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From the history of division into districts of the territory of the Central Chernozem Area (CCA)

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FROM the HISTORY of division into districts of the territory of the CENTRAL CHERNOZEM AREA (CCA)

The author of article on a significant amount of sources, pocherp-

Belgorod state university

E.Yu. Prokofieva

the 20th, nuty from regional and central specialized magazines, analyzes the reasons, the course and results of administrativnoterritorialny changes in Chernozem the Center of RSFSR the middle - the second half-fault of the 20th of the 20th century known as division into districts process. The actual material historical and statistical character, CChO allowing to make idea of a social and economic condition of districts on the eve of transition to industrial modernization of its economy is presented in article.

The Central Chernozem Area (CCA) was formed in 1928 and liquidated in 1934, having existed on the map of RSFSR full 6 years. Despite the importance for the region of emergence of such large area with the territory in 192 thousand and the population more than 11 million people, the most important historical stages of its education to the middle of the 90th of the 20th century were not a subject of a special historical research and for the first time were scientifically defined by P.V. Zagorovsky in his monograph devoted to the socio-political story CChO published in 1995 1

The area of CChO in various editions varied from 187.3 to 209 thousand while the most authentic data were published by experts in economic geography and statistics in the second half of the 20th of the 20th century and defined in 192 thousand 418 sq. There are serious discrepancies with definition of external and internal borders of CChO. In literature essential differences in figures of the population living in the cities of area meet. The numerous large administrative-territorial changes happening in the Black Earth during the pre-war period-1928, 1934 1937, 1939 and significantly complicate today a possibility of comparison of regional statistical material when studying social and economic processes in the Black Earth. When determining expediency of creation of CChO in a monographic research of P.V. Zagorovsky the political interests of ruling elite are reasonably called the main reason.

At the same time, from our point of view besides the political interests playing a priority role in acceptance of the final decisions in the course of economic division into districts at emergence of new area also the social and economic factor was important.

The decision on need of the new administrative-territorial reorganization aiming at creation of the integrated economic region in the Soviet Russia appeared at the Bolshevist management soon after the October revolution of 1917 and in 1919 the state planning commission introduced into circulation the term "Central Chernozem Area". Since 1922, tasks of construction of the new Union State - the USSR joined process of the begun economic division into districts of RSFSR. In general, from 1917 to 1928 in the territory of the Soviet Russia and the USSR in the course

1 P.V. Zagorovsky. Socio-political history of Central Chernozem Area. 1928 - 1934. Voronezh: Publishing house Voronezh un-that, 1995; P.V. Zagorovsky. History of the Central Black Earth area (1928 - 1934): Sources and researches. M.: RUDN publishing house, 1997. Page 5-7.
2 Cm: Materials on division into districts of Central Chernozem Area. Voronezh, 1925; P. Dyakonov. Central Chernozem Area. Its organization, territory and district division. Voronezh, 1928. Page 13; R.G. Demidov, L.V. Krivtsun. Socialist industrialization and growth of cultural technological level of workers of the Central Black Earth (1928 - 1941). Voronezh, 1978; Essays of history of the Voronezh region. In 2 t. T.2. Socialism era. Voronezh, 1967.

administrative reorganization 87 new provinces, areas and the republics were newly created or transformed, 732 changes of administrative borders on mestakh3 are made. External borders of four main provinces of the Central Black Earth in the specified years were adjusted in total 6 times.

Formation of CChO became the important historical milestone in the history of the Central Black Earth which had substantial economic, social and political effects. The territory of the former so-called centralnozemledelchesky provinces of Russia became a kernel of Central Chernozem Area. During the studied period carried the Kursk, Voronezh, Tambov and Oryol provinces to them. Naturally - historical, economic and cultural conditions of development of these territories allowed to speak about them as about the massif, integral on natural and economic unity. The similarity in approximate volumes of acreage and also in assortment of main types of products of field husbandry and livestock production left a mark on a condition of the industry of the region: small on the numerical structure of the enterprises and for the number of the workers occupied on them, the industry of the Chernozem center, weak on installed power per employee and technical equipment, was focused in the main part on processing of agricultural raw materials. By 1926/27 in chernozem provinces, close indicators in volumes of profitable and account parts of local budgets took place, at the same time they demonstrated serious lag from average values of both the all-Russian, and all-union levels. At last, indicators, similar for 4 provinces, characterized the general cultural backwardness of edge. The average percent of literacy of adult population on the 34th provinces of RSFSR making about 65.1% of adult population to the middle of the 20th of the 20th century in provinces of the Chernozem Center of RSFSR was significantly lower average Russian (at the same time it is necessary to consider that during the specified period the territory of the Oryol province was about 2.5 times less than the territory of the Voronezh province).

