary of Tazovsky of village council [In the same place]. Census forms supplied the forwarding groups of Academy of Sciences under the leadership of L.V. Kostikov and V.N. Gorodkov going to the gydansky tundra [GASO. F. R-1812. Op. 2. 181. T. 4. L. 12; Turukhansky expedition., 2005. C. 134]. The obtained data were corrected by V.P. Evladov [1992], V.N. subsequent expeditions. Ska bosoms [1931], G.D. Verbov [1936], A. Kurilovich [1934].

The experience got when carrying out the Subpolar census was used further by organizers of North managemental expeditions and censuses in 1937 and 1939. In particular, at establishment of terms of a census were guided for the period of the greatest congestion of nomads on certain sites of national councils during the winter period, an opportunity to visit the most remote kochevya and to capture a large number of the population, including during the autumn kaslaniye connected with seasonal change of summer pastures with winter [GAOO. T. 2122. Op. 4. 398. L. 123]. The order of movement of census groups coincided with routes of movements: from the North on the South and from the West on the East [In the same place. L. 127]. Since 1937 the calculating sites are created

within the areas organized in the 1930th and national councils of the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Area, in the last natural borders are basins of the rivers.

Carrying out the Subpolar census in areas of residence of obdorsky Nenets took about seven months instead of assumed four. The works planned in 1926 "ranging from the beginning of December until the end of March...", were forced to begin in November for registration of Zyrians and Zyrian Samoyeds near the settlement of Labytnangi and to continue prior to the beginning of April, and on Yamal — prior to the beginning of May, 1927 [GASO. F. R-1812. Op. 2. 181. T. 1. L. 2.; T. 4. L. 4, 8 about.]. Participants of North managemental expeditions of the 1930th had to collect data within a year. Them first of all the families wandering about trading stations and coming behind goods and products corresponded. In 1939 the census of the settled population living in trading stations, villages, yurtas and settlements took from 1 to 11 days, nomads — of 15-20 days in the Shue-ryshkarsky district to 120 days in Tazovsky the district [GAOO. T. 2122. Op. 4. 398. L. 11].

In 1926 the difference between the published data of Subpolar and All-Union censuses in Obdorsky district made 532 people in favor of the last. At the same time in the first case all family members treated nationality of its head, and in the second — the nationality of everyone separately was considered. Despite noted considerable metisation among the population of the North [the List., 1928. Page IV], the pokhozyaystvenny census showed number of Samoyeds smaller in comparison with data of demographic — according to 7462 people (in 1385 the Samoyed farms) [In the same place. Page XXXIV] and 7994 people [All-Union census., 1928. Page 292]. According to CSU the actual population including belonging to other administrative areas, but at the time of the census being in the territory of Obdorsky district [the List., was considered 1928. Page IV]. As a result the list of obdorsky Samoyeds included Samoyeds from Komi of the joint-stock company and the Turukhansky region and also forest Samoyeds (509th persons). Surgut district. The received difference shows that at the time of carrying out a census the number temporarily absent among Nenets was less temporarily staying from other areas and also on low degree of their metisation.

Establishment of number of Nenets became complicated presence of different territorial groups in their structure and also groups of the mixed origin. Registrars in 1926 were recommended to resolve an issue of nationality "on self-determination and ethnic signs" [by GASO. F. R-1812. Op. 2. 181. L. 86]. In materials of the Subpolar census names occur in the column "Tribe": Samoyeds, Yamal, stone, local, forest Samoyeds, yurak. According to the instruction, "stone", "local" and "forest" groups had to correspond to the certain tribes differing in linguistic sign [In the same place]. On the basis of ethnic indicators the mixed groups of ostyako-Samoyeds whose most considered the native language Samoyed were revealed; the Samoyeds Zyrians treating the Zyrian language group [the List., 1928. Page 164-165].

Summing up the results 1926-1927, some mixed groups added to more numerous that resulted in differences in data of different sources. When performing pokhozyaystven-ny calculation, samoyedo-Zyrians, ostyako-Samoyeds and yurak were carried to Samoyeds [the List. Page IV, XXXIV; GASO. F. R-1812. Op. 2. 184. L. 85]. In materials of the All-Union census two last groups were considered separately [An all-Union census., 1928. Page 104]. Calculations show that as a part of the Samoyed language group actually Samoyeds contained 81.1%, other 18.9% fell on forest Samoyeds (0.2%), yurak (2.6%), ostyako-Samoyeds (16.1%) (it is calculated on: [List., 1928. Page 164-165]). In 1926 335 samoyedo-Zyrians (other name of a yarana) included in the Zyrian language group [the List., 1928. Page 164-165]. As a result of the administrative-territorial transformations connected with the organization of the Yamal (Nenets) national district in 1930, its Samoyed population was replenished with group of the forest Nenets considered in 1926 in the Surgut district (1065 people).

