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Orthodox spiritual schools of Western Siberia in the 18th century (To the 300 anniversary of spiritual school in Siberia)



l. V. Nechayeva

ORTHODOX SPIRITUAL SCHOOLS of WESTERN SIBERIA In the 18th CENTURY (To the 300 anniversary of spiritual school in Siberia)

In article the history of spiritual schools in Siberia which were founded according to Dukhovnymreglament of 1721 is considered. In the 18th century they played an essential role in providing with competent people civil institutions and educational institutions and were high in cultural life not only Siberia and the Urals, but also all Russia.

On the eve of the 300 anniversary of spiritual education in Siberia it is worth addressing the history of spiritual schools. The history of these educational institutions was considered in works of researchers of H1H-HH vekov (N.S. Yur-tsovsky, A.N. Kopylov, Yu.P. Pri-bylskogo, etc.), but newly opened documents open differently nekoto-

the ry parties of their life in the second half of the 18th century. For this research 35 archival documents and also works of the previous researchers were selected.

In modern works on the history of education the system of the spiritual educational institutions which were under authority

churches, is considered as existing parallel to a secular system and separately from it. Exceptions make works on the history of church and religious policy. For the Soviet science the system of spiritual educational institutions and the related spiritual education was represented by the phenomenon minor and socially far.

Emphasis of attention when studying church education is represented justified because the development in Russia of processes of modernization and europeanization begun by Peter I was followed by increase in the social importance of education. Presently new growth of educational institutions of orthodox church is visible, and in this regard it is necessary to consider and study both positive, and negative experience of the previous generations.

The orthodox church since adoption of Christianity throughout all Russian history was the important institute in many respects defining features of development of society and the state. In spite of the fact that in the 18th century thanks to laicisation of public consciousness, policy and culture the influence of church weakened, Orthodoxy remained an essential element socio-political

structures, and clergy — historically developed significant group. Thus, the relevance of a research of this subject is caused by that role which was played by clergy of the dominating church in the Russian society, variety of the functions and tasks which are carried out by his representatives in the interests of society and the state. Today a number of researchers deals with this problem within Siberia (R.R. Iskhakova, V.A. Kurma-chev, E.B. Makarcheva, etc.) 1.

Russia was the multiethnic empire. In its territory, networks of educational institutions of various churches were created: orthodox, Catholic, Protestant, Muslim, Judaic. Historically it developed that most representative and authoritative in the country became spiritual educational institutions of the Russian Orthodox Church (ROC). They rendered the defining value on development of education in the country and were directly connected with secular education and the state ideology.

The serious changes in all spheres of life of Russia connected with its gradual exit from medieval isolation in relation to Europe began in

XVII also amplified a century during the Petrovsky era. Economic and political transformations in Russia at once demanded a large number of specially trained professional people: officers, sailors, engineers, gunners, doctors, scientists, teachers, public servants. It, in turn, demanded carrying out reform of education. Peter I, starting training of the educated people necessary for civil service, understood that without the aid of the clergy which already have experience in the field of education not to cost him. Therefore its government encouraged opening of spiritual schools, counting with their help then to train also secular workers. Children of priests and clergymen were trained in mainly initial diploma: to reading (abc-book, Book of Hours, psalter), letter and singing of church services. This primordial trivium existed in Russia since St. Vladimir and did not change by the 18th century at all. Reading is religious, the letter — sacred, singing — church. At different times to it wasps -

to a novny course increases, additions became, but the basis of church school always remained invariable. In the XVIII century the position of church in the state radically changed. Abolition of patriarchate and establishment of the Synod Peter I subordinated the Russian church of temporal power and turned it into the obedient tool of the state. At the same time the church lost control over education. From this point the new "state" period in domestic education began. Process of "nationalization" promoted penetration into domestic pedagogics of new consciousness. In the 18th century there is a bifurcation of processes of education and training and some change of their essence. Education continued to maintain orientation to formation of the Christian person. But, having taken training in hand, the state made it more various, gave it secular character, having at the same time painted also education by "educational" tones.