Thus, the most important lines of economic unity of the Centralnozemledelchesky provinces of RSFSR were at the same time and the general indicators of their cultural and economic backwardness. First of all, treated the last: big population density; overwhelming prevalence of country people over city; archaism of agricultural production; big agrarian overpopulation; extremely slow development of economy towards its intensification (including through production of commercial crops on the market and development of trade livestock production); poor development of the local industry, its dispersion and remoteness from the cities; slow development of city infrastructure, insufficient development of trade relations and an unprofitable in general role which was played by the region in the grain market of the country, delivering to generally gray, least valuable bread and also low-power of local budgets and the general cultural backwardness of the population there. The solution of the problem of cultural and economic raising of the Provinces of Black Earth in the mid-twenties of the 20th century the country leaders saw in association them in uniform Central Chernozem oblast4.

Preparatory activities on creation of CChO began in 1922 creation at the Voronezh gubispolkom of the special interprovincial commission. The commission besides studying climatic, economic and demographic features of the region, had to make the project of intra provincial division into districts for the State Planning Committee of RSFSR and participate in definition of external borders of the created area. In July, 1924 the begun work received a new boost: in Voronezh the first regional conference on studying productive forces of CChO took place. The chairman of the Voronezh provincial planning commission B.A. Peters in the report at a conference defined approximate external borders of area and designated its internal division into 11 okrugov5. In November, 1924 in Voronezh for direct preparation for registration of new area the CChO regional organizational bureau headed by the chairman in - was created

3 Administrative-territorial division of USSR and the list of the major settlements with the chronological list of resolutions on change of borders of provinces, areas and the republics from 1917 to 1929 M., 1929. Page 7-8.
4 P. Dyakonov. Central Chernozem Area. Its organization, territory and district division. Page 16 - 18, 20-21, 25-27.
5 B.A. Peters. External borders of Central Chernozem Area and project of its district division//National economy of CChO. Voronezh, 1925. Book 4. Page 99, 113 - 119

ronezhsky gubispolkom S.P. Ageev. In February, 1925 at the CChO organizational regional bureau there began work the regional planning commission. The scientist-economist A.N. Tatarchukov was appointed the secretary of the commission. Work of these structures substantially prepared conditions for creation of CChO: at a number of regional meetings there was a process of interprovincial coordination of external borders of area, the project of its district division was approved in a basis, the question of the administrative center of the united territories which caused a fierce controversy is settled.

At the same time, the question of external borders of CChO continued to be discussed. In the mid-twenties. The State Planning Committee of RSFSR found it possible to carry to Central Chernozem provinces not only the Kursk, Voronezh, Oryol and Tambov, but also Penza, Ryazan and Tula provinces. Using indistinct geographical definition of the region the chairman of the Voronezh provincial planning commission B.A. Peters suggested to include in structure of CChO besides the Voronezh, Kursk, Oryol and Tambov provinces, parts of the Khopyor district of the Tsaritsyno province, the Chembarsky County of the Penza province and the Balashov County of the Saratov province and also a part of Karachevsky and Sevsky Counties Bryansk gubernii6. There was also an alternative project of division into districts. For example, the leaders of the Oryol province opposed as fall of 1925 its entry into structure of CChO. They suggested to create Seva-ro-chernozem area, having included the Kursk, Oryol, Bryansk, Ryazan and Tula provinces in its structure. But it was not supported by the government and in September, 1925 after top-level coordination of organizational bureau of CChO approved external borders oblasti7. The southern line of CChO with Ukraine was drawn "for reasons of political property" and according to these "reasons" in October, 1925 were transferred to Ukraine the most part of the territory of the Putivlsky County Kursk and a part of the Valuysky County Voronezh provinces. After that to call into question CChO border with Ukraine it was not allowed. However rigid discussions on delimitation of CChO in RSFSR continued. Considering this circumstance and also in connection with serious lag from the all-Russian rates of recovery of the national economy of the Provinces of Black Earth, in 1926 the decision to delay organizational registration of CChO, and - organizational bureau and planning commission of CChO - to liquidate "temporary regional structures" was made. They stopped the activity on June 16, 1926. It is possible to agree with P.V. opinion of Zagorovskogo8 that suspension of registration of large territorial associations in the country was influenced first of all by political factor as formation of extensive administrative and territorial units involved appearance of large party and economic officials, first of all secretaries of the integrated regional committees. In the conditions of the continuing race for power in the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) when Stalin had no complete control in the Politburo yet and the Central Committee sozdavat parties of such large regional leaders it was represented to it dangerous.

