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Category: History

Early English passionals and continental tradition.

e. V. Denisova


Work is presented by department of general history of the St. Petersburg institute of history of RAS.

The research supervisor - the candidate of historical sciences, associate professor V.I. Mazhuga

In the present article it is shown how Anglo-Saxon authors turned the simple funeral lists of Saint martyrs and devotees of Christian church read during the church service, in collections of lives of the remembered Saints which became then an important element of a church sermon. Also the factor of development of religious literature, exclusively early for Western Europe, in national language is revealed.

The author of the article demonstrates how Anglo-Saxon authors turned simple commemoration lists of holy martyrs and confessors of the Christian church into collected lives of commemorated saints, which

then became an important element of the Church preaching. Also a factor of development of religious literature in the national language, which was exceptionally early for Western Europe, is revealed.

In the conditions of Christianization of the German kingdoms of Britain where there was no Romance Christian population with its rich written culture, it was necessary to develop new ways of introduction of fundamentals of christian teaching in consciousness of recent pagans. Living examples of Christian Saints with which the belief in miracles and the greatest need for that those were made was connected could be best of all apprehended by those who gathered in churches. So, simple remembrance of ancient Saints according to the long obligatory list, a so-called passional, in Anglo-Saxon church for the first time turned into an element of an intelligible sermon and even became a basis of development of a sermon in general which was originally concentrated on interpretation of the Bible. Those lectures which could become the management in the Christian's life, as well as in judgment of fundamentals of christian teaching were taken from the text of the Bible. For growth of influence of church in lands of Anglo-Saxons canonization of local Saints which in some cases was preparing gradually was of particular importance. The example of the Saints making miracles immediately in the native land forced to perceive the feats of ancient Saints which made the most important experience of Christian church with live feeling.

Thus as special type of prayer books, the passionals complemented with names of local Saints gained absolutely new development in England that affected also the general Western European tradition of liturgical commemoration of Saints. About a creative contribution to it of Anglo-Saxon authors the speech in the present article will also go.

The outstanding Anglo-Saxon writer whose works are the share generally of the first third of the 8th century of Bède Dostopotchtenny (673-735) made the lane -

a vy "historical" or "narrative" passional in Europe where besides the indication of a name of the Saint, the place and date of martyrdom (death) 1 short history of this Saint is stated. Acts of martyrs and stories church pisateley2 were sources for such passionals. Bède laid thereby the foundation for the whole tradition which gained development in the following, the IX century both on the continent, and in England. Records of the Trouble about regional (Celtic and Anglo-Saxon) Saints were entered also into continental passionals, having expanded, thus, a circle of Saints obshcheevropeyskikh3. Especially important source for studying a cult of sacred and liturgical traditions in Anglo-Saxon England is the so-called "Old English passional" made in the second half of the 9th century 4

It is the earliest remained "historical" or "narrative" passional in Anglo-Saxon language and in general one of the most ancient monuments Anglo-Saxon prozy5. It includes a bigger number of national Saints, and its contents allows to think of development of a liturgical cycle for more general public. We will also concentrate on it further the main attention, but before we will try to depict in general tradition of early medieval passionals.

We mean the list of Saints (both martyrs, and confessors) made according to a calendar order of their holidays by the word "passional". Since early Christianity when the tradition appeared to remember on certain days of martyrs to which Saint confessors were added each local Church (Roman, Carthago, etc.) made an own passional. Gradually these local lists were enriched with the names borrowed at

next Churches. When the era of early Christian martyrs came to the end, names of those who proved sanctity of life and in particular practice of asceticism began to be entered in lists of the remembered Saints. Eventually on the basis of local passionals began to make broader compilations, including in them time of loan of references. The most known of similar monuments is so-called "Iyeronimov of Martirolog" or Pseudo-Jerome's Passional (Mayugo^shsh N1egopush1apish) 6.

This early passional was made in Italy in the second half the 5th century and long time was mistakenly attributed to Evsevy Jerome (mind. 420). Records in it, with rare exception, are extremely laconic and contain only a name, the place and date of any given martyrdom svyatogo7. "Iyeronimov a passional" belongs to the works fundamental for tradition of Latin narrative passionals and provided the statement of the western cult of Saints as takovogo8. The early history of the text "Iyeronimov of Martirologa" can be opened only indirectly, all remained his lists go back to an archetype which could arise about 600 g in east Gallia (Luxey or AJ Auxerre) 9.

