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DEVIANT BEHAVIOUR of the YOUNGER GENERATION of the 1930th. And ATTEMPTS of ITS OVERCOMING



11. TsGAOORB. T. 10295. Op. 1. 4.

12. Wagner G.K. About a ratio of folk and amateur art//Problem of folk art / under the editorship of M.A. Nekrasova, K.A. Makarov. M.: Art, 1982.

DEVELOPMENT OF BASHKIR NATIONAL ART IN THE FRAMEWORK OF AMATEUR CREATIVITY MOVEMENT IN THE USSR

R.F. Mavlyutova, Postgraduate student, Department of Historiography, Source Studies and Additional History Disciplines, Bashkir State University

The article describes the features of Bashkir folk music development in the framework of amateur creativity movement in the USSR. It has been revealed that at the beginning of its existence (1920-1930) organized amateur creativity of the USSR considerably affected the development of Bashkir folk music. During later periods the amateur creativity, becoming more and more unified, ceased to influence the development of Bashkir national musical art.

UDC 94 (47)

DEVIANT BEHAVIOUR of the YOUNGER GENERATION of the 1930th. And ATTEMPTS of ITS OVERCOMING

M.Yu. Antimonov, candidate of historical sciences, associate professor of history and philosophy of the Tambov state technical university

Hooliganism and crime, homelessness and neglect of the younger generation of the 1930th and ways of overcoming these "ulcers" of society is considered.

The end of the 1930th - time of contrasts. On the one hand, I.V. Papanin's expedition to the North Pole, flights of legendary pilots, military victories on the Lake Hasan, the river the Hal-hin-Gol, with another - household poverty (lack of decent housing, clothes and food) of the main part of the population of the country.

But if adults could experience all household inconveniences, then even temporary deprivations affected a children's organism very hard. They broke physical and spiritual development of the child.

Give birth to children and teenagers who had no permanent residence, certain classes and at times and -

leu, there was very many during the considered time period. All this created prerequisites to growth of number of teenagers with deviant behavior. At such children antisocial views and habits, as a rule, were formed that resulted in school poor progress and indiscipline, to commission of offenses.

Any more not a rarity began to see the drunk or gambling on money school student. Interest in gambling was widespread among pupils of Bondarsky and Algasovsky districts [1, l. 51], cases of drinking of vodka [2, l became more frequent in the same place. 107].

In the speech of teenagers obscene words abounded. The pupil of the 8th class of No-votomnikovsky high school of Algasovsky district was expressed by a mat even in the presence of teachers [1, l. 53ob.]. Mar-tenikhin and Kharitonov from the same school wrote notes and did inscriptions on walls of schools, using offensive language [3, l. 4ob.].

Unfortunately, adults whose negative behavior could be observed in public places were a bad example. The drunk public which did not hesitate of "strong" expressions and aggressive actions [2, l came to the Bondarsky House of sots-culture often to dances. 78ob.]. The same happened in clubs and movie theaters of Tambov. Drunk, vulgar young people not oo were given without fights and scandals [4, l. 45].

Took place and cases of unacceptable behavior from teachers. At one of schools there was a brass band in which only pupils, but the music-master Revelev of the ave. galyok to classes in a circle of young people who had no relation to school had to be engaged. They brought vodka on music lessons and together with pupils drank it. Besides, school students were attracted for carrying out musicales out of school for an extra charge [5, l. 2].

Imitating adults and not thinking of consequences, teenagers made

hooligan acts. So, on January 1, 1938 4 pupils broke windows, bulbs and educational scores in a class, threw out in a toilet of 50 clean notebooks and recovered on them. One of pupils of the 5th class committed theft of toys from a school fir-tree [5, l. 2]. At one of high schools of a physical military office the pupils of the 8th classes stole gas masks, tore, threw out them in a toilet, recovered in the washstand from which pupils and teachers [6, l used water. 19].

Especially bad discipline was at schools No. 51 and 64 of Tambov. So, the Komsomol member Telepin broke locks twice, pulled out from the wall newspaper of article, criticizing him for indiscipline. At lessons the teenagers rustled, prevented the teacher to teach a lesson, and on changes put up fights. Some of them went with "Finns". Pupils of the 7th class of school No.