In the 1930th, despite official introduction of the self-name "Nenets" with formation of the Yamal (Nenets) national district, in documents the old name "Samoyed" was still used. The names borrowed tundra Nenets — "pyan-hasovo" or "pyak" were applied to forest Nenets in office work and primary statistical documents [GAYaNAO. T. 191. Op. 1. 2. L. 127, 131, 134; T. 34. Op. 1. 66, 77; Department., T. 15. Op. 3. 1]. When carrying out All-Union censuses of 1937 and 1939 already carried the population which is written down in questionnaires as nenetsya, nenets, hasovo, Samoyeds, samod, Samoyeds-yuraki, yurak, yarana, pyankhasovo, forest Nenets [Ethnocognitive science., 1994 to Nenets. Page 126].

Comparison of number of Nenets of the Yamal (Nenets) national district on 01.01.1932 and 01.01.1934 with data of CSU for 1926-1927 for Obdorsky district the equal 691 and 859 people respectively shows the size of pure gain, (fig. 1). Total number of Nenets in the territory of the district in the first half of the 1930th did not exceed 9000 people (together with forest Nenets) whereas in 1939, on the basis of the All-Union census of 1939, they contained already 13454 persons. In our opinion, the received figure is result not of high natural increase, but considerable specification of their number thanks to the careful organization of the census of 1939 conducted taking into account experience of previous years and also simplification of ethnic structure, including owing to replacement of old names by the self-name "Nenets" and its distribution by the ostyako-Samoyeds, samoyedo-Zyrians, yurak, forest Nenets who before were considered separately. In ethnographic literature they are considered as the Nenets childbirth of the Khanty, Enets origin and the European and forest Nenets [Verbov, 1939; Long, 1970; Vasilyev, 1979].

The lodged results 1926-Given to CSU, 1926-1927 1927

Obdorsky district

1934 All-Union census, 1939

Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Area

7462
0 -

Fig. 1. The number of Nenets of Obdorsky district and Yamal-Nenets national district in the first third of the 20th century. Sources: List..., 1928; All-Union census..., 1928;

GAYaNAO. T. 34. Op. 1. 2. L. 135; Report., 1935; RGAE. T. 1562. Op. 336. 316. L. 39.

Demographic characteristics of Nenets in the first third of the 20th century. The comparative analysis of primary documents shows that full and reliable accounting of Nenets was interfered by the system of their traditional representations connected with a name and age of the person, the birth, death and marriage. All of them are in detail considered in ethnographic works [Tereshchenko, 1966, 1967; Homich, 1976; Susa, 1994]. Misunderstanding and ignorance of specifics of traditional Nenets culture by registrars resulted sometimes in absence, incompleteness or unauthenticity of demographic information.

According to traditional rules, at Nenets the same person could have three names: a name on the ancestor with the limited use, the nickname given on circumstances of the birth and Russian [Homich, 1976. Page 117]. Distinctive features of a traditional antroponimika found reflection only in an address part of the questionnaire developed for the Subpolar census where the Russian and "native" options of a surname, a name, a middle name and a nickname were specified. Being afraid of exaggeration of number of the nomadic population through a census of the same person two times and more, including because of existence of several names, registered issued all certificates [GASO. F. R-1812. Op. 2. 181. T. 4. L. 7].

For Nenets the surname was served by the name of a sort to which the head of economy belonged. The Nenets antroponimichesky system did not assume a middle name because of corresponding zapre-

t therefore these lines were left blank. In posemeyno-economic forms of the 1930th only the name of the head of the family often registered, the wife was called by name the senior child, for example: To Ai nebya, Yeon nebya (mother to Ai, mother Yeon), sometimes — by the name of a sort to which belonged till a marriage: Vanuyto, Susa, Lapsuy. Ignorance by the copyist of the Nenets language and culture, the traditional bans of pronouncing a name of the person aloud after certain age or a vital event and replacement with his another led to the fact that in census documents it was replaced with the Nenets term of relationship or property used in family at the address: meya, nyapa or nyaba (daughter-in-law, daughter-in-law), nyabako (elder sister), not (woman, wife), etc. In certain cases names of the wife, children and other relatives were not specified absolutely.