There is a lot of documentary dock - zatelstvo of liturgical use early medieval martirologov10. The following letter of dad Grigory Veliky belongs to the earliest documents out of which it is possible to bring indirect evidence about liturgical application of passionals (mind. 604) to the patriarch Alexandria:

"We collected names of almost all martyrs in one volume, having distributed their martyrdom on certain days, and for honoring them we daily make a mass. It is not specified in this book, however, as who underwent martyrdom, but are only named, the place and day of martyrdom. Why it turns out that in

separate days as I told, many of different lands admit venchanny martyrdom and dioceses" 11.

Researchers try to coordinate the message of dad Grigory Veliky to early history of "Jerome's Passional" 12. X. Akhe-lis in the work "Passionals, their history and their world" from Grigory's words makes the conclusion: "... the passional belonged to liturgical books of the Roman church. Its daily fragments were said every day on a mass" 13. B. de Geffie finds, however, this interpretation excessively courageous and objects Akhelis: "It as we believe to force the letter of dad to speak about bigger, than it contains in fact" 14. Anyway, use of passionals at commemoration of Saints is not subject to doubt during commission of a mass in Gallia 8th century. In the liturgical rank accepted then the following is told literally:

"After that the deacon, having accepted a bowl in the right part of an altar, lifts it in the hands and announces the days of remembrance of Saints falling on this most current week with such words: the coming holiday - the day of remembrance of Saint Maria, either the confessor, or other Saint what drops out in compliance the Passional. And all answer: "We thank the Lord"" 15.

At some difference from the given Ordo XVII of the Roman liturgical rank, the XIII canon of the Synod 747 Cloveschoe with all definiteness demonstrates similar practice in Anglo-Saxon church of that time:

"A also that around all year the days of remembrance of Saints in the same day, according to a passional of the same Church Roman, were honored the reading psalms or a chant ought to them" 16.

Under the passional of the Roman Church mentioned here follows, apparently,

to mean one of editions of "Jerome's Passional" 17.

De Geffie called already confirms regularity of application of passionals for departure of a mass with references to a number of continental sources of the early Middle Ages (till 11th century) 18. The seventh canon of church statutes of unknown origin which 679 Libraries of a kapitul contain the code in St. Gallen (3rd quarter of the 9th century) is especially expressive in this regard:

"... missala, a passional and the guide to calculation of Easter, and besides and a book of sermons as without them as it is represented, it is impossible to undertake departure of sacred service" 19.

As it was already noted, the first narrative or "historical" passional was made by the Trouble Venerable. The fact of writing by the Trouble of a passional of narrative type is testified both by the Trouble, and other authors. In the inventory of own works made by it which is included in "Church history of the people of angl", we read:

"A passional about holidays of Saint martyrs in which I diligently tried to state everything that I could find not only about in what day, but also about what type of fight and at what judge they won against the distant world" 20.

About The Trouble passional we learn also from prefaces to later narrative passionals of continental origin. So, in the preface to Adon Vyennsky's Passional (mind. apprx. 875 g) the instruction on the fact that Lionskiy21 expanded with Flore the text of the Trouble contains:

". To a passional which diligence venerable Flora, attached to work of mister Beda, increased" 22.

In more detail Seong-Zhermengsky reports to Ouse-ard about the nature of the Passional of the Trouble, its processing Flory Lyons and the future, (mind. apprx. 875) in the

versions of a passional with dedication to Karl Lysy:

"Besides, I was induced to this business by both pious, though short lists, & lt; сделанными> priests Jerome and Beda, from which the first, caring for brevity, the second, leaving untouched very many days of the Calendar, lowered as it appears, many things, necessary for this work. Echoing which [lists], I, however, decided to follow in this case already on wider way Flora, the memorable husband, in particular in what is stated in his second book. Because there a lot of things that it lowered in the first book, it corrected and added" 23.

These certificates allow to track at least one line in tradition of passionals: Pseudo-Jerome - Bède - Flore - Adon - Uzuard. In modern researches this line is considered fundamental for formation of a modern Roman Passional (MaLugo^shsh Yaoshapish) 24.