1 Skrebnev and Peshegorov were in a state of intoxication on the solemn meeting devoted to the twentieth anniversary of the All-Union Leninist Young Communist League. For similar children it was possible to swear obscenely in the presence of adults, to offend the teacher by a word or even action [4, l. 39]. And in the district of Sisterly school of the Michurinsk area often there were fires, attacks on teachers. On November 24, 1938 the pedagogical collective even cabled in People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs personally to Ezhov that he took "measures for gangsterism restraint" [6, l. 7].

The conflictness of the teenager in the relations with adults and teachers, probably, can be explained not only with physiological changes (puberty, formation of mentality), but also change of all system of relationship of the teenager with adults and peers. Seeking to get rid, be discharged of assessment and influence of adults, the teenager became critical to parents and teachers, began to feel and notice obostryonno their shortcomings, to call in question councils and opinions, the statements of seniors. The inadequate behavior of the teenager was affected significantly also by immoral behavior of adults. Age ambitions, thirst for entertainments and pleasures, thoughtless

the relation to the bans, aspiration not to lag behind in anything all, to arrive "as all" - all this inevitably led to what is imperceptible for itself the teenager stepped over a side of admissible.

As punishment for hooligan behavior of pupils served the exception of school for a period of one year. Since new academic year they could return to classes again. Having appeared out of school, without any certain classes, leading a loose life, they became homeless children. So, in 1939/40 academic year 11 people for violation of the rules of the internal schedule of school and insult of teachers [7, l were expelled from schools of Algasovsky district. 2ob], from schools of Volchkovsky district - 5 pupils:

2 as disorganizers of school discipline and 3 as the overages studying in elementary grades and breaking discipline [7, l. 48].

In Gavrilovsky district for indiscipline 7 pupils [7, l were excluded. 66], and from schools of the Ladies' area - 2 people: one of them - for a fight with a knife, another - for harmful influence on younger school students. This violator of discipline was 16 years old, and he sat the 4th year in the 3rd class [7, l. 2 1 3]. In the Ni-kiforovsky area excluded 4 pupils. They made hooligan acts, discredited teachers and spoiled school property [7, l. 400]. For the same reasons pupils of schools of Platonovsky, Staroyuryevsky, Shekhmansky districts [7, l were excluded. 451, 521, 699].

Only in 1940/41 academic years 603 pupils were expelled from schools of area: from initial - 107, incomplete averages - 185 and averages - 311 [8, l. 3]. Such teenagers, as a rule, seldom came back to student collective, the exception did not serve as cure. Being in situation outcast, the school student became embittered, and his behavior accepted the menacing character for people around. So the children's neglect turned into homelessness and became one of sources of children's crime. In September, 1940 in

The Michurinsk area two teenagers, threatening with a revolver, beat two women and took away from them 135 rubles [5, l. 5]. In the city of Tambov the teenagers edges of a safety razor cut coat backs at the children passing on the street [9, l. 1] were also engaged in theft of textbooks from school students, selling them in KOGIZ [5, l. 2]. Cases when teenagers used a knife [9, l met. 3].

The city of Tambov was flooded by beznad-zornik from all area. Therefore at the first police station the room of the drive of neglected children was organized. The children's commission provided the means for their food and sending back to collective farms and the Village Councils [10, l. 13]. So, for 1936 were sent by city department of national education of Tambov to child care facilities of the city of 1,500 neglected children from other districts of the area [10, l. 9].

Increase in number of drives of teenagers in militia in 1938 was noted by

also in Morshansk. Often it was possible to see children gadabouts on a market and in city shops. Some of them were engaged in pocket theft, smoked, were put obscene into words [11]. All this was the cause for their detention.

Despite official official reports about what is done away with children's homelessness the number of neglected and street children across the Tambov region increased. And it means that by the end of the 1930th this problem up to the end was not solved and remained open.