For children of clergy the creation of diocesan schools begun in the 17th century continued. In 1721 according to the adopted Spiritual regulations the wide network of the hierarchal schools and theological seminaries training priests was organized. By 1725 their number reached 46 in general across Russia. Spiritual schools during the Petrovsky era were in the best state, than secular, and had more uchashchikhsya2. They were sent to hierarchal schools that in the future they could hold spiritual positions. New spiritual schools were the closed educational institutions. Requirement of church for rather prepared clergy, aspiration to expand a circle of believers and to save them from influence of other dogmas was the cornerstone of their creation. Process of a statement spiritual

schools in Russia in the XVIII century it is represented as follows: Slavic-and-Russian schools (gave only primary education); then there were Latin schools (seminaries similar to the first classes); and then — seminary where gave professional church education. The spiritual school accepted class and professional character not at once — in the 18th century it was declared as all-class in which children not only priests and clergymen, but also from other estates had to be accepted. However only children of clergy as training was constructed on study not only the civil alphabet, but also Church Slavonic, and Latin actually studied, and these languages were suitable only for church bogosluzheniya3.

An ancestor of the Siberian spiritual schools is the Tobolsk hierarchal school founded in 1703-04. Very great value was attached to its opening: it had to educate not only the Russian people, but also the numerous foreigners living in the Siberian territory, bringing them into knowledge of orthodox belief; had to look for also opportunities for expansion of the territory of the state to China.

In 1702 in Tobolsk there arrived the metropolitan Filofey Leshchinsky, the native of Little Russia who got an education in Kiyevo-Mogilyansky academy. The metropolitan developed rough activities for establishment of spiritual school which saw arranged on a sample of the Ukrainian spiritual schools. Therefore he appealed to Peter I in December, 1702 about a holiday of a grant to the maintenance of the Tobolsk hierarchal school. The metropolitan stated quite wide program: to accept in shko-

lu not only children of clergy, but also from other estates, along with Russian to enter training at Latin, to invite teachers from the Chernihiv and Kiev monks, to open at school own printing house for printing of necessary textbooks. Peter I approved the idea of the invitation of teachers from Little Russia, but did not allow to open printing house, to learn in Latin and to admit to school of persons not of a ministry. Recommended to find money from metropolitan income. So creation of spiritual schools in Siberia began.

The researcher N.S. Yurtsovsky at the end of the 19th century wrote in the work devoted to the history of education in Siberia that in 1727 in Tobolsk there were two spiritual schools — at the hierarchal house with 57 pupils and at Znamensky Monastery in Tobolsk with 14 pupils — on both schools was two uchitelya4. It is also confirmed by affairs Tobolsk arkhiva5.

It is necessary to tell that process of establishment of the Russian schools was very interesting. These schools were called originally hierarchal or spiritual, then their name changed. They were approved by some arch-flamens, transformed to Latin schools by others, again became Slavic-and-Russian. Final formation of the Russian schools in Siberia belongs to the beginning of 1779 at the archbishop Varlaam I. By the end of the 18th century only in their one Tobolsk diocese there were already about 30. According to the sheet for 1780 the Russian schools were located at the Tobolsk hierarchal house; in monasteries at spiritual boards (Tyumen, Turin, Verkhoturye, Tomsk, Yenisei, Turukhansky, Dalmatovsky, Rafaylovsky, Kondin-sky); in the cities (Yekaterinburg, Irbit, Tara, Barnaul, Kuznetsk, Krasnoyar-

ska, Surgut, Beryozovo, Chelyabinsk); in the Omsk fortress, in the Krasnoslobodsky jail; in settlements (Korkiny and Tavda); at the Nizhny Tagil plant of Nikita Demidov; in Demyanskom a hole and in the village Voskresenskom6. Here those which were open later — in the nineties the 18th century are not listed. Some schools then stopped the existence owing to the different reasons, and in some places according to the application of priests and clergymen, on the contrary, there was an opening new

7, 8

schools.

Slavic-and-Russian schools prepared pupils for receipt in Latin (where there were initial classes of seminary), which were quite often established in the same places, as Russians. Schools were financed clergy and were under supervision of spiritual customers who watched that teachers honestly carried out the duties, that is were engaged in training of children, and children would not spend time in idleness. Many teachers and pupils (except for food and clothes) consisted on a money (providing) of all priests and clergymen having and not having children. And the poor, orphans and poor contained in these schools on money of the well-wishers giving churches for needs poor (see primech. 6). On heating and illumination of schools, on purchase for pupils of paper and ink the whip-round from clergy became. And each parent had to provide clothes, footwear and livelihood to the child.