Meanwhile the Trouble Passional in its initial author's version is not reconstructed reliable obrazom25 so far. Researchers contain 21 lists of the Passional Bedy26, but all of them are full of interpolation. The greatest approach to the initial version was reached, perhaps, by A. Kanten in the work "Historical Passionals" 27. By thorough comparison of manuscripts he managed build with big reliability 114 records of narrative character to the original text Bedy28. As for origin of the mentioned 21 manuscripts, is evident that any of them does not belong to island oblasti29.

Among records of historical character in the Passional of the Trouble there are three records about regional Saints - St. Alban, the British martyr from the Roman colonists of the end of the 3rd century 30, two St. Evaldakh (He-valdakh) and St. Eteltrite, and three settlements -

summer are actually Anglo-Saxon Saints. Except 114 detailed records, in the Passional of the Trouble there is a number of short mentions of Saints. The sources used by the Trouble, according to Kanten, can be subdivided into three kategorii31. First, it is actually hagiographical sources number about fifty: lives (vitae), history of martyrdom (passiones), history of miracles (miracula) different svyatykh32. Further, it compositions of ecclesiastical writers, such as Evsevy Kesariysky, St. Jerome, Augustine, Grigory of Velikiy33 and also "The book by pontiffs" (Liber Pontificalis) from where names of Saint fathers were borrowed. And at last, an important source, especially for short, not narrative mentions of Saints, the Passional of Iyeronima34 served. It is necessary to notice what uses Bède for drawing up a passional and the own works - "Church history", "Chronicle" 35 and "St. Felix Nolan-sky's life" 36. From "Church History" records about four regional Saints - St. Alban, St. Etelt-rite37 and about two St. Hevaldakh (the English priests missionaries killed by pagans in Friziya) 38 were borrowed.

It is necessary to tell that Bède contributed significantly to modern to him agiografiyu39. Finishing "Church history of the people of angl" the short story about the life, writes Bède about the lives made by it which calls "stories of Saints" 40. Let's try to define once again a task which set for himself Bède when writing the passional. Let's notice that extensive texts of lives of ancient and new Saints were available only to educated monks. On the other hand, during church services the names of Saints which were contained in traditional passionals were remembered by a tongue twister. For the people who were coming to monastic church, but did not receive thorough church education, such remembrance of Saints it is possible to think, little meant.

Obviously, Bède decided to enrich service with moralizing stories about Saints, and it was designed as for monks and clergymen with less high level of education it is, so, possible, and on laymen: it is possible that Latin records of a passional during the church service were reproduced, at least partially, in Anglo-Saxon language.

The shortest comparison of two "island" passionals allows to claim that there is no opportunity to draw a straight line from the Trouble Passional to the "Old English" passional", but at the same time it is possible to see a certain influence of the first on vtoroy41. The essential distinctions affecting structure of monuments are evident already at the first approach to these monuments. So, unlike Pseudo-Jerome's Passional, commemoration of Saints in which begin since December 25, the Passional of the Trouble begins on January 1, on the contrary, "The Old English passional" follows the chronological order established by Pseudo-Jerome. Narrative parts in "An Old English passional" are more extensive, than in the Trouble passional. At the same time, as Kanten and Kottsor noted, the newest publisher of an Anglo-Saxon monument, both passionals resolutely differ from the most ancient passional of Pseudo-Jerome in lack of records for considerable number dney42.

Emergence of "An Old English passional" cannot be considered out of the all-European context. On the continent in the 9th century several prominent authors worked on creation of new versions of a passional, and they, undoubtedly, had any given impact on the author of "An Old English passional", but it is impossible to tell about one of passionals of continental origin known to us that it served as direct model for an Anglo-Saxon monument. In many meanings the Anglo-Saxon monument is original and has no modern analogs. The author himself, most likely, without intermediaries, addressed

to many important sources, besides the first of passionals known to us in national language represented also the first attempt to inform the people who are not knowing Latin, extensive layer of hagiographical information.

"The Old English passional" in that form in which it reached us represents a collection from 238 memorable records located according to liturgical year. It is necessary to notice that "Passional" remained not in a full look; five manuscripts which reached us contain more or less considerable lacunas (in all from them there is no majority estimated February and a considerable part of December records). Records can vary on length from several lines to several pages. Sometimes for the same day it is necessary on two three Saints and more so at times record is devoted not to the certain Saint, but group of Saints.