The main form of fight against children's homelessness - definition of teenagers in orphanages and special schools which would become their house where they would be fed, put, dressed would receive necessary education and preparation for socially useful labor life.

But all these institutions in 1938 in the Tambov region were crowded. The contingent of pupils in them made 4,065 people, and institutions was only 39, and they were calculated on

3 750 pupils (tab. 1).

Table 1

Fullness of orphanages and special schools in 1938 [12, l. 20]

The name of child care facility The number of institutions The budget contingent for 01.01.1938, The standard of fullness of orphanages, the people Surplus is a lot of people, the people

Orphanages of the general type 27 3 l34 2,820 3l4

Orphanages with a particular treatment 3 25O 230 2O

Special schools 9 68l 700 l9

Total 39 4 D65 3,750 353

By the end of 1939 the problem with fullness of child care educational facilities was not solved though their number increased, and the contingent vospi-

tannik increased. The release of pupils was made by the 165th persons. Reception of new children exceeded number of vacant places and reached 400 people (tab. 2).

Table 2

Fullness of orphanages and special schools in 1939 [12, l. 20]

The name of child care facility The number of institutions The contingent for 01.01.1939, the people Release, the people Reception, the people

Orphanages of the general type 2B 3 l34 l25 9l

Orphanages of a particular treatment 3 25O lO lO

Special schools ll 68l 3O 299

Total 42 4 D65 1b5 4DD

From the report of the annual report on orphanages for 1940 it is visible that the bulk of children came to orphanages of the general type from local community through department of national education (171 people, or 46.5%). It is possible to assume that it were children whose parents were not able to support them and to bring up

because of disastrous financial position or because of deprivation of the parental rights. And with a particular treatment the most part of children was sent to orphanages from receivers distributors

People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs (17 people or 53%). Probably, it were homeless children and beznadzornik (tab. 3).

Table 3

The last residence of children before emergence in orphanage [13, l. 9]

The institutions which supplied the information The number of children according to the list for 01.01.40 Is accepted in orphanages from 01.01.40 to 01.01.41 From houses of babies From receivers - distributors of People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs From local community through IT From other orphanages

Orphanages of the general type 1,638 368 79 62 171 56

Orphanages of a particular treatment 73 32 — 17 5 10

Orphanages had to not only provide a shelter to children, but also give the corresponding education, accustom to work, help with choice of profession. For the solution of objectives in orphanages joiner's, metalwork, sewing, knitted, brush workshops were organized. Pupils worked under the leadership of work instructors. It helped pupils of high school to seize any profession. But workshops was not enough. They functioned only in 10 orphanages of the general type. The greatest number of pupils worked in joiner's workshops - 140, in metalwork - 103 and in sewing - 80 pupils. In one orphanage with a particular treatment there was a metalwork workshop in which studied the 64th persons. As we see, employment of children was 100% what you will not tell about workshops in orphanages of the general type. Of course, we have no exact data on the number of pupils in 10 orphanages, but we know that in 16 institutions 1,603 pupils were such. Therefore, 323 pupils - the low employment rate of children work. But not always workshops worked if were available. So, in orphanage No. 1 of Tambov the workshops stayed idle within 5 months because of repair of the building [14, l. 68].

Owing to insufficient material resources some orphanages had no opportunity to organize workshops therefore graduates of these institutions did not receive necessary labor skills and were not ready to professional activity. And at this time the state drew a line of fast vocational training and further employment. Perhaps, as a result of such labor training of pupils there could also be idlers giving marriage in the industry.

Except orphanages of the general type in the Tambov region there were special schools. In one of them which was in Michurinsk in 1938/39 academic year 67 children aged from 10 up to 19 years studied. Classes were completed as follows: in the 1st class - 11; in the 2nd - 16; in the 3rd - 0; the 4th-16; the 5th - 9; the 6th - 10; the 7th - 6, only 68 pupils. At the same time it should be noted that among them there were overages: 16-year-old in the 2nd class, 17-year-old in the 4th class and 18-year-old in the 6th class [13, l. 77ob.].