Return to the idea of completion of economic division into districts happened in two years. In March, 1928. The politburo of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) of the Central Committee made the decision on completion of process of creation of CChO. Resumption of process of registration of CChO in 1928 was caused now not only political circumstances, but equally completion of process of restoration of economy, the beginning of the reconstructive period and also need of development of tasks of the 1st five-year plan. On a joint of two major stages of development of the country by the Resolution of VTsIK and SNK of RSFSR of May 14, 1928 the Central Chernozem Area was formed. According to the adopted resolution, in Voronezh the formation of regional structures began: the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) Central Committee regional temporary bureau under the leadership of I.M. Vareykis and interim organizing committee which was headed by F.P. Gryadinsky.

Though formation of CChO was already issued legislatively, its geographical contours continued to be specified still almost for 2 months as pravitelst-

6 B.A. Peters. External borders of Central Chernozem Area and project of its district division. Page 108.
7 P.V. Zagorovsky. Socio-political history of Central Chernozem Area. 1928 - 1934. Page 25.
8 P.V. Zagorovsky. Socio-political history of Central Chernozem Area.
1928 -1934. Page 27; Expanded meeting of the State Planning Committee of RSFSR on May 18-20, 1925. Verbatim record. M, 1925. Page 11;. P.P. Dyakonov. Way of regional reform. (Concerning article of comrade Egorov)//the National economy of Central Chernozem Area. Book 11 (U1). Voronezh, 1926. Page 82-84.

the wine resolution did not define the exact list of the territories included in structure of area, it called only it "the main massif". In this structure of border of CChO did not coincide completely with the first project which was approved by the State Planning Committee of RSFSR in 1923/24G., with former "natural" geographical boundaries of the central agricultural provinces of RSFSR. Even after the final approval by Presidium of VTsIK of RSFSR on July 16

1928 of territorial structure of CChO, the question of its external borders continued to be discussed, the truth only eastern, western and northern frontiers of CChO were among disputable now. On July 16, 1918 VTsIK of RSFSR the resolution finally legalized CChO borders: six of seven volosts of the Ranenburgsky County of the Ryazan province and two areas Tula gubernii9 entered into structure of area along with the Voronezh, Kursk, Oryol and Tambov provinces. Thus, at the time of the education CChO bordered on the Ukrainian SSR, the Bryansk, Kaluga, Tula, Ryazan provinces, the Average and Volga region, Lower Volga and North Caucasian the regions of RSFSR and its territory made about 192 thousand In the administrative relation the area was divided into 11 districts, 178 areas and 4806 village councils. However in such structure the area existed not for long. In September
1929 the Voronezh district was liquidated and are created two new - Usmansky and Stary Oskol districts. The city of Voronezh with suburban industrial settlements and settlements became an independent administrative unit. In July, 1930 the government decision on elimination of districts was made and process of integration of areas through their association with each other began. By September, 1930 the number of areas was reduced from 178 to 155, and by 1932

>- to 144. In the resolution of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) of the Central Committee of July 15, 1930 and in I.V. Stalin's performance on HU_ a congress of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) it was explained that elimination of districts aimed to bring closer party and economic administrative personnel to needs of areas as much as possible. In a speech of the first secretary of regional committee of CChO I.M. Vareykis in August, 1930 the main reason for the next reorganization of regional management was stated: only by 1928 thanks to growth of ranks of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) became possible to provide with "reliable party shots" numerous regional party committees and economic structures in the territory of TsChO10.

