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Military chemist Kramida



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UDC 51 (09)

MILITARY CHEMIST KRAMIDA

V.N. Belomestnykh

Yurga Institute of Technology of TPU, Yurga E-mail: adm@ud.tpu.edu.ru

Told about the last period short, but in own way to bright life of the manager of special laboratory of the Siberian chemical Institute of Technology (nowadays TPU) Konstantin Pavlovich Kramida.

"The enthusiast of chemical defense of the country" - such inscription on a pyramid of a monument of one of graves at the cemetery in Tomsk could read about 70 years ago. Here the 38-year-old valid enthusiast of military and chemical business who was carrying out on himself tests of chemical warfare agents in one of laboratories of the chemical building of the Siberian chemical Institute of Technology was buried in a coffin with a window (SHTI, present TPU).

According to the family legend the appearance of Greeks of Kramida in Russia is connected with construction of palaces by Catherine II's favourite lightest prince field marshal Potemkin: as if then the architect Kramida was invited to Ukraine from Greece and he was granted one of small villages [1]. K.P. Kramida was born on September 21, 1895 in Chisinau the Bessarabia province in noble family of the regular officer and the teacher. The boy decided to go in the footsteps of the father: at first studied in the Odessa military school (ended in 1912), then in Mikhaylovsk Artillery school in Moscow. Due to the beginning of war with Germany in 1914 the accelerated release of cadets took place and K.P. Kramida goes to the front. Konstantin Pavlovich specifies in the autobiography [2]: "... During war it was twice poisoned with gases and it is contused in the head". Further military education: in 1917 ended 6-month courses of pilots observers, and in 1923 - short courses of the higher chemical school. Desire about -

to dolzhit education in Military technical academy it appeared in dissonance with health, to academy it was not admitted and ". as command did not find possible leaving from a position, improved skills by delivery of tests external..." - Konstantin Pavlovich writes about himself [2].

In the February revolution of 1917 the officer K.P. Kramida is elected the member of the Petrograd Council of working, country and soldier's deputies. Met the October revolution by the elective commander of the battery and became the member of the commission on formation of the Red Army. During civil war was involved in combat operations as a part of one of parts of RKKA against Denikin, Wrangel, Makhno, in elimination of mutinies in the North Caucasus and in the Tambov province. Did not avoid K.P. Kramid and short-term capture by colleagues of "father" Makhno (". it was undressed and beaten..." [2]). In 1919 the left leg was paralyzed at the front (subsequently the mobility of a leg was restored; he and sypny had typhus), as entailed Konstantin Pavlovich's transition to pedagogical activity at first at a political department of the 2nd Cavalry and the 16th cavalry division, and upon termination of civil war in various bodies of TV. Ch.Z. (?, so in the autobiography [2] - the author).

Kramida describes the emergence in Tomsk as follows [2]: "... In 1926 to me it was thanked officially on troops of the Siberian Military District for work on military and chemical

mu to business then I concentrated the activity on studying military chemistry, having finally planned it as the narrow profession. In 1928 I according to the order of the Siberian Military District was affiliated to SIT (Siberian Institute of Technology) on chemical faculty for skills development as the teacher of military chemistry and in 1929 received a 4-month business trip on Glories. (yansky) Sod. (ovy) plant where I performed 2 works (worked at the plant as the shift engineer...".

Manager of special laboratory of the Siberian chemical Institute of Technology K.P. Kramida (1895-1933)

3.09.1929 the dean of chemical faculty professor Ilya Arkadyevich Sokolov presents the application to Board of STI: "The teacher of military chemistry K.P. Kramida during stay on Sloviansk the soda plant collected a big collection of materials on mineral technology and technology of toxic agents. It is desirable to get a collection for STI". The decision is made: to transfer 50 rubles to Sloviansk.

Secondment to STI played a crucial role in private life of Konstantin Pavlovich. On one of student's evenings at the Tomsk university the great dancer with a martial bearing and the student of physical and mathematical faculty Katya Sokolova, the oldest daughter of professor of physics of STI I.A. Sokolov, turned the friend to Wad Dra -

hectare attention. After deliberate visits of university library in days of watches of the young resident of Tomsk (watch in scientific library of students - custom of those years) and readings favourite books of the student ("Sirano de Bergerac", "The Picture of Dorian Gray", etc.), the refusal on the made proposal did not follow and Konstantin Pavlovich entered into professorial family the beloved son-in-law.

In 1930 there was a personal acquaintance of K.P. Kramid to the eminent person of Bolshevik Party and the state N.I. Bukharin who impressed the military chemist very favourably. After the Moscow meeting among house Konstantin Pavlovich often exclaimed [1]: "Who such this Ioska Stalin? Here Bukharin is yes!" To autobiographies it is written [2]: "... In 1930 after the special meeting in Moscow received the offer to organize special laboratory and to work in it as the graduate student of SHTI that by me and it is executed...". From ourselves we will add - at the price of irreplaceable. ". In 1930 after poisoning it was recognized as the commission unusable to further military service on health and it is fired with removal from account with purpose of lifelong pension without re-examination. The state of health and now unimportant in connection with harm of a profession..." [1].