Customers also had to force priests and clergymen to present the children to schools. The salary to teachers was appointed depending on income of orders: from 10 to 20 and more rubles a year. Except

that, many teachers held church positions and gained church income. From the fathers covering the children from school the penalty, especially — was collected from priests, especially — from deacons, from sextons and sextons. Similarly the penalty was collected also from customers if they badly carried out the duties in observation of schools or tolerated clergy under different pretexts to evade from representation detey9, 10. In coordination with clergy, the spiritual board raised money from priests and clergymen, being agreed with opportunities of each of them. The board had to present extracts to a consistory about quantity of the money which is annually coming to arrivals about quantity of expenses of these means, data what they were spent for.

The circle of objects was quite limited - it is reading in Slavic and in Russian alphabets, the Book of Hours and the psalter, the letter, musical singing and studying a catechism. Some Russian schools entered training in the first actions arifmetiki11, but so was not everywhere, and "... behind absence to that people, capable to training, it is defined after studying the Russian grammata to train in it in seminary, in the city of Tobolsku at the house Hierarchal" (see primech. 6). Pupils were also involved in time, free from the doctrine, to drawing up church frescos, metrics and in extraction from them short sheets, but only in case teachers were able to do it and could be shown on an example to pupils.

Practically all textbooks and grants were printed in the Moscow printing house under the decree of the Holy Synod which then went to different dioceses especially for their mailing by orders for churches and schools. So, in That -

the bolsky diocese in 1781-1783 100 copies of alphabets of the civil press were sent. And by the Synod it was indicated the need to have these textbooks at Slavic-and-Russian schools that pupils studied to read not only according to books of the church press, but also according to books of the civil press. Only competent people whom was among clergy much (see primech could read government decrees. 3). Except alphabets also books of moralizing contents as got to schools, for example, "Razsuzhdeniya about marriages of devout persons with inoverny", "Charitable works of Saint Basil the Great" in two books, "Macarius of Egypt's Word", etc., directing which the diocese pursued the aim not only to diversify training in reading, but also to bring up in the spirit of Christian dogma. From teachers took even a subscription that they have to train children ". to reading, singing and the letter and besides would teach them and to decency in what and to oblige them." and ".chto in a case and the self-slightest omission it will therefore be collected from them on severity of laws." 12, 13. According to a consistory clearly that also catechisms and musical collections ("Symphonies on the psalter", "Symphonies on the Scripture", as "Irmologi" acted as textbooks and grants and

Part 14, 15

other) .

Whether some general instruction was given how to conduct teaching at schools to teachers, from affairs of the Tobolsk consistory it is not visible. But at the researcher I. Ksenofontov it is possible to find the following data on a training order in these schools. At Rafaylovsky Russian school, study continued from 6 o'clock in the morning to 8 o'clock in the evening with two hour breaks for lunch and a dinner. At the Tobolsk hierarchal school and the Tobolsk Znamensky Monastery till a lunch uche-

nicknames learned to read according to books, and after a lunch — to sing "on a note". Besides, pupils were serially appointed (at schools at monasteries — daily) for reading and singing on a choir in church during the church service. Whether so it, is hard to say now, perhaps, Ksenofontov used affairs of archive which by present time were

utracheny16.

The priests trained in the diploma or the former seminarists sent to orders especially for teaching at spiritual schools (as a rule, on one teacher on school) were teachers of Slavic-and-Russian schools. But at some schools of one teacher it turned out a little and therefore defined the second (see primech. 13). Having collected from various sources of data on teachers of Slavic-and-Russian schools, one may say, that almost all of them were representatives of clergy, in the same cases when among priests there were no competent people, then competent people from other estates edified. Teachers annually submitted to spiritual boards official reports about pupils in whom it was specified how many to each pupil of years when he was admitted to school what knowledge he at receipt has and for what reason and when someone from pupils left school. Spiritual boards submitted the same official reports to the metropolitan.

In affairs of the Tobolsk spiritual consistory affairs in which the archbishop Varlaam directly writes that in many arrivals of a church service are conducted incorrectly repeatedly came across, priests are badly trained in the diploma, and therefore it is necessary to send all illiterate priests and clergymen to the Russian schools for training. To watch it it was imputed a duty to customers. In November, 1779

years from the Bishop of Tobolsk and the Siberian Varlaam the sacristan of the Tobolsk Sofia Assumption Cathedral Mikhail Karpinsky for check of these schools by orders was sent (Tyumen, Krasnoslobodsky, Irbit, Turin, Verkhoturye, Ekaterinburg,