The CChO center the city of Voronezh was outlined in the original projects of the State Planning Committee and the special commission of VTsIK discussed in 1922 at the 3rd session of VTsIK _kh convocation. In 19231924 there was an alternative offer to transfer the center of newly created area to Kursk, however the State Planning Committee noted existence of a number of indisputable advantages of Voronezh: the city was in optimum short distance from the CChO geographical center which was between Nizhnedevitsk and Zemlyansky, approximately in 40 km from Voronezh whereas Kursk was located in 160 km, Oryol - in 190 km, and Tambov - in 215 km from the geographical center of the created area. Besides, Voronezh had convenient railway communication with alleged districts of CChO, the city historically was the large shopping and industrial center of the region, containing according to a census of 1926 of 116,576 inhabitants. The population of the city grew rapidly: from March, 1923 to December, 1926 it increased by 23,135 people while the population of Kursk for the same period increased on 12 552, Oryol - by 4,646 and Tambov - on 3,785 persons. The State Planning Committee of RSFSR considered also objectives on implementation of the large-scale transport projects connected with Voronezh: on construction of the Moscow-Donbass highway with a branch through Voronezh, to the railway line Penza-Voronezh-Kharkiv and significant expansion of navigation across Don that would turn the city into the transport trading hub for seven directions. Existence of several engineering plants, large oil milling production, chemical plant, railway workshops did the city by the largest industrial center of the Black Earth. Three higher educational institutions - the university, agricultural and veterinary institutes turned Voronezh into the scientific and cultural center of the region. Considering the specified circumstances, in 1925 the regional organizational bureau made the decision to approve Voronezh as future regional center, the project of district division TsChO11 was at the same time approved (see tab. 1).

9 See: Meeting of legalizations and orders of the Rabochee-Krestyansky government of RSFSR. M, 1928. No. 96. Otd.1. Article 617.
10 P.V. Zagorovsky. Socio-political history of Central Chernozem area.1928 - 1934. Page 31-32.
11 A. Remeyko. On the ways restoration of CChO//Economy of CChO. 1928. No. 2. Page 3 - 13; P. Dyakonov. Central Chernozem Area. Its organization, territory and district division. Page 27.

Table 1

Project of district division of Central Chernozem Area

Names of districts of CChO The area of Number of inhabitants in one thousand Number b. volosts, areas and Village Councils

Belgorod 12,600 851 24; 14; 481

Borisoglebsk 24,500 1,023 38;14;312

Voronezh 21,800 1,188 33;20;488

Yelets 19,800 1,196 44;20;512

Kozlowski 16,400 943 33;19;444

Kursk 15,300 865 28;14;535

Lgovsky 12,300 843 21;11;381

Oryol 23,600 1,167 53;17;482

Ostrogozhsky 17,700 922 23;16;421

Rossosh 18,800 784 23; 16;310

Tambov 26,000 1,409 51;17;440

The central Black Earth was recognized as the territory very comfortable for division into districts. The issued districts rather slightly differed from each other both on the area of their territory, and on number of the living population that favourably distinguished CChO from other economic areas of the country. So, in the Urals the territories of the formed districts on scale fluctuated from 16 to 90 thousand, in Lower Volga area - from 13 to 75 thousand, and on population - from 250 to 850 thousand and from 170 to 850 thousand inhabitants respectively. On CChO these fluctuations were from 11 to 22 thousand and from 720 thousand to 1.295 thousand inhabitants. As the territory of CChO was poor in large and even average cities, it was not always represented possible to find such city which would correspond to the appointment in the territory of the formed district as the district center. Historically it developed so that to the first quarter of the 20th century of the city of the Black Earth by the number and number of inhabitants were small. From 12 cities and industrial settlements Kursk, 9 - Tambov, 8 - Oryol and 10 - Voronezh provinces the cities with population less than 20 thousand people (25 of 39 cities) substantially prevailed (see tab. 2).