Besides lives of Saints, "The Old English passional" contains twenty seven short readings on biblical themes, from the New and Old Testament, as a rule, connected with the major religious prazdnikami43. Actually, it also begins with the similar record devoted to Christmas on December 25. 7 records (from March 18 to March 24) are devoted to seven days of Creation. Sometimes for the same day both the short bible reading, and life of the Saint have.

The vast majority of records treats universal Saints (apostles, early Christian martyrs and confessors of different time), but the Passional contains also 23 records devoted to Saints regional whereas the Passional of the Trouble contained only single records. We carry to number of the local Saints who are marked out in "An Old English passional" sacred Anglo-Saxon and Irish and also Augustine Kenterberiysky (mind. On May 26 604 g), the head of the mission sent to Britain by dad Grigory Veliky. For the vast majority

records about local Saints "Church history of the people of angl" of the Trouble Venerable is a source. These Saints (pious bishops, monks and abbesses) generally are among confessors and religious devotees, among them also the St. Eteltrita who is most glorified Anglo-Saxon svyataya44 acts. An exception, perhaps, is only St. Oswald belonging to specific regional type of the king-martyr.

Undoubtedly, in comparison with the Trouble Passional, "The Old English passional" was a further step in religious education of Anglo-Saxons. The cult of Saints, obviously, found the increasing attractiveness, and, thus, within the ordinary church service it was possible to develop religious education of parishioners around stories about feats of Saints and miracles made by them. The lives included in the Passional complemented with the most live material the sermon constructed on ancient gomiliya. Certainly, at the same time it was necessary to reduce resolutely number of the remembered Saints, as it was made - as in "An Old English passional", and already in the Trouble Passional: in them it is listed much less, than in Pseudo-Jerome's Passional. At the same time comparison of the Passional of the Trouble and "Old English passional" shows success of efforts of Anglo-Saxon church on inclusion of spontaneously developed cults of local Saints in a liturgical canon.

Thanks to systematic efforts of scientists, in particular J.M. of Crossa45, the vast majority of sources of "An Old English passional" is so far revealed and where it is not possible to call the real source, the reasoned assumptions of type of the used source are stated. Sources which it was succeeded to define (exclusively Latin texts) have both island, and continental origin. The originator of "Passional" on -

15 1

zyvat only several of the sources. He attributes the composition of Adom-nana, the abbot Jonah used by it in 679-707 under the name "About the Holy Sites" (Bie 1oye1v 8apsy8) to the Saint Arkulfu, the franksky bishop who lived about nine months in Jerusalem; Adomnan says that he wrote down the composition according to Arkulf. Further, the Anglo-Saxon compiler mentions the treatise Aldhel-ma "Virginity" (Bie U1g§tya1e) who he used in both existing versions - poetic and prosaic. Are mentioned by name also Bede and Grigory Veliky. Besides the above-mentioned sources the researchers revealed acquaintance (from the first or second hands) with such Greek and Latin authors as Afanasy (in Evagrius's translation), Augustine, Tsezary Arelatsky, Dionysius Ekzeget, Evkhery, Felix, Grigory Tursky, Isidor, Jerome, Yuli Obsekvent, Liviy46, Orozy, Patrick Dublinsky, Pavel Diakon, Pelagy and Ioann47, Pyotr Hrizolog, Porfiry, Rufin, Stefan Riponsky, Sulpitsy of Sever48. In addition, the originator used about seventy anonymous lives of martyrs and ispovednikov49 and also various liturgical material.

The educational role of "An Old English passional" is undoubted, considering bad knowledge Anglo-Saxons, including their clergy, Latin. "The Old English passional", certainly, served also business of a church sermon. It should be noted extreme simplicity and availability of language of the considered monument. Obviously, records were designed for wide audience of listeners, including people secular.

Activity of the anonymous originator offered the prospect of further development of the sermon in national language which from now on was under construction not in a small measure on lives of Saints. Top of evangelical art in Anglo-Saxon England was creativity of the outstanding Anglo-Saxon scientist and preacher Elfri-

the abbot of the monastery in Eynsgam (apprx. 955 - after 1005). It possesses two collections, known as "Catholic sermons" which were written to them in national language about the period from 990 on 994 g Elfrik especially pointed to liturgical purpose of the work in the Latin preface to the first volume of "Catholic sermons": "We placed forty entries in this book, believing that it can be enough for a year for true if they [records] are read to them entirely by the Lord's attendants in Church" 50.

