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The Cossacks in ensuring public safety in the Kuban region in the second half the XIX beginning of the 20th century.



UDK 93/94 K-21

Mikhail Vladimirovich Karakulin

leading expert of department of collecting Russian Standard Bank Sochi, Alpiyskaya St., 12, apartment 2 ph.: (918) 40-35-657

The Cossacks in ensuring public safety in the Kuban region in the second half of XIX - the beginning of the 20th century

Article is devoted to a problem of safety of the population in the Kuban region in the second half of XIX - the beginning of the 20th century and a role which in it was played by the Cossacks.

Participation of the Cossacks in protection of law and order and fight against crime has deep historical sources. The Cossacks, by I.A. Revin's definition, are the historically developed cultural and ethnic community of people having original traditions, customs, culture, morals, economic way, orthodox religion and building relationship with public authorities on the basis of individual and collective implementation of obligations for execution of different types of public service [1, page 101].

The freedom-loving people who were called Cossacks settled on the outskirts of the state and differed in aspiration to personal independence, boundless courage and impetuous daring. Originally for protection of borders of the Moscow state were attracted Cossacks who had huge value as colonization conductors, prolagatel of ways to new settlements [2, page 304] and which "... were in bigger or smaller dependence on the state, more or less submitted to its orders" [2, page 305]. Gradually the nature of the relations of Cossacks with the Russian State changed. By the beginning of the Russian colonization of the North Caucasus, laying of the Azovo-Mozdoksky line and Kabarda's conquest "... the first pioneer, the first colonialist is the Cossack - the most faithful servant of the Russian state, and the Cossack villages, and is equal also the slobodka formed at fortresses formed the basis to development of the Russian dominion in the region" [3, page 289].

In the Russian Empire Cossack administrativno-territorial-

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ny formations were in border areas and also near areas where there was a dangerous criminogenic situation (for example, near the places of residence of rebellious mountaineers). It is necessary to consider that Cossacks were on military service (valid or in a reserve) and constantly were involved in performance of army duties. It, in particular, caused exclusive position of Cossacks in the right of possession of weapon [4, page 17].

In particular, "Rules about an order of a holiday, storage and the use of manual firearms for needs of the Russian and not native population of the Tersky region" were approved on June 2, 1905. Weapon intended for protection of the population against "predatory attacks of mountaineers". The regional administration according to these Rules was granted the right to receive from warehouses of the Caucasian military district free of charge 1500 rifles of the Berdana system and 15000 cartridges. Paragraph 3 of Rules accurately defined that transfer or resale of weapon to individuals was forbidden: thus, only the Cossack population of the Tersky region could have a weapon. Rural and farm foremen handed out weapon only for protection against attacks and were obliged to keep the list in which the following data were reflected: to whom and behind what number the weapon is given and when it is delivered to the place of storage. Previously foremen took away from persons who were given weapon, a subscription about obligatory observance of an order of use, storage and the maintenance of weapon and cartridges. The persons who received rifles were obliged to leave with them in case of alarm for reflection of attack from mountaineers and prosecution of attackers [4, page 17-18].

Significant increase in crime in Kuban in the 50th of the 19th century caused acceptance of a number of drastic measures. On December 18, 1859 the major general L.I. Kusakov in the circular letter noted: "I see from affairs that in the Black Sea Cossack army the theft of horses and the other cattle, developing very quickly, reached to such an extent that army inhabitants are put in perfect impossibility by themselves to be preserved against impudence of thieves because theft are numerous and quite often are followed by violence" [5]. Measures of extreme character were opposed to rise in crime. In particular, for prosecution of thieves without delay and traveling on a yurta in each village the permanent team on duty from 6 Cossacks was founded. In especially important cases in villages temporary teams were formed. Immediate detection of criminals and their prosecution was assigned to stanitsa board and team on duty. For prevention of crimes not less than two times a month sudden traveling in limits a village yurta were appointed. In many circulars the ataman repeatedly emphasized that fight against crime

>- the debt of everyone and "only with combined forces can be reached zhelaye-

my success" [6, page 135-137].

The crop failure and hunger of 1891-1892 caused deterioration in a criminal situation in Kuban. The Cossack villages were forced to take a number of measures for prevention of crimes and safety. For example, the Akhtyrsky stanitsa board for prevention of theft and robberies established night guard in stanitsa board, "which if it hears where in the village noise or shout, then lifts the person on duty, and this, the last, with Cossacks goes on the place specified guard and learns the noise reason; besides for every night, depending on need of time, one or two night rounds, from three and more Cossacks, under the team of the village constable or the best Cossack are formed; they do a confidential round on distant streets. And near the yards of the persons noticed in unseemly acts and also interview which go on the village. For protection of church and in the help to annual guard of old men the special guard from three Cossacks which was checked every night by the assistant to the stanitsa ataman or the person on duty on the village is sent every night from board, they at the same time checked also guard near spare bakery shop. For traveling on yurtovy farms, porridges and plantations three persons of horse Cossacks were appointed annually".

The ataman of the Yeysk department colonel A.Ya. Kukharenko in January, 1899 in connection with growth of crimes took a number of measures among which division of each village into quarters and assignment into one of Cossacks of observation of every quarter [6, page 301-302].