Table 2

The population of the cities of provinces of the Chernozem center of RSFSR in 1927,

one thousand people

Kursk province Voronezh province Oryol province Tambov province

Kursk - 98.8 Voronezh - 120.0 Eagle - 77.9 Tambov - 76.4

Belgorod - 31.1 Buturlinovka - 27.5 Yelets - 43.2 Kozlov - 54.4

Stary Oskol - 20.2 Ostrogozhsk - 23.0 Livny - 19.2 Borisoglebsk - 39.4

Oboyan - 12.2 Beavers - 17.4 Mtsensk - 10.0 Morshansk - 27.8

The Korocha - 14.1 Rossosh - 16.0 Bolkhov - 7.5 Kirsanov - 26.0

Rylsk - 10.7 Usman - 13.3 Small Arkhangelsk-6.0 Rasskazovo - 23.2

Grayvoron - 8.9 Valuyki - 10.2 Dmitrovsk - 5.0 Lipetsk - 21.4

Lgov - 7.3 Boguchar - 7.9 Novosil - 2.7 Liebiedian - 12.1

Shchigry - 6.9 Zadonsk - 7.9 The slave. settlement. Dirt - 9.3

Sudzha - 6.0 New Hopersk - 7.4

Dmitrov - 4.7

Fatezh - 4.5

Total: 225.4 250.6 171.5 290.0

The chronic economic depression of chernozem territories proceeding up to the second half of the 20th of the 20th century did not favor to fast development of the cities. The prevailing type of small city settlements of the region did very conditional a concept of the population living there as citizens. Often these settlements resembled the big villages which do not have specific and city way of economic and social life. For example, the tram in the mid-twenties of the 20th century existed only in Voronezh, Kursk and Oryol, and in two last - as narrow-gage. 5/6 all urban populations of the Black Earth used not electric, but kerosene lighting. On

1926 given to a census in 4 provincial cities only 10.1% of households (in Voronezh slightly more - 15.2%), and in 13 district cities - only 2.9% were attached to a water supply system. It should be noted also slow growth rate of the population of the cities of the Black Earth. Due to the specified circumstances during division into districts especially serious doubts caused offers to define Rossosh and Lgov12 as the district centers. But finally the lack of an alternative and convenience of communication led to the decision of the commission on division into districts to approve as them as the administrative centers of the respective districts. In comparison with district the CChO regional network was developed not so carefully. Originally integration of volosts and formation of the territory of areas were conducted by each former province independently, without accurate coordination at the interprovincial level, without approximate plan of the CChO future regional network. These tables below (see tab. 3) characterize process of change of number of volosts in territories of 4 main provinces of CChO in connection with them ukrupneniyem13.

Table 3

Dynamics of number of volosts in the territory of CChO in 1890 - 1928

Years 1890 1917 1920 1923 1924 1928


Voronezh 259 275 305 215 92 91

Kursk 214 197 224 173 82 78

Oryol 149 - 155 67 66 58

Tambov 214 224 265 92 92 92

Total: 836 - 949 547 332 319

By 1928 the average number of one such integrated volost was about 3 thousand inhabitants, and the average territory equaled about 580-600 The commission on division into districts noted, that even integrated, volosts nevertheless were small for transfer of the rights of new administrative areas to them and therefore process of integration of these territories continued. At the final statement of the CChO regional network approximate norms of the territory and population of future area were defined: about 1000 of the territory and 45-55 thousand inhabitants, at the same time limit distance from settlements to the regional center should not have exceeded 20-25 km. At practical forming of regional network the excess of the set average territory of areas made no more than 60 that was quite admissible. But taking into account very big population density of CChO it appeared to keep within the set parameters of number of residents of the area much more difficult. 178 areas with the population about about 63 thousand inhabitants in everyone were as a result created, at the same time 116 areas (64% of their total number) had from 40 to 70 thousand inhabitants; 44 areas (or 26% of total number) - more than 70 thousand inhabitants and 18 areas (10% of their total number) - less than 40 thousand inhabitants. In documents it was noted that "the regional grid" was projected and carried out quickly, in the conditions of rigid deficiency time remaining on carrying out division into districts of CChO and all it is subject to possible revision.