Dalmatovsky, Chelyabinsk and Rafay-lovsky): as the training order, what progress of pupils in training is conducted. And if it turns out that among these pupils is already studied, then "to send those in seminary". It was also ordered to watch clergymen — whether "they are skillful in reading and singing and estl which of them will be not able, to send them in those founded schools for urgent time for training" 17. Mikhail Karpinsky at the same time had to distribute on the Russian schools church knigi18. In December, 1779 he submitted the first official report to the bishop in whom it was said that among the examined pupils at the Russian schools ". any absolutely obuchivshagosya did not appear and those are not enough, and protchy on houses from the builder are dismissed.". Here in the official report it was said that teachers also it is bad to write and sing umeli19. Pupils only in Krasnoslobodskom (10 people — from 10 to 15 years), in Irbit (8 people — from 9 to 14 years) and in Tyumen orders (8 people — from 7 to 13 years) — all the 26th persons were chosen from all orders. These children were sent for continuation of study to Tobolsk semina-riyu20. As is well-known from affairs of the Tobolsk archive, many priests did not send the children to the Russian schools. In 1779 for clarification of these circumstances the priest gradotobolsky was sent to Kondinsky and Demyansky orders

Church of the Resurrection Fedor Alex -

21

ev. In the Kondinsky order the archimandrite Alexander said that for the Russian

they have school no teacher and ". to choose

22

not is whom.".

As it is specified by some researchers of the 19th century, in Slavic-and-Russian schools children from 5 to 10 let23 were accepted, but we revealed very interesting aspect in this plan. The sheet presented to the Tobolsk spiritual consistory from the Omsk spiritual board indicates very various age of pupils of the Omsk Russian school: from 7 to 37 years. In total pupils at this school there were 46 people 24. Many priests and clergymen tried to train the children in the Russian diploma, but, as a rule, such children either were badly trained, or remained untrained at all. At least, there were several reasons for that: 1) lack of free time at many priests and clergymen for training of the children in the diploma; 2) absence of books for training; 3) low degree of literacy of parents (figures by some orders of the Tobolsk diocese which confirm literacy of priests and clergymen, for example, are given in Ksenofontov's research: from 177 people in the Chelyabinsk order only 20 were able to read, write and sing "on a note", from them arithmeticians knew the first part only two persons);

4) impossibility to find good teachers and a lack for this purpose of means;
5) unwillingness of some parents in general to train the children in the diploma.

Children of some orders were ranked as the Russian schools in distant monasteries that was not convenient to their parents at all. So, in one of affairs of the Tobolsk archive the priests of the Yalutorovsk order informed the bishop Var-laam that in Rafaylovsky Trinity Monastery at school which, though

functions, to train children extremely inconveniently. Various reasons were specified in the report: it is difficult to find the apartment for children as in many apartments live till 10-15 people and apartments are expensive; products and clothes are also expensive; teachers in the monastery raised from parents money for textbooks, "and if who will not begin to give, torment fathers to bring the children in chains moreover which fathers will stitch for term, collect a penalty on 25 kopeks in a day and who two, or three will stitch days, twice, and in three in a day collect and if who will not want to give, also in chains of fathers exhaust.". Further offenses which were repaired by the teacher from the Rafay-lovsky monastery were described: "and from the teacher in the doctrine any kind to success - the weakest doctrine and it by our Yalutorovsk order with the wife is expected and with a rasylshchik goes, both is extorted by supplies, and obor.". Priests and clergymen asked to transfer their children to Kurgan for training and especially pointed to distance range from Rafaylov monastyrya25. Naturally, the monastery began to protect itself from slanders. In an explanation for the bishop Varlaam, the treasurer of the monastery celibate priest Troady wrote that apartments in Rafaylov are enough for pupils, from them many even remain empty and are not so expensive as it is specified by parents, food prices — as well as everywhere, etc. After persistent trial in this case tale-bearers had enough under fear of a penalty to write denunciations, and children are told to be presented to the Rafaylovsky monastery nemed-

26 TT

lenno. But, despite this prohibition, complaints from parents to the Russian school at the Rafaylovsky monastery nevertheless arrived. So, the deacon of the Prokopyevsk church of the village Korkinsky of the Yalutorovsk order Yakov Kise -

the lion asked to transfer his children to other Russian school as the teacher from the Ra-faylovsky monastery took from it

bribes for training of the son in shkole27, 28. There were cases of escapes of pupils from schools owing to improper treatment with them of teachers and even suicide cases. They were frequent everything in the same

Rafaylovsk monastyre29, 30.