The ataman of the Caucasian department of the Kuban region specified in the circular letter of August 22, 1907 to police officers, local chiefs, stanitsa and farm atamans, volost foremen, rural heads and police village constables that within the Caucasian department "the armed gang of the malefactors who are exclusively engaged in robberies and mainly in such places where there is no police power was organized". It was emphasized, "to do away with this evil it is necessary that all civilians rendered to in due time stanitsa and rural police and district administration full assistance in this case". Besides earlier taken measures (purpose of the strengthened rounds, traveling and observations of crossings and suspicious places, hiring of watchmen, lighting of streets lamps, etc.) the ataman of department found necessary to establish horse traveling from each village (farm) to the neighboring settlements, in communication than ordered:

>- urgently to explain to inhabitants that in the interests they are obliged to come to the aid of the police power on protection of the property with conscious participation in search of malefactors and stolen by them, to specify "pristanosoderzhatel", dens of thieves, leaders of thieves' gangs, to convince of it the population by conversations and to ask noticed urgently to lead up about everything to

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data of police;

>- to impute to owners of certain farms that in view of feature of the present they have to take measures to protection of and property from malefactors, having employed for this purpose watchmen, or to pass, at least temporarily, to residence into the villages where there is a police power;

>- to establish horse traveling from 3 to 5 people for commission of observations on yurtas and to the neighboring villages and farms on the following group of settlements: a) the village Caucasian with farms Losevsky and Romanovsky and the village of Temizhbekskaya; b) villages Razshevatsky, Dmitriyevsky and Uspensky and farm Novolokins-ky; c) villages Ilyinsky, New Pokrovsk and Ternovsky and farm Nikolaev; d) villages Arkhangelsk, Khopyor, New Little Russian and farm of Buzinovsky; e) villages Tikhoretsk, New Christmas, Irkliyevsky and farm of Balkovsky; e) Kazan village, farm of Lovlinsky, village of Tiflisskaya and farm Vladimir; g) Vannovskoye, Leonovskoye and Sheremetyevskoye's settlements with privately owned economiya; h) settlements Semenovsky and New Nikolaev with the farms which do not have the boards; i) villages New Donetsk, Vyselkovsky and Berezansky; j) villages Baturinsky, Bryukhovetsky, Pereyaslavsky and farm Velichkovsky; k) villages Novokor-sunsky, Timashevsky and Dyadkovsky; l) village of Korenovskaya, farm Zhurovsky and Malevanny; m) village of Platnirovskaya, Plastunov-Skye and Staromyshastovskaya; o) villages Sergeevskaya and Medvedovs-kaya. Traveling has to be carried out so that all roads were at the same time busy with them.

The persons designated in traveling out of the village, the settlement or the farm besides supply with weapon, have to be acquainted with the duties. Traveling should have stopped by on the way in the farm, Cauchy and sites where was absent police, in places where brothels of thieves are suspected, to pay attention to bridges, crossings and other places where it, on local conditions, will be necessary for achievement of a common goal according to prevention of crimes; to watch vigilantly all passing and passing; to detain suspects and to hand over them in local boards for receipt with them under the law; in case of armed resistance to cause to the aid other traveling by means of a shot or a whistle.

In traveling people reliable had to be appointed ", at the instructor as more skilled in prospecting". Supervision of appropriate execution of the duties traveling was assigned to atamans of villages and volost foremen who in case of obtaining data on crime had to be urgently on the scene and take measures "to search of malefactors without delay, to detention of guilty persons, to make

inquiries... and in case of armed resistance to use in defense of force and weapon" [7].

In "A note about the measures which were accepted, and counties which are again projected for tranquility, protection and welfare of the mountain population of the Kuban Region in three eya: Ekaterinodarsky, Maykop and Batalpashinsky" it is told what measures were taken for protection of personal and property security of the population including with involvement of the population:

1) villages and settlements were divided into quarters or sites in which night guard and rounds are founded. At the same time about three non-replaceable armed watchmen from locals who should have been made responsible for incidents on the sites protected by them had to be appointed to each site or quarter;
2) in mountain auls "behind impossibility to rely on the next guard watchmen" the horse guards from mountaineers were founded on sentences of aulny societies of 1874. These guards contained at the expense of a three-ruble contribution which laid over each yard in the aul. The guards had to make detours on auls at night and check on two times in a night finding of the house of all suspects to which absence from auls was forbidden. Every evening riders of these guards were to foremen of auls behind receiving orders, and in the morning - for the report on the incident and noticed during the night other [8, page 144]

The events of 1917 which caused changes in state system of Russia, habitual tenor of life of the Russian society caused liquidation of many positive public institutes. Also the Cossacks which underwent political repressions for support of the old power did not become an exception in it.

Bibliography

1. I.A. Revin. The Cossacks in ensuring public safety and protection of public order in North Caucasus region at the present stage: problems and ways of their decision//Topical issues of improvement of activity of law enforcement agencies in modern conditions. M, 2003.
2. S.M. nightingales. Compositions: In 18 books by the Prince 3. T. 5 and 6: The history of Russia since ancient times / Otv. edition I.D. Kovalchenko, S.S. Dmitriyev. M, 1989.
3. V.A. Potto. Two centuries of the tersky Cossacks / Reprint edition. Stavropol, 1991.
4. Nevsky S.A. Problems of control of traffic in weapons. Krasnodar, 2000.
5. GAKK. T. 335. Op. 1. 25.
6. Essays of history of law enforcement agencies of Kuban (1793-1917
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>) / Under the editorship of V.N. Ratushnyak. Krasnodar, 2002.

7. State archive of Krasnodar Krai. T. 454. Op. 1. 288. L. 170, 170 about, 171; Essays of history of law enforcement agencies and fight against crime in Russia / Under a general edition of S.A. of the Nevsky. Krasnodar, 2004. Page 155; Nevsky S.A., A.L. Sitkovsky. Safety of the population in the North Caucasus in the second half of XIX - the beginning of the 20th century of M., 2008. Page 78 - 80.
8. Essays of history of law enforcement agencies of Kuban (1793 - 1917) / Under the editorship of V.N. Ratushnyak. Krasnodar: Edv, 2002.
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