The special school was placed on the main city street and occupied 8 small rooms (3 classes, the dining room kitchen, 2 workshops, a teacher's room and a director's office with office) on the second floor of the two-storeyed house. These rooms was

it is not enough. Classes were given in two changes, and in the evening these classes occupied other organizations. The sanitary condition of these educational rooms was unsatisfactory as often there was no damp cleaning of rooms.

Classes were equipped with double school desks. Their about a half did not correspond to growth of children. Many school desks were without backs and seats. Portraits of leaders, posters and tables, in high school - the schedule of tests hung on walls.

Children received hot meals. The dining room separated from kitchen cases, the room was decorated with flowers. Portraits of leaders and the wall newspaper hung on walls.

The joiner's workshop was light, but small by the sizes. It contained only 10 jobs therefore was not enough for the senior group of workbenches. All children were forced to work in two changes. Despite the existing difficulties, school students produced stools, a framework, tables.

Girls worked in a sewing workshop which was very close too. Fabrics for work were not therefore sewed for themselves from the material (dresses, shirts, paths, jackets, curtains, etc.). And on rags of the schoolgirl studied types of seams. Except usual sewing in a workshop artworks were performed: embroidery, applique [11, l. 81-82ob.].

Financing of special schools was insufficient. It is confirmed also by figures. So, the percent of implementation of the financial plan for 1940 made 98, 4%. It, of course, was not enough for full creative activity [15, l. 45].

As the public child care facilities could not provide in full keeping of orphan children and homeless children, it was necessary to resort to the paid services of individuals extended those years - to patronage. A certain sum (foster grant) was paid to the tutor and there was a necessary financial support. Adoptive parents had to

to support the child on an equal basis with members of the family, their duties were same, as at the trustee and the trustee. Financing of the patronized children was assigned to collective-farm cash desks of mutual aid. But they in most collective farms were not organized, and those which were available stayed idle.

Therefore material living conditions of children in a number of areas continued to remain intolerable. So, for example, in Bashmakovsky district (since February, 1939 as a part of the Penza region) there were 125 orphan children, and children whose parents "fell into temporary need",-200 persons. The vast majority of these children was in severe material conditions: a crawl of bread and grain collective farms gave nothing, children walked in ripped clothes and leaky footwear. Many of them did not attend because of it school, most of orphan children of the settlement of Bashmakovo and village of Kolesovo were forced to be engaged in a nishchenstvovaniye. Local heads of the area, chairmen rural From the veto in and to zhozo in did not take drastic measures on rendering necessary financial support to orphan children, creation of the corresponding conditions for them and their fixing on places [16, l. 2]. There was a case in Pokrovo-Marfinsky district when in two years of such guardianship the family was given a foster grant of 75 rubles [10, l. 9ob.]. And the woman who took on education

5 orphans, the collective farm gave from products only a rye. When children came to board of collective farm to ask that it was necessary to them under the contract, roughly banished them [17, l. 8].

Similar situation was in Kondolskom, Kerensky, Bondarsky, Tambov, Pichayevsky, Lysogorsky and other districts of the area. In collective farm "New Village" of Kerensky of the area there were on patronage 4 homeless children. One of them was an excellent student, but even it could not be provided with textbooks. It had fragmentary clothes and footwear. Without having certain housing, he lived in a red corner where constantly there were people, noise that did not give the chance to learn lessons.

Caring for life of the sponsored children a little, the chairman of collective farm Nikonov used them to suit the own ends as labor. It forced to carry straw which intended for its household [16, l. 2]. In Bondarsky district the patronized children lived in disgusting living conditions too: apartments were dirty, bedding was absent [16, l. 2ob.].

From orphanages of Tambov in 1936 there were patronirovano 200 children. In a year at 180 children surveyed living conditions of life. It turned out that 18 sponsored lived well, 155 - it is satisfactory,

6 -badly and on one child the chairman of collective farm "Red transportation" of Rzhak-sinsky district refused to sign the contract for patronage [10, l. 15]. The similar case of refusal in patronage was also in Bondarsky district. And 3 children were lucky: they were adopted [10, l. 2ob.].