It is necessary to tell that the purpose with which Slavic-and-Russian schools were established was fully not reached. Graduated from the Russian schools there were few pupils, but, despite all difficulties of training, graduates of Slavic-and-Russian schools nevertheless filled up the competent population of Russia. Many of them either were not ready at all, or were insufficiently prepared for receipt in Latin schools or in the Tobolsk seminary. For that period it was only to all Siberia. Some pupils had to be trained in Tobolsk within a year again in all that they learned at the Russian schools for many years. Others, not trained at all, the diocesan administration sent in secular team. The majority was defined on the lowest church positions, but, despite this, at churches many vacant positions continued to be left without replacement. In the eighties the XVIII century in the Tobolsk diocese was up to 425 vacant svyashchennosluzhitelsky

31

and tserkovnosluzhitelsky places. Gradually Slavic-and-Russian schools began to be transformed to parish. This process began in Western Siberia at the end of XVIII veka32.

About 1728 Latin was entered into the curriculum of the Tobolsk hierarchal school and, thus, from Slavic-and-Russian the school turned into the slavyano-Latin. In 1743 the seminary in which prepo-was founded

giving was conducted in Latin. As the Tobolsk seminary could not accept the bigger number of pupils owing to narrowness of seminar rooms, was decided to create Latin schools at monasteries and in church orders (in district church boards). The beginning of establishment of Latin schools belongs to 1759. In total from 1759 for 1767 in Western Siberia 15 Latin schools (in Krasnoyarsk, Barnaul, Troitsk, Verkhoturye, Tyumen, Yekaterinburg, Dalmatov, Rafaylov, Tara, Tomsk, Samarov, Ishim, Turinsk, Chelyabinsk, Krasnoslobodsk) 33 were open. As well as in Slavic-and-Russian schools, in Latin children of the priests and clergymen who are already trained in the slavyano-Russian diploma generally arrived. The age of pupils fluctuated from 10 to 15 years. Latin schools, as well as Russians, existed at the expense of clergy, and a salary paid teachers a miscellaneous, depending on opportunities of local clergy. Many teachers combined obligations for school with duties of the parson or clergyman. Schools were under supervision of spiritual customers.

Custom Latin schools consisted of four lowest classes of seminary: headlights, infima, grammars and sintaksi-we. Upon termination of the doctrine in a syntaxeme the pupils had to come to a piitika class in seminary. As textbooks used elementar and the Latin grammar of Emmanuil Alvar printed at the time for the Polish schools, and which then passed into Slavic-and-Russian. On elementaryu pupils of a headlight learned to read and write in Latin. Studying Alvar began with an infima. In an infima initial rules of Latin grammar were studied. The textbook Emmanuila by Alvar was edge -

is not difficult by

for understanding not only beginners to study Latin, but even for enough acquaintances with it. But, in spite of the fact that pupils with huge work mastered this textbook, it enjoyed wide popularity and respect in seminaries. In a grammatical class grammatical rules and the main syntactic were studied. In a syntaxeme — studying grammar with syntax came to an end. In 1763 the Tobolsk metropolitan Pavel Konyuskevich disposed to enter at Latin schools training

34

to simple musical irmologny singing.

But the education level at these schools left much to be desired. There were several reasons: 1) lack of textbooks (elementariyev and alvar); 2) oversight behind training (often customers did not learn Latin therefore could not carry out the duties with skill); 3) a lack of time at teachers (combination of a teacher's position with a position in arrival demanded traveling sometimes by the remote parts of arrival), and even just careless relation (for example, alcoholism); 4) many priests and clergymen on remoteness of the residence from Latin schools were weighed upon keeping of the children on apartments. In local archive it is dealt on a donosheniye of the Tobolsk bishop Varlaam about definition of custom Latin schools for 1769 in which he reports to the Holy Synod on a lack of the funds allocated for seminary and specifies that, besides seminary, "in places of school of la-tinskiya, different in the cities of the Tobolsk diocese, are got and children study at a fatherly money number hundred fifty nine people, but only from them any advantage through nine years is invisible". On the maintenance of schools (on firewood, candles,

paper, repair of school) there were not enough means. Varlaam wrote in a donosheniye to the Synod that "on local climate it is not possible to do without heating of schools in any way, such sum is very not enough", and "many sacred and clergymen at churches serve in very remote and such desert places, as bread will never be born" 35. From all Latin schools of the Tobolsk diocese, pupils only from seven came to seminary: Ekaterinburg, Dalmatov-sky, Rafaylovsky, Tarsky, Troitsk, Tomsk, Barnaul. From the others to a half of 1767 any person did not arrive. And the number come to seminary was insignificant: only 54 persons came to the period since 1763 to a half of 1767. From them 22 — in a grammar class, and 16 — in a syntaxeme class. The others — in a headlight and an infima. But, despite receipt, many of them nevertheless appeared incapable to continue training in seminarii36.