In a word the disabled person in incomplete 35 years! However what other outcome could be expected from deadly experiments on itself! From stories by E.I. Kramid (Sokolova) [1]: "... Happened, I will find a note on Sunday. - "Dear Katyusha, surely come to me to laboratory exactly at 12 in the afternoon". I hurry to the chemical building (the benefit the apartment in the neighboring physical building - the author). Before densely closed door of chemical audience - a key and the sheet of paper with the instruction as to us to behave not to get poisoned as to bring it round. We come. It unconscious, and is near - the diary of observations: what symptoms of poisoning were in what sequence - gripes in eyes, dryness in a mouth, spasms, etc. All on minutes, the gold watch is near". (After the termination of a physical mat of the Tomsk State University E.K. Kramida from 1931 to 1939 worked as the assistant to department of mathematics (higher mathematics) to SHTI (since 1934 TII) and the Tomsk electromechanical institute of engineers of transport (TEMIIT); since 1939 - the assistant to department of the higher mathematics RIIZHTA [3]).

As it appears from the received data, Konstantin Pavlovich researched toxic agents under the name of an arsina (AzN3). It is colourless, very poisonous gas with a garlic smell. From the physiological point of view the poisoning with arsenous hydrogen is aggravated with the fact that the first symptoms of poisoning (a fever, vomiting, etc.) appear usually only several hours later after inhalation of AzN3. The main means of first aid is fresh air at absolute rest of the victim [4]. Instructive questions of fast diagnostics of poison gas, effek-

the tivny help to injured fighters in field conditions and constructive solutions of gas masks of mass production thoughts of the graduate student Kramida were anxious.

"... In the fall of 1933 it was sent to a business trip to Novosibirsk. Its immune system was loosened by experiments with BOV; he again got sick with a typhus and in the train on November 12 died..." [1].

So short life of one of enthusiasts of the proletarian state broke. From memoirs of the daughter [1]: "... Mom with bitterness said: - Dad Vash died in time. What would be with him in the 37th? Would shoot inevitably. Denunciations were!..." It is valid, in 1930 in the Tomsk newspaper "Krasnoye Znamya" (No. 226 of 9.10.1930) a note "So scientific change was placed do not prepare" in which the former officer of royal army colonel K.P. Kramida is negatively characterized. In protection of the graduate student the chief, the commissioner and the responsible secretary of a party bureau of the Tomsk artillery school stood up: in a note, according to them, ". the gross political blunder in the part concerning the former teacher of artillery and chemistry of TAS of t is made. Kramid Konstantin Pavlovich...

more than ten years' fruitful work in the ranks of RKKA, certainly, cannot give even the slightest hint on considering it klassovo an alien element. As for its public work - that command and the public of school know it as one of active workers of OSO of Aviakhim working at this work literally from the moment of origin of this organization (in the past: VNO Dobrolet, Dobrokhim, etc.)".

According to Konstantin Pavlovich's wife, addressed to the daughter [1], "... made only the one-only official offense. Special laboratories allocated meters of the 40th black sateen for a zanaveshivaniye of windows in chemical audience. Having seen as his female colleagues drearily feel fabric (those years it was impossible to buy it!), the father disposed to distribute them cancelled curtains...".

Some lines from the autobiography of our hero attract attention: "... The kompilyativny article "Regimental Artillery" written in 1922 was the first printing work". The openness of character allowed Konstantin Pavlovich to feel comfortable in any environment - "... it was loved by soldiers in army, students in audience,

colleagues in laboratory" [1]. In a year of a funeral of Konstantin Pavlovich his son Evgeny (Genya) was a boy of 4th with a half years. Wonderfully reckless readiness for self-sacrifice lodged also in it. E.K. Kramida graduated in 1953 from physical and mathematical faculty of the Rostov State University (I.A. Sokolov, his grandfather on mother, in 1939 was elected professor and the head of the department of physics of the Rostov N / D institute of engineers of railway transport [5]) and worked as the senior research associate at Institute of physics WITH Academy of Sciences of the USSR in Krasnoyarsk in the field of the X-ray spectral analysis. In 1963, after serious radiation by X-rays, he agreed to take part under repair kobalto-

LIST OF REFERENCES

1. E.K. Chirkova. The group did not notice loss of the fighter... (Memoirs about the manager. special laboratory graduate student of the Siberian chemical technological institute Konstantin Pavlovich Kramida). Manuscript. - Volgograd, 2000. - 5 pages
2. K.P. Kramida. Autobiography manager. special laboratory of the graduate student SCIT (Siberian Chemical Institute of Technology). Manuscript. - Tomsk, 1930 (?). - 2 pages

howl the gun in which in a serpentine detail the radioactive element got stuck. When other attempts to eliminate malfunction did not yield result, the son of "the enthusiast of chemical defense of the country" without means of protection eliminated it for several seconds manually. This radiation played a fatal role his lives: died in 56 years (had continuously a serious illness, had not healing wound [1] on a finger).

The author expresses gratitude to Elena Konstantinovna Chirkova, before marriage of the Kramida who was born in Tomsk in 1932, nowadays living in Volgograd for memories of the father on the basis of which present sad "story" is written.

3. E.I. Kramida. Autobiography. Manuscript. - Rostov N / D, 1955.-3 pages
4. B.V. Nekrasov. Fundamentals of the general chemistry. T. 1. Prod. the 3rd, ispr. and additional

>- M.: Chemistry, 1973. - 656 pages

5. Professors of the Tomsk Polytechnic University: Biographic reference book. T. 2 / Sost. and otv. edition of G.P. Sergeyev. - Tomsk: NTL publishing house, 2001. - 216 pages
Bernadette Jean
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