Thus, process of division into districts in the second half of the 20th of the 20th century on - to a being completely changed old administrative territories of the former centralnozemledelchesky provinces. New districts were often created not only from territories of different counties, but even - different provinces. So, the Yelets district was formed of the territory which was earlier a part of 4 provinces. In turn areas were created from the territory of various volosts. The specified circumstances led to the fact that all available statistical material on volosts, counties and provinces of the Chernozem center after division into districts and education CChO had to be used with the known share of care as demanded recalculation in relation to new regional district division. At the same time, in statistiko-economic researches of the end of the 20-30th of the 20th century

12 A.A. Ruttsen. Division into districts of the Central Chernozem oblasga//Hozyaysgvo of CChO. 1928. No. 1. Page 10 - 11; Materials on division into districts of CChO. Issue 1.2. Voronezh, 1925; B.A. Tugykhin. Central Black Earth area. M.,1929.
13 A.A. Ruttsen. Division into districts of Central Chernozem Area//Economy of CChO. 1928. No. 1. Page 10-12; B.A. Tutykhin. Central Chernozem Area. Page 34.

it is noted that "the divergence apparently, is small as the population estimated on areas by recalculation on places of volost data, gives on area 11.292 thousand inhabitants, and calculation of the population of four provinces, the Ranenburgsky County and 2 districts of the Tula province - 11.160 thousand people, i.e. a divergence about 1.2%".

Thus, the available statistical material gave "brought closer to reality" data at social and economic characteristic of the districts created in CChO. In this article it is obviously possible to note only briefly the most important features of each of nikh14. The Belgorod district on population density - 72 people it won first place on CChO in 1, more than 35% of the population of the district were ethnic Ukrainians. Belgorod was the large railway junction. The territory of the district was rich with minerals among which - the major then white chalk of very high quality, its industrial developments had all-republican value. Agriculture of the district was characterized by considerable crops of wheat and commercial crops, first of all sugar beet, gardening was highly developed. The industry of the district was presented sugar, flour-grinding and distilleries and also several large enterprises for production and processing mela15.

The district center of the Borisoglebsk district Borisoglebsk had good railway communication with all territory of the district. The district industry was connected with processing of agricultural raw materials. The most developed industries were mukomolnokrupyany and oil milling and also beet sugar. The district won first place in CChO on development commodity mukomolya, and a significant amount of grain for processing on its enterprises was delivered from Lower - the Volga region. Under grain except a rye and oats over 85% of the arable land were occupied by wheat. From commercial crops crops of sunflower, on the second - sugar beet were in the first place.

The center of the Voronezh district Voronezh, it is the CChO regional center, was the largest city, the railway junction, the cultural and industrial center of the region. Except grain crops in the central regions of the district, crops of potatoes were considerable. Sunflower and sugar beet was most widespread in the southern areas. Near Usmani, tobacco was cultivated. The industry specialized not only in processing of agricultural raw materials though the greatest number of qualification industrial institutions fell to the share of the flour-grinding, oil milling and distilling enterprises. Near Voronezh, reserves of the valuable latnensky clays forming base for the enterprises of building materials were explored, in Voronezh several enterprises of the so-called metal industry worked.

The district center of the Yelets district Yelets was the large railway junction, the center of the flour-grinding and tobacco industry and also known lacy domestic industry. The district specialized in cultivation of grain crops. The industry of the district besides agricultural processing enterprises had the arranged metallurgical production which was based on rich deposits of hematites in east part of the district near Lipetsk therefore the Yelets district was considered as one of the most developed industrially in the territory of CChO.

Kozlowski's center of the district was. Kozlov - large shopping center of the region. Agriculture of the district specialized in cultivation of a rye and oats, from commercial crops potatoes and tobacco prevailed. The industry even by the standards of CChO was developed extremely poorly. Its main industries were flour-grinding and tobacco.