As for age, the allocated age groups accept conditional value in the first half of the 20th century, and for elderly and old people — throughout all century. In demography the age is understood as the full number of years executed on the last birthday, received as the answer to a question of date of birth or if the respondent does not know it, about number of the executed years on the last birthday [Medkov, 2002. Page 418]. Nenets could not give the exact answer to one of these questions. On the number of years the attention was least of all paid. The age of the person was considered only in the first four-five years of life, and the birthday was celebrated once after the umbilical cord at the baby [Susa, disappeared 1994. Page 36, 50]. Significance was attached not to the number of the lived years, but ability of the person to performance of any given social function. According to the Nenets representations, for women is a reproductive ability [Haryuchi, 2001. Page 156]. Some confusion in calculation of years is brought by differences in duration of the "Russian" and "Nenets" year. The last is divided into two periods (winter and summer), each of which is considered as the whole year [Susa, 1994. Page 49; Golovnev, 1995. Page 302; Homich, 1995. Page 199]. Doctor M.L. Shapiro-Aronshtam by results of works of an expedition oblzdravotdet in the Subpolar North Tobolsk surrounding in 1926-1927 reported that Nenets "know the account badly. Cannot tell about age of the child. Old men, having 50 years, give figure 75-100 of years..." [GUTO GAT. T. 695. Op. 1. 78. L. 30]. Besides, "Samoyeds do not submit the account of time at all and therefore do not know age. The age of children is known only up to three years. The Samoyed cannot tell 25 it years or 40. Therefore it is necessary to determine the age approximately. & lt;...> In general the Samoyeds who were closely adjoining to Russians and Zyrians usually so determine the age: & #34; You know Sanka Shakhov, so my son was born in the same year or for a year later..."" [In the same place. L. 87 about.-89].

In instructions for filling of a pokhozyaystvenny card during the Subpolar census concerning age the following recommendations were made: ".vozrast for children more young than year it is put in months and is defined by poll, for seniors where it is impossible to receive a certain answer, the age is determined by the registrar on an exterior interviewed, in limits up to 10 years of one-year age, from 10 to 29 five-year-old groups and 30 years ten-year-old are more senior." [GASO. F. R-1812. Op. 2. 181. L. 128]. The coefficient of age accumulation calculated in relation to the age terminating on "0" and "5" in 1926 equaled 4916.6%, in 1932-1933 — 3069, for forest Nenets of the Verkhnepurovsky National Council in 1934 — 1435.2%. The age of people in group is more senior than 40 years is presented generally by such values as 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75 years. Emergence among Nenets of long-livers at the age of 100 years and more became result of determination of age "approximately" in the first half of the 20th century. In five-year and ten-year groups the age accumulation in itself was removed (fig. 2).

Not always exact was such important demographic information as family composition. In the Nenets language there is no term designating family, it is borrowed from Russian [yitp-Sogkams, 1932; Verbov, 1935; Tereshchenko, 1965. Page 156]. Can be an equivalent мяд&тер or a myadnder that the inhabitant plague" [means "Tereshchenko, 1965. Page 186]. Copyists in the 1920th and even in the 1950th sometimes wrote down names and a sex of family members without indication of their related attitudes towards the head of economy. Feature of terms of relationship and property at Nenets is the classification and descriptive nature of names of people is more senior than the husband speaking in a sort or the wife, except the father and mother who remain individual [Homich, 1995. Page 173]. The group of persons designated by one term includes representatives of two generations [Simchenko, 1974. Page 271]. In certain cases it led to emergence of wrong entries in the Russian primary documents of relatives on the side, descending and ascending lines. So, "grandmother" actually could be the aunt of the head of the family or his wife, i.e. his elder sister (or her) the father or mother, and "-

the nice fellow" — the uncle. The identical name for children (a nu — the son and not a nu — the daughter) and grandchildren at approximate determination of age led to the fact that elderly and old spouses had juvenile children. One term designated cousins and sisters (children of the younger brother and younger sister of the father), nephews (children of the elder brother and sisters) and younger brothers. All this was considered by us at characteristic of family structure during the considered period and distribution of families on types: full simple and difficult, incomplete.

>-10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10

Men Women

Fig. 2. Distribution of Samoyeds of Obdorsky district on gender and age by data

An all-Union population census of 1926 (in % of the total number of men and women).

Source: All-Union census..., 1928. Page 292.

