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2003.04.005. Valent To. Edward II's crying: instructive lyrics and political propaganda. Valent C. The lament of Edward II: religious lyric, political propaganda. Speculum, 2002. - Vol.77, No. 3. - P. 422-439.

to a rasprostraneniye of a "extensive" method. In parallel with change of external nature of reading, P. Bark notices, also his purposes changed. If before books were read generally for the sake of extraction of the moral lessons which were followed by the corresponding examples which the reader remembered or wrote out in a special notebook then to the age of Enlightenment the main point of reading there was an obtaining the data necessary for the person for activity or for the sake of satisfaction of curiosity.

In final chapter sources of those disputes on reliability and unauthenticity of knowledge which are characteristic of modern science are traced in the context of early Modern times.

Z.Yu. Metlitskaya


VALENT C. The lament of Edward II: religious lyric, political propaganda.//Speculum, 2002. - Vol.77, No. 3. - P. 422-439.

Professor of history of Portland State University (Great Britain) K.Valent devoted the article to the analysis of the poem "Edward II's Crying" written in the 14th century. In spite of the fact that this work is rather widely known, specifies K.Valent, it did not receive special attention of researchers as literary critics usually characterize "Crying" as one of examples of "political poetry" of the Anglo-Norman period without the slightest gleams of original artistry. For the historian, however, the author of article considers, "Crying" is of interest as "a rare model of medieval political propaganda". Attentive study it in the context of other historical evidences of this period allows, according to K.Valent, on the one hand, to resolve a controversial issue of his authorship, with another - to understand more clearly as contemporaries estimated Edward II's identity and his renunciation of a throne which became an important event in the history of the English state.

Having formulated thus the purpose, the researcher before passing to consideration of the work, does short historical digression. Edward II entered on a throne in 1307, having inherited one of the most brilliant governors in the history of England - to Edward I. Medieval chroniclers and current historians agree that Edward II was the dull king who did not achieve success in wars

in policy, besides to the favourites who were too generously distributing primordial royal possession. This fact in particular caused discontent of citizens and barons, and after 20 years of continuous revolts Edward incited against himself even that only person from the environment who really could protect it, - the queen Isabella. In France where she was in quality of the ambassador of the husband, Isabella met with the baron Roger Mortimer running from the Tower where he appeared after the unsuccessful revolt of 1321. Having caught in the hands also the son, Edward III who arrived in France to bring a vassal oath to the French king for Gascony, Isabella together with Mortimer and young Edward, accompanied by small military group, sailed to England. There most of bishops and the rural nobility joined them. On January 13, 1327 Edward II was deposed: he was accused that he lost the English possession in France and Scotland, listened to bad advisers and distributed thoughtlessly royal possession. However soon Isabella and her supporters, probably, understood that more favorable renunciation of the former king in favor of the son politically at a slow pace will be. Edward II signed renunciation, perhaps, under pressing, on January 20. He remained a captive in Kenwort, then was probably for a while released, and then again it appeared in bondage, in Berkeley. In September of the same year of Edward II it was killed and buried in Gloucester. Soon on its grave miracles began to occur, and pilgrims began to be flown down there to receive healing by spirit of innocently murdered king.

Having given this brief historical information, K.Valent passes to consideration of "Crying". The text remained in two manuscripts of the middle of the 11th century, and the heading of one of them attributes authorship to Edward II. In the poem written from the first person in Middle English language, the hero grieves that treachery of friends and the woman whom he loved cast it from greatness into the complete nonentity. He apologizes at Misters for the sins, appeals to his mercy and prays for the future of the young king, the son. Among literary critics there is a popular belief to this day that the author of "Crying" really is Edward II. Some supporters of this theory try to present the king the victim of circumstances, the gifted poet and the musician on whose shoulders the government burden laid down.

K.Valent, however, referring to judgments of historians and the historical evidences which are available at our disposal, calls Edward's authorship in question. First, she though we have no exact instructions on that how educated person was Edward II notices, it is known that in his library there were only several books, and among them any composition in a genre of courtois poetry. Three evidence of its interest in music scattered in different sources, but any concerning poetry remained. Secondly, the researcher claims, the humble and penitential tone of "Crying" contradicts all that we know from other sources of character and views of the king. The hero of the poem recognizes that he deserved the sufferings which fell to his lot, sees the main source of troubles that he listened to councils of wicked men, regrets the sins against belief and wrong acts, asks the Lord about forgiveness and calls death. At the same time, as we know from other sources, real Edward II during all conflicts with barons drew on the status the Supreme master and the right to arrive as he finds necessary. There are many examples of how cruelly it finished with discordant. Certainly, recognizes K.Valent, deposition and captivity could change Edward's mentalities, but nevertheless the contrast, according to her, is too high.