Collections contain not only is sensible - a niya of texts of the Scripture, but also statement of lives of Saints - and Elfrik especially stipulates importance of hagiographical plots in the Latin preface devoted to the archbishop Kenterberiysky Sigerik: "We placed in this book not only interpretation on the Gospel, descriptions of muchenichestvo or life of Saints for advantage of uneducated people from these people" 51. In 996-997 Elfrik creates the collection under the name "Lives of Saints" which was considered by him as the third part of "Catholic sermons" 52. Biographies of Saints took this collection already main place though its contents remained mixed too. According to Elfrik, he included lives of those Saints who not the people, but monks were esteemed special sluzhbami53, and promoting of stories of these Saints among the people as an instructive example was its purpose.

Even the opinion was expressed that "The Old English passional" served as a direct sample for the collection of "Sacred lives" written by Elfrik 54. The value of "An Old English passional" in this assessment is exaggerated. Not only the circle of sources, but also a manner of their use differ: very often the Elf - Rick alternates fragments from the text of the original own reasonings on the considered subject. Its translations are rather experience of statement of lives together with their interpretation. Elfrik's texts much more

are more extensive and detailed, its language are stated unlike in more detail and more alive.

more poetical and expressive. In the same But, despite all these distinctions, nevertheless

time number of Saints in the collection Elfrika, it is necessary to recognize that "Old English

in comparison with both island Mar- the passional" laid the foundation tra-


of a tirologama, is absolutely small - their of everything the dition which is so brilliantly developed by Elfri-

thirty nine, but stories of Saints lump hundred years later.

* The author expresses the gratitude for the help in work on article of I.O. Galynina who provided the valuable reference books which are absent in domestic public libraries.

1 Similar extremely compressed records are characteristic, for example, for "Iyeronimov of a passional" (see below).
2 Quentin H. Les Martyrologes historiques du Moyen Bge. Études sur la formation du martyrologe romain. Paris, 1908.
3 According to Kanten, the Passional of the Trouble was made shortly before 735 g. Appropriate will be to notice that Bède attached great value of evangelical activity. About Bède as the preacher see: Nenarokova M.R. Dostochtimy Beda - a ritor, an agiograf, the preacher. M, 2003. Page 195248. See texts of sermons of the Trouble: Migne J. P. Patrologiae Latinae cursus completus. V. 94. Paris, 1850. P. 9; 44; 210-249.
4 Das Altenglische Martyrologium. Hrsg. von Gunter Kotzor. Munchen, 1981. Bd. I-II.
5 Researchers emphasize importance of this monument for learning Old English language. Assume that the most ancient manuscripts of "Passional" are written in the Mercian dialect (see: Das Altenglishe Martyrologium, Bd. I, Vorwort, S. xi). They are created still before the Wessex dialect occupied the dominating role in Anglo-Saxon prose. It is sometimes suggested that language of a monument is most of all similar to a dialect of East Anglia. (See: Christine Rauer. The sources of the Old English Martyrology//Anglo-Saxon England. No. 32. Cambridge, 2003. P. 93.) Besides the considered monument on Old English the ninth century only anonymous life of St. Chad, also Mercian origin firmly is dated.
6 Achelis H. Die Martyrologien, ihre Geschichte und ihr Welt. Berlin, 1900; Aigrain R. L’hagiographie. Ses sources, ses méthode, son histoire. Bruxelles, 2000.
7 Hyppolite D. Cinq leçons sur la méthode hagiographique. Bruxelles, 1934. P. 42-43.
8 The Blackwell encyclopedia of Anglo-Saxon England. Ed. by M. Lapidge, J. Blair, S. Keynes, D. Scragg. Oxford; Malden, 1999. P. 303.
9 Levison W. England and the continent in the Eighth Century. Oxford, 1946. P. 141.
10 Das Altenglishe Martyrologium, Bd. I. S. 241-243.
11 Nos autem paene omnium martyrum distinctis per dies singulos passionibus collecta in uno codice nomina habemus atque cotidianis diebus in eorum veneratione missarum solemnia agimus. Non tamen in eodem volumine, quis qualiter sit passus, indicatur, sed tantummodo nomen, locus et dies passionis ponitur. Unde fit, ut multi ex diversis terris atque provinciis per dies, ut praedixi, singulos cognoscantur martyrio coronati (MGH. Epistolae, II. Ed. L.M. Hartmann. Berlin, 1899. P. 29).
12 Gaiffier de B. De l’usage et de la lecture du martyrologe. Temoignages anterieurs au XI sincle. Analecta Bollandiana. 79 (1961). P. 40-59.
13 Achelis H. Die Martyrologien, ihre Geschichte und ihr Welt. (Abhandlungen der Königlichen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen. Philologisch-Historische Klasse. Neue Folge, Band III. Nro. 3.) Berlin, 1900.
14 Gaiffier de B. Op cit. P. 44.
15 Postea quidem accipiens diaconus calicem in dexteram partem altaris, elevans eum in manibus suis, pronuntians natalicia sanctorum in ipsa ebdomata venientia, ita dicendo: Illa feria veniente, natale es sancte Marie, aut confessoris, vel alius sancti, qualis evenit secundum martirilogium. Et respondent omnes: Deo gratias (Ordo XVII. Les ordines Romani du haut moyen Bge, tome III, Spicilegium Sacrum Lovaniense, Etudes et documents, fasc. 24. Ed. Michel Andrieu. Louvain, 1951. P. 183).
16 Itemque ut per gyrum totius anni natalitia sanctorum uno eodemque die, juxta martyrologium ejusdem Romanae Ecclesiae, cum sua sibi convenienti psalmodio seu cantilena venerentur (Councils and