In collective farm "Red plowman" of the village Belomestnaya Dvoynya of Tambov district the collective farmer Ledenyova took charge of 6 children at once. The family accommodated in a small log hut. Both children, and adults slept on a floor on straw. Ledenyova's earnings made 22 workdays a month. Therefore ate generally products from one ryaanoymuka. Ate three times a day: ryaa-ache bread, noodles, kissel. Fats were not any. The trustee could buy sugar only once a month. Such poverty was caused by very bad financing. The area the modest monthly monetary assistance of 25 rubles was given Tambov. This money was hardly enough only for acquisition of footwear, clothes and school supplies.

In the same village at other trustee, the collective farmer Gubareva, lived two foster children, but as they were locals, paid them at 10 rubles less, than to the children who arrived from other areas.

Sometimes children were transferred from one family to another. So, Yu. Kolesnikov and N. Shvetsov visited four families [17, l. 33, 33ob.]. Sometimes it happened because of bad relationship between trustees and children, but, as a rule, was

it is connected with severe materialnobytovy conditions of families in which there lived foster children. The board of collective farm had problems with food too. Therefore often the chairman of collective farm did not want to sign contracts with trustees again, referring to lack of products [17, l. 22, 22ob.]. It is possible to assume that the refusal had deliberate character. Having signed the contract with adoptive parents for a year, the board refused to prolong it the next year.

Some adoptive parents continued to feed and support children, without receiving from the state of financial support, others at once refused orphans as soon as they stopped paying them for children. Probably, in the latter case children were necessary to them only in the mercenary purposes. The family counted on allocation of additional money and products. Thanks to this help the family could cope with need easier. Besides the sponsored child in family there were, as a rule, also other children (the average family consisted of 7-9 people). Therefore the orphan, getting to a foster home, often completely did not receive those funds which were allocated for him.

But on the other hand, man cannot live by bread alone. And adoptive parents together with other members of household, retaining the child, quite often created a favorable microclimate around it which it most of all needed.

Some children were in collective-farm dependence. 22 pupils were sent to one of collective farms. The area sent 700 rubles to their contents. And by collective farm it was given out to them for a month of rye flour of 264 kg, lentils of 219 kg [17, l. 156]. And children had to eat in the morning one bread, during the lunchtime - noodles, in the evening - rye kiselyom as the money sent to keeping of children was spent not to destination. These teenagers were deprived even the most necessary: footwear, clothes and bed linen. It was necessary to sleep to them on straw. Feeling such need, perebiva-

yas something not to die of hunger, these children could not dream of toys or of any cultural entertainments. Means were not even planned for it [17, l. 159].

Financially for the Soviet state after all it was simpler to contain patronage. Orphanages and special schools should not allocate funds for clothes and food of pupils as other sources of their contents were not. And at patronage all care was assigned to adoptive parents though the government, transferring children, promised material support. But not always bodies of the Soviet power as we see from examples, fulfilled the undertaken obligations for financial support to adoptive parents, hoping that trustees all the same will not allow the child to die. To put on something and to eat will always find. In other words, somehow yes children will exist. According to archive materials it is visible that the plan for keeping of foster children in 1940 was implemented only for 79.6% [15, l. 45].

But also patronage, as well as orphanages, did not solve many problems connected with homelessness. Therefore at the children's commission the enterprises for pupils of orphanages, homeless and neglected teenagers, "temporarily fallen into need" were organized. These enterprises had to involve in production of teenagers for obtaining labor skills and professional skill. After work the pupils needed to study at incomplete high schools of adults for receiving the general education [18, l. 1].

The idea of realization in practice of Marxist-Leninist provision on expediency of the early inclusion of children in productive work developed by the Soviet teachers was the cornerstone of inservice training: N.K. Krupskaya, A.V. Lunacharsky, A.S. Makarenko, S.T. Shatsky, etc. This idea completely corresponded to K. Marx's statement that "at a reasonable obshchestven-

the number a system each child from 9-year age has to become productive r an abotnik as well as each able-bodied adult..." [19, page 197].