In 1769 Varlaam suggested the Synod to put on seminary "happy contents" and to translate there pupils of Latin schools, and to close schools then parents "the children from the school doctrine as nowadays behind the registered inconveniences and scarcity seminar, will not cover, but with bigger hunting also to present to seminary have" 37. Varlaam was not the first who introduced the ideas of closing of Latin schools in the Tobolsk diocese. In 1767 the metropolitan Pavel ordered to close custom Latin schools, and instead of them to found Russians. The reasons of closing were specified the same. And though at Pavel the order about abolition of Latin schools took place, not in all orders it was carried out. In 1769 not abolished were schools in Tu -

a rinska, in Krasnoslobodsk, in Dalmato-va, in Yekaterinburg, in Rafaylov, in Tomsk, in Krasnoyarske38. The decree came from the Synod to Varlaam's donosheniye that there are no times from Latin schools in the Tobolsk diocese any sense, to abolish Latin schools, and to send teachers and pupils "to His Most Reverend Eminence. for consideration" to send also all Latin books which were at schools.

In the decree it was also announced penalties for concealment of children from seminary if the guilt is proved: from archpriests on 2 rub, from priests on 1 rub 50 kopeks, from deacons on 1 rub, from sextons and sextons on 50 kopeks from the person for kazh-

39

dy month.

The Tobolsk consistory, carrying out the decree of the Synod, also defined the houses bought for premises of Latin schools to sell, and to send the money gained from their sale to Tobolsk to the maintenance of seminary. In some boards and arrived, but there were also statements in which it was said that schools were located in own houses of teachers, in monastic cells, in given the plant from office of the main thing -

40

sky board state house, etc.

It is impossible to claim, however, that the Tobolsk spiritual consistory completely departed from practice of establishment of Latin schools. In local archive there is a business from which follows that at the request of priests and clergymen of the Rafaylovsky order the Latin school in Ra-faylovskom by Troitsk monastyre41 was again founded. At the beginning of 1782 the abbot Margarit appointed some pupils of the Russian school to receipt in the Tobolsk seminary for learning Latin. But fathers considered sending the children to seminary unprofitable for themselves. Arguments were the same: remoteness of the residence from Tobolsk,

difficulty of bringing of supplies to the children. They asked or to place children them "on provisions seminar, including a dress and footwear, or "to order to found on our money and Latin school though to a syntaxeme in the Ra-faylovsky monastery and to award for this purpose with the reliable teacher having supplied it with books, required to training of our children". From themselves they undertook to pay the teacher a salary for training in a headlight and an infima in 30 rub a year, and for training in grammar and a syntaxeme promised to increase the sum. In total under

42
78 people signed by a donosheniye.

Varlaam did not hurry with the decision. At first the application got for consideration to the rector of the Tobolsk seminary Ilya who counted opening of Latin school in Rafaylov without advantage for the doctrine. But, despite his opinion, Varlaam nevertheless disposed to found school on a money of priests and clergymen, determined by the teacher at school of the treasurer Rafaylov of the monastery of the celibate priest Troadiya and ordered to submit about progress of pupils sheets each half a year. Thus, the Latin school began to function since March 15, 1782 goda43 again. In November of the same year at Latin school 25 people from 11 to 15 years were registered.

The purpose with which Latin schools were established was not completely reached: most of pupils remained poorly prepared for receipt in seminary and for definition to prichetnichesky positions owing to what many vacancies in churches remained without replacement.

In 1743 in Tobolsk according to even to the existing "Spiritual regulations" the decree of the Synod formed theological seminary which originally was located in the Hierarchal house on the Sofia yard. But seminary

began to function only by 1747. By the end of century we already find the building of the Tobolsk seminary built in Znamensky monasty-re44. The author of article does not take the responsibility to claim with a big accuracy of reliability about time of the translation of the building of seminary for the lower posad of the city where the Tobolsk Znamensky Monastery was located. The statement of some researchers that the seminary was transferred to Znamensky Monastery in 1770 by the archbishop Varlaam, was not confirmed yet

45

archival documents.