Ecclesiastical documents relating to Great Britain and Ireland. Vol. III. Ed. A.W. Haddan, W. Stubbs. Oxford, 1871. P. 367).

17 Das Altenglische Martyrologium. Bd. 1. P. 235.
18 Gaiffier de B. Op cit. P. 52-54.
19 ... missali, martyrologium et conpotum, nec non et libello predicationis, quoniam sine his fungi sacro officio pleniter nequaquam posse videtur (Zwei Bischofskapitularien der Karolingerzeit. Hrsg. P.W. Finsterwalder//Zeitschrift der Savigny-Stiftung, 45, Kanonistische Abteilung, 14 (1925). S. 379).
20 Martyrologium de nataliciis sanctorum martyrum diebus; in quo omnes, quos inuenire potui, non solum qua die, uerum etiam quo genere certaminis, uel sub quo iudice mundum uicerint, diligenter adnotare studui (Historia ecclesiastica gentis anglorum, V, 24. Bede’s ecclesiastical history of the English people. Ed. By Bertram Colgrave and R.A.B. Mynors. Oxford, 1992. P. 570).
21 Flore Lionsqui, the outstanding erudite of a Carlovingian era (to 835 - apprx. 860-866).
22 ... Martyrologio (quod venerabilis Flori studio in labore domini Bedae accreverat).//The preface to Adon Viyennsky's Passional (mind. apprx. 875)//Migne. PL. Vol. 123. P. 143.
23 Praeterea et venerabilium Hieronimi scilicet ac Bedae presbiterorum piis, quamvis succinctis, super hoc provocabar descriptis, quorum prior brevitati studens, alter vero quam plures Kalendarem dies intactos relinquens, multa inveniuntur huius operas praeterisse necessaria. Quas tamen secutus censui et Flori memorabilis viri latoira iam in eo ipso negotio sequi vestigia, praesertim in secundo eiusdem libro. Ibi enim multa, quae in priore omiserat, et correxit et addidit (Le Martyrologe d’Usuard. Texte et commentaire. Ed. Jacques Dubois. Subsidia Hagiographica, 40. Bruxelles, 1965. P. 144).
24 Aigrain R. Op cit. P. 51-67 - about stories of narrative passionals. P. 91-99 - about Roman