The enterprises for pupils of orphanages existed on full economic self-financing. As well as for any working organizations, for them the plan which they usually exceeded, and not for 2-3%, and at least on average for 10% was formed. Especially the knitted workshop which workers were ahead of schedule for 41% caused a stir. On average the plan was implemented for all workshops for 129% (tab. 4) [20, l. 2].

According to the plan of work of the regional children's commission the apprenticeship percent to workers in workshops had to make not less than 65% [20, l. 2]. In total there were 19 such enterprises for area: knitted, hour, photo, electromechanical, chuvyachny, nikelirovochny, mirror, bondar-Skye, chemical, binding, sausage, table, hairdressing salon, bakery, kozhzavod. Pupils of workshops got paid from 30 to 64 rubles. In all shops the system of compensation was made sdelno, and the payment for pochinochny works (watch, photo, electromechanical repair shop) was established in percentage terms from gross income. Awards for honest work were entered in 1937 in the knitted shop [20, l. 3].

Needy was a financial support. Pupils were given clothes, linen, footwear and on 1 river 20 to. in day for lunches in stoyuvy, the apartment was paid by the enterprise [10, l. 11]. Even an opportunity to have a rest in holiday houses, in resorts, in sanatoria [22, l was given. 16]. And persons interested to get secondary education studied at evening school.

Table 4

Promfinplan and his performance on production of products [21, l. 2]

The name of the shop and the enterprise The plan Is executed Percent

Knitted 685149 965619 141

Bakery 261120 294677 113

Hour No. 1 75000 83432 111

Hour No. 2 42000 46631 111

Photo No. 1 36000 38695 108

Photo No. 2 20400 26372 129

Electromechanical 50400 57268 114

Shoe 50100 it was closed 10-11

Wallpaper 24000 it was closed 1

Only 1170069 1512694 129

Inservice training was organized by attachment of pupils to masters. And those who worked in the knitted shop were allocated in special group with the foreman. Training was conducted according to programs. The senior master of one of such enterprises noted that apprenticeship took place the program of training only at practice, and theoretical classes were not given [23, l. 1]. After preparation the pupils were transferred to a journeyman and remained at the enterprises with transition to price-work compensation [10, l. 11ob].

On production socialist methods of work incentives - a socialist competition, an udarnichestvo, the Stakhanov movement were applied. Excellent students and productions were awarded things.

The financial position of pupils was so disastrous that they were tried to be awarded with things of prime necessity. From acts of inspection of living conditions of schoolgirls of the knitted shop we see in what need they were: "Zhabina lives with the father who receives the salary of 60 rubles. Have the log hut. It is not equipped, all zakopchyonny, crude, is not heated, contains in insanitation at all. There is no footwear any. Zhabina goes to work and to school in fragmentary galoshes. The coat old came in negod-

nost. Has no underwear, top - only one dress. Eat very badly, not always eat hot food". "Zinaida Popova has a father - the pensioner, receives pension of 80 rubles which is irregularly issued. They live in a shabby small hut, very close and not heated at all. Bedding is absent, and she sleeps on a floor on old rags. And for work Zinaida goes to school in old boots as there is no other footwear. There is no underwear too, there is only one dress. When Zinaida erases it, puts on a coat. The family very badly eats. Sometimes there is no bread even" [20, l. 20-21].

Political and mass and cultural and educational work in workshops it is put - the commissions it was carried out together with all workers. It were conversations according to Stalin, Zhdanov, Molotov's reports, studying the Constitution of the USSR 1936, holding meetings. Pupils had an opportunity to visit circles at workshops, at the expense of the enterprises to them acquired tickets in the museum and theater of Lunacharsky [10, l. 16 about.-17].

Overages - graduates from orphanages were employed by a detkomissiya of the Tambov region. She obliged directors of factories, the plants, the enterprises to employ teenagers and to provide them with the hostel. Age of children - from

14 up to 16 years, and educational level - from 1 to 7 classes. So, in 1936-1937 it was employed across Tambov the 18th persons. From them worked at the Revtrud plant 10, at its construction - 4 people, at the Traktorodetal plant - 3, at the Komsomolets plant - 1. The teenagers working at the Revtrud plant lived in the clean hostel, were provided with use objects, ate in the factory dining room. Were in the worst material conditions working at the Traktorodetal plant - in the hostel it was dirty, close, uncomfortable [10, l. 17].