Who then why enclosed the speeches in the captive king's lips? - the author of article asks a question. To answer it, the researcher addresses the analysis of a historical context in which "Crying" is entered, trying not only to track direct parallels and direct interrelations, but also to reveal characteristics of the culture which generated this work and accepted it.

Besides "Crying", specifies K.Valent, the story about Edward II's deposition contains in three chronicles: To "Pipewell Chronicle", "Historia Roffensis" and Adam Marimet's Chronicle. From them only in the chronicle of Marimet, the royal clerk writing in the 1340th years, the episode is stated in detail. In general descriptions from the latest chronicles correspond to mood of "Crying", but there are also essential differences. It is not mentioned anywhere that Edward II regretted for loss of the loved queen; besides, he apologizes not to the Lord, and at the people cries more, than prays. K. Valent does not exclude a possibility that authors of chronicles were familiar with "Crying"; it also assumes that a basis for the corresponding fragment of chronicles and

"Crying" the certain general lost source served. However it is represented to it the most probable that not any written text, but the "public opinion" finding the expression in the rumors, oral stories and letters transferred from one city to another and from the monastery to the monastery was these "the general source". The similar assumption, the author of article notices, it is buttressed up by two more by facts. First, the fact that else in several cases significant coincidence between chronicles and poetic works of the considered period is found while the general source they do not manage to be revealed. Secondly, the fact that the effectiveness of "rumours" as tools for dissemination of information and formation of public opinion was such is that in the latest centuries the English kings quite often used this tool.

Middle English language in which "Crying" is written is continued by the researcher, was in those days "language of cultural people", elite language in which the highest London aristocracy and, partly, the aristocracy rural spoke and wrote. Thus, concludes K.Valent, one may say, that reaction of cultural elite to such unknown event as deposition of the king is reflected in "Crying". As well as in chronicles, found the embodiment of representation of this elite in it about how the king perceived the incident.

K.Valent, however, it is not limited to this conclusion, and goes in the reasonings further. She asks a question of that, the views which were how expressed in "Crying" are result of propaganda efforts of the new mode and whether "Crying" a part of this promotion was. Possible certificates concerning Edward II's reaction to deposition, could proceed only from members of the deputation which was to the king to announce to it the decision and all these people, certainly, were supporters of the new power. In this sense the unknown author of "Crying", certainly, was influenced by official promotion, but the poem cannot be considered in any way "propaganda" because contain severe criticism to traitors - Isabella and Mortimer - in it and venomous comments on "fools", "the chosen three kings and crowning the youngest".

What aim was pursued by the author of "Crying"? A word, enclosed by it in Edward II's lips, obviously demonstrate that he stood up not for restoration of the former king. Edward, listing all the mistakes, wishes death as the best of outcomes, possible for it. K. Valent

pays attention to what only who is presented in "Crying" exclusively to the best advantage is a young Edward III. The hero of the poem prays for the future of the son, hoping that the Lord will protect it from traitors and that sooner or later "foal" will tear fetters and will become the wise and powerful governor. Proceeding from it, the researcher claims, it is possible to assume that "Crying" was written soon after the revolution of 1330 when young Edward III, having exempted from guardianship, discharged Isabella of all public affairs, and executed Mortimer. After the victories over the French Edward III was rather popular, but still needed support of elite, and probably one of his supporters used the arising Edward II's cult to strengthen positions of the young king.

Having summed up thus the result of the reasonings and having answered the question posed, K.Valent finds it necessary to consider shortly "Crying" and from the literary point of view. Estimated from these positions, it is the typical work of Middle English instructive lyrics, with its traditional subjects of variability of fate, human incorrectness in love and friendship, need of repentance and renunciation of terrestrial glory and success for the sake of service to God. Similar "traditional character", the researcher notices, does not contradict interpretation of "Crying" as the composition written with specific political goals at all. Moreover, if his unknown author sought to strengthen political sympathies of elite for Edward III, having made the contribution to a posthumous cult of his father, a genre of instructive lyrics in which Christian lessons were stated by language of courtois love poetry, as well as possible approached for this purpose.

Z.Yu. Metlitskaya


2003.04.006. Ch. Dunning. Who was a TSAR DMITRY?

DUNNING CH. Who was Tsar Dmitrii?//Slavic Review. - Cambridge,

2001. - Vol.60, No. 4. - P. 705-729.

One of the most difficult tasks facing historians of the Time of Troubles is objective characteristic of the personality and activity of the tsar Dmitry Ivanovich (1605-1606). Better known as False Dmitriy, or Impostor Dmitry, this mysterious young

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