25 Das Altenglische Martyrologium. Bd. I. P. 182.
26 Laistner M. L. W., King H. H. A hand-list of Bede manuscripts. New York, Ithaca, 1943. P. 91-92.
27 Quentin H. Op cit. P. 117-119.
28 Ibid. P. 47-112.
29 Das Altenglische Martyrologium. Bd. I. P. 183.
30 Bède states St. Alban's history in the chapter 7 of the first book of "Church history", without forgetting to mention that in memory of his martyrdom during an era of Christianization of Anglo-Saxons the church where, according to the Trouble, there were various miracles, including healings was built.
31 In more detail about Trouble Passional sources see: Quentin H. Les Martyrologes historiques. P. 56-112.
32 The majority of these anonymous lives is published in Acta Sanctorum and Biblioteca Hagiographica Latina.
33 Everything, according to Kanten, Bède used compositions about twelve ecclesiastical writers.
34 According to Kanten, Bède borrowed also from Pseudo-Jerome four histories from not numerous records of historical character which as he believed, nevertheless were present at this compilation. Quentin H. Les Martyrologes historiques. P. 118.
35 Ed. Mommsen. MGH, Chronica minora, III.
36 Beda. Librum vitae et passionis sancti Felicis confessons//Migne. Patrologia Latina. XCIV. P. 789-798.
37 Eteltrita is mentioned also in "Chronicle" of the Trouble. Mommsen (MGH, Chronica minora, III). P. 315.
38 Beda. HE. V.10.
39 The main hagiographical works of the Trouble are already mentioned "St. Felix's life" (709 g) and "St. Kutbert's life" (721 g).
40 Beda. HE. V.24. P. 568-570.
41 The Blackwell encyclopedia of Anglo-Saxon England. P. 303.
42 In relation to the Trouble passional see: Quentin H. Henry. Les Martyrologes historiques. P. 109. In relation to "the Old English Passional" see: Das Altenglische Martyrologium. Bd. I. P. 242.

> It turns out 43 that it is approximately the one tenth part from the total number of records.

44 Besides Eteltrita, the Old English Passional contains stories about two Anglo-Saxon Saint abbesses: St. Etelburg and St. Hilda, their history, like Eteltrita's history, are borrowed from "Church history of the people of angl" of the Trouble Venerable. In general this monument contains more than fifty names of Saint women, i.e. about one quarter of total number.
45 James E. Cross. On the library of the Old English Martyrologist//Learning and Literature in AngloSaxon England: Studies presented to Peter Clemoes on the Occasion of his Sixty-Fifth Birthday. Ed. M. Lapidge and H. Gneuss. Cambridge, 1985. P. 227-249.
46 It is easy to guess that the compiler was not familiar with compositions Libya directly. The material Libya reached it presumably through Yuli Obsekvent ("The book of omens", Liber prodigiorum), or Patrick Dublinsky ("About signs and omens", De signis et prodigiis), or Oroziya ("Stories against pagans, Historiae adversum paganos"). See: Christine Rauer. The sources of the Old English Martyrology. P. 105.
47 The deacon Pelagy and the subdeacon Ioann - two Roman clergymen of sulfurs. 6th century which translated into Latin the Greek collection of sayings of early Christian hermits of the Middle East, known as "Sayings of Fathers" (Apophtegmata Patrum or Adhortationes Patrum). The translation which received broad circulation in the Latin West, however, was better known under the name Verba Seniorum.
48 Christine Rauer. The sources of the Old English Martyrology. P. 103-104.
49 About zhitiyny material for "An Old English passional" see: Ibid. P. 95.
50 Quadraginta sententias in isto libro posuimus, credentes hoc sufficere posse per annum fidelibus, si integre eis a ministris Dei recitentur in ecclesia (The homilies of the Anglo-Saxon Church. The first part, containing the Sermones Catholici, or Homilies of Aelfric. Vol. I. Ed. by B. Thorpe. London, 1844. Przhfatio. P. 1).
51 Nec solum Evangeliorum tractatus in isto libello exposuimus, verum etiam Sanctorum passiones vel vitas, ad utilitatem idiotarum istius gentis//Ibid.
52 Stories about Saints, as well as in "Catholic sermons", are located according to church year here.
53 Non vulgus, sed coenobitae officiis venerantur//Aelfric’s Lives of Saints. Ed. By W. Skeat. Vol. I. London, 1881. Praefatio. P. 2.
54 Frankis J. Review of Kotzor’s edition (Das Altenglische Martyrologium)//Medium Zh / vum 52 (1983). P. 313-315.
Ella Margrethe Lotte
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