But in spite of the fact that it was necessary to the teenagers who came to the plant very difficult in the material plan, in adjustment of life, it was the step forward to independent life, to work that, undoubtedly, led to their early growing. Having got a job, the teenager understood that now he is responsible for the future, will depend only on its work as he will live further. Guardianship of public organizations on it came to an end.

And orphanages were replenished with new pupils as material-

Nov position of the population did not improve. As tried to eradicate the state homelessness, it continued to exist. Even having defined children in special facilities, the state did not manage to create good material resources for a healthy lifestyle of the teenager, for development of its mental and creative capacities. Here children saw a picture already familiar to them: sheer poverty and hunger. The only thing that held many children here, is an existence of "corner" for accommodation and an opportunity to receive some working profession. Therefore it is possible to assume that after all need for these child care facilities in relation to that time was. Badly the fact that they were financed by the residual principle. In the budget of the state children were on the last place. The teenager of the 1930th living even in family and furthermore being on the state providing, of much it was deprived in life. All this limited its intellectual development. But the army of working class with the mentality which is already put since childhood was replenished.

BIBLIOGRAPHIC REFERENCES

1. State Archive of Socio-political History of the Tambov Region (SASPHTR). T. 1179. Op. 1. 14.
2. GASPITO. T. 1177. Op. 1. 82.
3. State Archive of the Tambov Region (SATR). F. R-3714. Op. 1. 9.
4. GASPITO. T. 1184. Op. 1. 96.
5. GASPITO. T. 1184. Op. 1. 360.
6. GATO. F. R-3714. Op. 1. 1.
7. GATO. F. R-3714. Op. 1. 18.
8. GATO. F. R-3714. Op. 1. 42.
9. GASPITO. T. 1184. Op. 1. 22.
10. GATO. F. R-1737. Op. 1. 19.
11. Bolshevik. 1939. On Feb. 27
12. GATO. F. R-3714. Op. 1. 22.
13. GATO. F. R-3714. Op. 1. 31.
14. GASPITO. T. 1184. Op. 1. 1.
15. GATO. F. R-3714. Op. 1. 29.
16. GATO. F. R-5300. Op. 1. 12.
17. GATO. F. R-1737. Op. 1. 21.
18. GATO. F. R-5300. Op. 1. 13.
19. K. Marx, Engels F. Soch. the 2nd prod. T. 16.
20. TATO. O. P-5300. On. 1. A-4.
21. TATO. O. P-5300. On. 2. R. 5.
22. TATO. O. P-1737. On. 1. R. 10.
23. TATO O. P-5300. On. 2. R. 2.

NON-STANDARD BEHAVIOUR OF YOUNG GENERATION OF THE 1930s AND ATTEMPTS OF ITS OVERCOMING

Disorderly and insulting behavior, criminality, homelessness and neglect of young generation of

UDC 338.467.6: 37. 013.78

PROBLEMS AND CONTRADICTIONS of DEVELOPMENT of the CHILDREN'S IMPROVING CENTERS. SOCIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

In article on the basis of the analysis of the current state of a field of activity of the children's improving centers the problems and contradictions of institutional development of the children's improving centers are in detail considered. The analysis of a phenomenon is kept in macroaspect.

M. Y. Antimonov, PhD in History, Associate Professor of the Department of History and Philosophy, Tambov State Technical University

the 1930th and the ways of overcoming these & #34; ulcers" of a society have been considered in the article.

A.P. Guzenko, graduate student of department of social work, psychology and pedagogics of the higher education of the Kuban State University;

deputy head of department of educational programs of the All-Russian children's center

"Eaglet"

children, identification of features of their functioning in modern conditions, search of problems and the prospects of development.

the improving centers it is connected with the analysis of their specifics in comparison with other educational institutions of the general and additional education

In terms of sociology the children's improving center is before all -

John Perez
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