The analysis of family structure shows that in the first third of the 20th century more than a half of families (up to 53%) included parents with children (tab. 1). The essential share (up to 39%) was made by various types of full complex families with different relatives from which the three-generation families consisting of married couple with children and one of parents, married couple with children, one of parents and relatives on a sideline (mother or the father and brothers and sisters of the head of economy), of two and more married couples were quantitatively distinguished. According to the revealed posemeyno-economic cards, together could live to three married couples: parents (one or two wives at the father) and two married sons. Sometimes together two married brothers conducting joint economy lived, each of them occupied different half in plague. Such bolshesemeyny collectives had similar lines with the patronimichesky associations existing at Nenets in the past and recorded in HU sources!! - X! X centuries [Social order., 1970. Page 197].

Incomplete families at the Yamal and forest Nenets made about 12%. Among them family groups of mother with children prevailed, mothers with children and relatives, from brothers and sisters are more rare than the father with children. Patriarchal way of traditional Nenets society was reflected that men were heads of incomplete families in all cases: eldest son or woman's brother. Sometimes the head of economy could be 10 years old.

Table 1

The family list of the Yamal and forest Nenets according to land management expeditions of the first half of the 1930th *

Yamal Nenets Forest Nenets

Family type Only In them Only In them

families people families people

All families 557 2912 84 489

Full families: simple 296 1448 40 197

1. Married couple with children 258 1370 34 182

— more than one wife 17 121 4 33

2. Childless married couple 38 78 6 15

— more than one wife 2 6 2 7

Full families: difficult 193 1224 33 255

3. Married couple with children and relatives on a sideline 25 134 8 51

— more than one wife 1 6 — —

4. Married couple with children and grandchildren 2 15 — —
5. Married couple with children, grandchildren, one of parents of spouses — — — —
6. Married couple with children, grandchildren, relatives on a sideline 2 15 — —
7. Married couple with children, one of parents of spouses 38 213 3 20

— more than one wife 2 14 — —

8. Married couple with children, one of parents of spouses, relatives 21 150 4 28

on a sideline

— more than one wife 1 8 1 7

9. Childless married couple and other relatives 36 136 3 16

— more than one wife 3 15 — —

10. Two and more married couples with children and other relatives 69 561 15 140

— married brothers 17 133 3 26

— parents and married sons 51 418 12 114

— uncle and nephew 1 10 — —

From them more than one wife 6 54 3 36

Incomplete families: simple 46 163 7 23

11. Mother with children 34 119 5 17
12. The father with children 12 44 2 6

Incomplete families of different type 22 77 4 14

13. Mother (father) with children, grandchildren 2 10 1 6
14. Mother with children, one of her parents 1 7 — —
15. The father with children, one of his parents 4 22 — —
16. Mother (father) with children and relatives (grandchildren and one of parents together) 3 10 — —
17. Brothers, sisters 12 28 3 8

* Source: GAYaNAO. T. 12. Op. 1. 51-56; 128.

Marriages were both monogamous, and polygamous. The old age, a disease of the spouse, her infertility, requirement of additional working hands in the presence of big economy served as the reasons of acquisition of the second, sometimes the third wife that only prosperous Nenets [Tarasov, were able to afford 1915; Homich, 1995. Page 172]. The widows who are married off to married younger brothers of the late husbands [Mitusova, became 1929 the second wives. Page 15]. The man could marry two sisters [GUTO GAT. T. 695. Op. 1. 78. L. 88 about.]. All marriages had patrilocal character, after the wedding the woman passed to live in plagues of the husband or his parents. Nevertheless the share of polygamous marriages steadily decreased. In the first half of the 1930th 7% (11 people) of men of marriageable age of forest Nenets of the Verkhnepurovsky Village Council had two or three wives and at 3.6% (32 people) of the Yamal Nenets. On materials of the Yamal cultural base, in 1937 40 of 800 men of the peninsula of Yamal had two or three wives [Brodnev, b. of Page 61]. More than three wives did not meet.

Ethnographers noted that few families [Zhitkov, are characteristic 1913 of Nenets. Page 219; Homich, 1995. Page 186]. The father sought to separate sons after their marriage in independent farms [Homich, 1995. Page 186]. As a rule, with parents in plague there was a younger son [Startsev, 1930. Page 100]. Not accidentally among complex families the majority consisted of parents and the son with the wife. The subpolar census revealed differences in the size of reindeer-breeding, hunting and fishing farms in peoples of the North among which the first were much larger than the others [Terletsky, 1932. Page 13]. According to the lodged results on Obdorsky district, the average size of farms of settled Samoyeds was 3.13 people, semi-settled — 4.4, nomadic — 5.4 people (it is calculated on: [GASO. F. R-1812. Op. 2. 184. L. 85]). The following dependence is established