The initiative of creation of seminary belongs to the Tobolsk and Siberian metropolitan Anthony II (Narozh-nitsky) who actually kept seminary at own expense and on the penal money raised from the guilty priests and clergymen. It offered many books in favor of a seminar bib-

46

liotek. From archival documents for 1750-1752 it is visible that the Tobolsk seminary existed at the expense of income of the diocese. The Tobolsk metropolitans repeatedly complained of insufficiency of means of the diocese according to contents

47

spiritual schools and even suggested to close some schools. But the government offered other exit from a difficult situation. It was decided to find money for the maintenance of seminaries from income of monasteries and adherents of Old Belief. But, obviously, such step did not solve a problem. The Tobolsk seminary after laicisation of church lands defined in 1764 "a regular salary" in 490 rub 16 kopeks "with chetyyu". This money catastrophically was not enough. Apparently from further affairs of the Tobolsk spiritual consistory, at the end of the 18th century the seminary contained on the state money. With ok -

tyabrya 1779 the State board of economy ordered to the Tobolsk provincial office to allocate annually for seminary two thousand rub -

48
pour

>. In 1799 already allocated four thousand rubles for seminary: on -

49

zhdy half-year on two thousand. From this money went for payment of a salary to teachers from 700 rubles a year in the eighties of the 18th century up to 1288 rubles in 1800. The sheet of the Tobolsk spiritual consistory for 1780 gives us the following deal of expenses on a salary to teachers in a year:

Rector............................ 100 rubles

Prefect...........................100 & #34;

Teacher of a rhetorical class........70 & #34;

Teacher of a piitichesky class.........50 & #34;

Teacher of a syntactic class......50 & #34;

Teacher Katekhizisa..................40 & #34;

Teacher of grammar..................40 & #34;

Teacher of Tatar............ 40 & #34;

Teacher of an infima......................40 & #34;

Teacher of arithmetics..................30 & #34;

Teacher of a headlight........................30 & #34;

Teacher of an informatoriya................25 & #34;

Teacher of Russian.............. 20 & #34;

Besides the salary was paid to the person conducting expenses of seminary and at it — to the scribe, two cooks and two storozham50. Also in item of expenditure there was point on keeping of students and pupils of seminary, those who were not might contain by parents, or those who did not may support themselves.

The seminary dressed, put and fed students. About 29 rub according to the sheet for 1800 were the share of one pupil of seminary only on clothes in a year. According to sheets on state contents there was more than a half of pupils of seminary: for 1799 — 124 of 205; for 1800 — 134 of 21951.

Control of seminary was exercised of the rector under direct supervision of the metropolitan. At the end

The 18th century archimandrites of the Tobolsk Znamensky Monastery in which buildings the seminary was located were rectors of seminary usually. At the same time the rector fulfilled duties of the teacher of divinity. Almost all rectors were graduates of Kiyevo-Mogilyansky academy, and at the end of the century — Aleksandro-Nevsky main seminarii52. The rector was followed by the prefect — a position, obviously, corresponding in modern understanding of a position of the vice rector for educational and educational work, or the head teacher. The teacher of a class of philosophy (by an example of other seminaries) 53 became him. In March, 1799 according to the Government decree in the Tobolsk seminary the seminar board was founded and "with a church chinopokloneniye it is consecrated". The rector, the prefect and the teacher of a rhetorical class entered it. The seminar board had to take the oath. To it the right to address directly with written requests in the Synod was granted to avoid excessive correspondences with a consistory. Members of seminar board had to gather for meetings in freedoms -

54

Nov from classes time.

Persons of a ministry (pets of the Ukrainian spiritual schools, Kiev academy, Aleksandro-Nevsky main seminary, Tobolsk seminary) were teachers in the Tobolsk seminary. And if originally it were natives of Little Russia behind whom the metropolitan Anthony II (Narozhnitsky) sent the Yenisei archimandrite Dimitrii Smelovsky to Chernihiv and Kiev, then to the end of the century, in 1799, all teachers were — the Great Russian nation. As teachers in elementary grades (headlight, an infima, grammar and a syntaxeme) often used students of seminary from graduation classes (philosophies and divinity) 55, 56.

In W

Jonas Joshua David
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