The Kursk district the district center had the former provincial city of Kursk, the large railway junction, cultural and industrial shopping center of the territory. Agricultural specialization of the district was aimed at the development of grain production, but since the beginning of the 20th century crops of commercial crops and first of all sugar beet sharply increased. The industry was focused on processing of agricultural raw materials. The largest industries - flour-grinding krupyanaya and sugar.

14 A.A. Ruttsen. Division into districts of Central Chernozem Area. Page 13-14, 16-17, 19; Territorial and administrative division of the USSR. M.: Prod. People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs, 1928.
15 Belgorod district of CChO. Characteristic of the national economy, culture and administrative construction (Preliminary results). Belgorod, 1929; N. Totsky CChO in the system of the national economy of the USSR//Economy of CChO. 1928. No. 2. Page 20-24.

The Lgovsky district on population density (64 people on 1 was in the second place in CChO after the Belgorod district. The district center - Mr. Lgov had the convenient message by rail with all areas. The district produced sugar beet as this culture occupied the most part of all its cultivated area. Northern areas specialized in hemp cultivation. On development of industrial output per capita the Lgovsky district was high on the list in CChO. The main industries were beet sugar, distilling and flour-grinding.

The former provincial city of Oryol became the district center of the Oryol district. Agriculture of the district was focused on production of oats, potatoes and hemp. On hemp acreage the district won first place on CChO, on crops of potatoes

>- second place. In the industry the main role was played flour-grinding krupyanaya, oil milling (generally production of hempseed oil), processing of hemp and tanning the industries. In Oryol the plant on production of plows and other agricultural stock worked.

The administrative center of the Ostrogozhsky district was Ostrogozhsk. About 50% of the population of the district were made by Ukrainians. Agriculture was focused on the prevailing production of spring-sown field, from commercial crops - sunflower. In the district there were qualification enterprises of the flour-grinding industry, however industrial specializations of the district oil milling production was main.

The Rossosh district across the territory was one of the largest in CChO, but on population density (41 persons on 1 took the last place in the area. Up to 75% of all population Ukrainians made. The district center was Rossosh. Barley and spring-sown field were the main crops, from technical sunflower, sugar beet and essential oil-bearing - an anise and a coriander prevailed. At the considerable output of commercial crops, their industrial processing was developed very poorly and was conducted in usually handicraft way. At the same time, in the territory of the district, industrial poultry farming successfully developed.

The Tambov district across the territory was the biggest in CChO. The former provincial city of Tambov became the district center. The district won first place on the area of forests (in its northern part they occupied up to 25% of the territory). In agriculture the production of mainly gray bread - a rye and oats, from commercial crops - potatoes and tobacco prevailed. Sheep breeding was traditionally developed. Among branches of agricultural processing industry prevailed flour-grinding, krakhmalopatochny and tobacco and tobacco. Very developed in the district was the sherstotkatsky production presented both by large factories, and hundreds of domestic workshops.

Thus, Central Chernozem Area in terms of social and economic development of its components - districts - represented a whole and was the separate, quite developed historical and economikogeografichesky zone of Russia. Administrative reorganization in the Central Black Earth in the middle - the second half of the 20th of the 20th century was caused both by the imperative need of ordered production communications, and aspiration of the power to creation of an effective control system for social and economic and obshchestvennopolitichesky life of the population regiona16.


E.U. PROKOFIEVA The reasons, process and results of the so called regionalization of the

Black Earth Region during the 20-s of the XX century are analyzed by the author Belgorod State University in the paper. The regional archives and specialized journals of the 20-s were

used. The paper gives factual historical and statistic material, that shows the social and economic region state of the Black Earth Region on the eve of the industrial modernization of the sector.

16 See: Statistical reference book of the USSR. M.: Prod. CSU USSR, 1927; Works of planning commission of Central Chernozem Area. Volume 1. Materials on studying a question of restoration of economy of Central Chernozem Area / Under the editorship of A.N. Tatarchukov. Voronezh, 1926; G.I. Bulgakov. Nature and economy of CChO. Kursk, 1926, etc.
Di Giacomo Cornelia Mirella
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