>. Farms of the Nenets wandering in the depth of the tundra surpass in number those whose kochevya are located in coastal zones and in basins of the large rivers and lakes. The average size of the farms trading on Sands can be a striking example — only 4.8 people (it is calculated on: [List., 1928. Page 164]). In Gydansko-Tazovsky the subdistrict Nenets of the gydansky tundra, peninsulas Yavay, Anonymous are allocated, to the Taz River at which this indicator exceeds 5.9 people [In the same place]. At the same time at nizhnepurovsky and Nadym Nenets it made 5.7 and 5.3 people respectively [In the same place]. At the Yamal Nenets below an average the size of the farms wandering in the area from the Yuribey River to the river Erkut, the Lake Yarroto, New Port where generally maloolenny families forced to pass to occupation with fishery [In the same place] traded. All this allows to claim that change of economic classes and transition to less mobile way of life by the Samoyeds who lost deer and impoverished led to reduction of the size of farms. The size of reindeer-breeding farms is caused by feature of the economic cycle demanding joint participation of big collective [Golovnev, Konev, 1989. Page 80-81]. In this case the related families acting as one complex family had advantage. At the same time could live in economy up to 19 people [GAYaNAO. T. 12. Op. 1. 135. L. 361].

High child mortality led to the fact that most of families were malodetny [Homich, 1995. Page 188; GUTO GAT. T. 695. Op. 1. 78. L. 30]. Ethnographic and medical data are confirmed by statistics materials. The families having one and two children contained at tazovsky Nenets 46%, forest — 40, Yamal — 38 and Nadym — 37% (fig. 3). At the same time the share having many children (5 children and more) was the greatest in the Nadym group, having made 12.8%, and the smallest — in forest (9.2%). Pokhozyaystvenny cards and posemeyno-economic forms showed the majority childless among married couples and incomplete families among tazovsky Nenets (19.4%), minority — among forest (13.8%). In the 1930th the high share of children is revealed in farms with a large number of people at the expense of the complex structure of families and polygamous marriages, repeated marriage of the man after the death of the first wife. So, 2.8 children at the Yamal Nenets were the share of one nuclear family on average,

Yamal district

Nadym district

Purovsky district *

Tazovsky district

18.5
19.5
18.3
14.7 11.2 17.8
16.1
20.9
18
14.2 12.8
18
20
20 23.1
13.8 9.2 13.8
24.9
21.1 17.7 6 10.9 19.4

shshsh

0% of 10% of 20% of 30% of 40% of 50% of 60% of 70% of 80% of 90% of 100%

Share in % of the total number of families

□ 1Sh21I311141115 and more of children □ Without children and teenagers

Fig. 3. Distribution of farms of Nenets by the number of children and teenagers (up to 16 years inclusive) according to pokhozyaystvenny cards and posemeyno-economic forms of land management expeditions of the 1930th:

* — only forest Nenets of Verkhnepurovsky village council

2.5 — at forest, whereas in the complex families uniting more than two married couples — respectively 3.2 and 3.7 children (it is calculated on: [GAYaNAO. T. 12. Op. 1. 51-56, 128]). It is necessary for ensuring simple reproduction of the population that each family had on average about 2.6 children, and srednedetny (3-4 children) and large families there were not less than 51% of all families [Medkov, 2004. Page 191-192]. The received indicators demonstrate only the simple reproduction of generations at Nenets providing insignificant gain of population in favorable years (lack of epidemics, hunger strikes, military operations, etc.).

For the first time data on birth rate, mortality and natural increase of Samoyeds were received during the Subpolar census on 98.8% of the registered farms [GASO. F. R-1812. Op. 2. 184. L. 85]. According to the methodical recommendations of P.E. Terletsky the calculations of the general demographic coefficients are executed on the basis of the average absolute measures received in two years (01.10.1924 — 30.09.1926). In most cases the received figures confirm its conclusion that the people with high degree of settled life have high natural increase (tab. 2). An exception of the rule were Zyrians whose natural increase was lower, than at other groups, and the share of nomads among them contained 25.7% (it is calculated on: [GASO. F. R-1812. Op. 2. 184. L. 85]). The Obdorsky Samoyeds for 96.4% consisting of nomads are characterized by low coefficients of birth rate (41.9%o), mortality (14.5), including the nursery, in comparison with other people, and on the level of natural increase (27.5) rank third after Russians and ostyak. At the same time only they have negative gain among settled and semi-settled population and the highest positive gain — among nomads.

Table 2

Indicators of birth rate, mortality and estestven

Keith Miles
Other scientific works: