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Officer land tenure in the Siberian Cossack army (1846 1917)



OFITSERSKOYE ZEMLEVLADENIYE IN the SIBERIAN COSSACK ARMY (1846 - 1917)

Officer land tenure, being one of the main components of a system of the agrarian relations in the Cossack troops, had considerable impact on the social and economic and political processes proceeding in the Cossack environment. Without its complex study it is impossible to open fully the increase reasons in the Cossack villages at the end of XIX - the beginning of the 20th centuries of intra class and interclass contradictions. In this article legal bases of officer land tenure in the Siberian Cossack army are analyzed, the main stages and features of its formation come to light, the number and social composition of owners of officer lands is characterized.

Unlike officers of regular army, the Cossack officers till 1870th years had no right to pension on a length of service from the state treasury or army treasury after retirement. The lack of this right was compensated by investment of cool ranks of a number of the Cossack troops with the lifelong land plots which had to become the main means of their material security out of service. For the first time such category of lands appeared in 1835 on the basis of "Rules about land allowances in the Don army". Unlike the local land tenure which already developed to Dona, lifelong officer sites represented a peculiar conditional form of noble land tenure at formal recognition of army by the final owner of this earth.

In the Siberian linear Cossack army the foundation to officer land tenure was laid by reform of 1846 when action Don "Rules..." it was extended to his employees and retired cool ranks. Cossack the headquarters - and to subaltern officers the right on poluche-was granted

ny of structure of army lands in "the integral possession" of lifelong sites of 400 and 200 dessiatins sootvetstvenno1. The right for special land providing extended also to families of cool ranks. Officer lifelong sites had to have "all benefits of an allowance required for economy and it is possible to be in this relation as urav-nitelny between itself". Owners were allowed to build to them estates and farm buildings, to lease them. At the same time lifelong lands were not subject to sale, pledge, the will on spiritual.

However laws on officer land tenure on Dona were transferred to Western Siberia mechanically, without local specifics. The continuous 25-year service founded on the military lodged beginnings, lack of sufficient money did not allow the Siberian Cossack officers, unlike donts, to be engaged in the economy. As the contemporary noted, "they, serving where will specify need, do not know the houses". Siberian to a mnogozemelya and closeness of the army territory for commoners did not allow officers to count on revenues from delivery of the sites for rent. Therefore up to 1861 when radical reforming of the Siberian army began, any of his officers did not use the right to the lifelong site.

Since education of the Siberian linear Cossack army in 1808 the military service of his Cossacks was constant and permanent that allowed contemporaries to compare it to service in regular army. During reform of 1861 in the Siberian army by an example of other Cossack troops the next order of active duty when stay of Cossacks in field parts alternated with their periodic exit to a privilege was entered. The officers sent to a privilege lost monetary pay and together with ordinary Cossacks had to provide families and be equipped to the next entry into service "into own account from surpluses of a household". The similar situation - some kind of economic coercion - forced many army officers to address the right which was considered by them earlier useless.

Active works on investment of officers with lifelong sites in the 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th and 7th regimental districts (on Presnogorkovsky and Irtysh lines) began since 1862 Earth for this purpose in the 1850th were included in structure of yurtovy plots at their design land surveying. Land surveyors needed to cut to officers that quantity of grounds which was defined by most highly approved project of the respective regimental district. For example, for ober-officer sites in the 3rd regimental district their ratio was the following: the farmstead and arable land - 8 des., a meadow-5 des., the wood - 24 des., the steppe - 163 des.2 However in practice the lifelong sites were much more than the sizes established by the law as included also inconvenient lands.

Being in various areas of the army territory, they could not be equivalent on quality, a ratio of grounds and advantage of an economic situation. Often sites had surplus of some grounds at shortage or total absence of others and therefore, naturally, not always suited the future owners. So, in 1866 46 officers attributed to the village Omsk refused their receiving, motivating it with the low-value of lands, and first of all insignificant quantity of meadows. They considered that possible income from use of such sites could not compensate even costs of them okhranu3.

Since the end of the 1860th when owing to identification of gross violations in carrying out land management works the full reland surveying of army lands began, the situation even more became complicated: officer sites began to be allocated not in lifelong possession, and only in temporary use - "until the special order". For officers there was a real threat of loss of the sites during the subsequent boundary works.

In 1874. The committee of irregular troops granted to the Siberian Cossack officers the right to choose the place for withdrawal of lifelong sites. Now they could receive them not only near villages to which were attributed, but also in any part of the army territory in the presence of there free lands. As noted the army administration, "at the same time only a condition some officers wished to receive allotments" 4.

To the middle of the 1870th the army boundary party allocated 297 officer lifelong sites, but a third from them and remained unclaimed: only 198 officers, their widows and orphans exercised the right for special land obespecheniye5. The vast majority of them received lands in the Omsk and Peter and Paul Counties of the Akmola region (respectively 75 and 56 sites) and in the Pavlodar County of the Semipalatinsk region (42 sites). However unlike other Cossack fields, the earth of lifelong possession in the Siberian army in most cases did not become a basis of material security of cool ranks and their families out of service.

In the 1870th there was a considerable correction of policy of the government for officer land tenure. For the purpose of restriction of its further growth with the law of April 23, 1870 the investment with lifelong sites Don Cossack ofitserov6 was stopped. Further all persons receiving the first cool rank at retirement were provided with monetary pensions from army treasury. The same law changed the status of already allocated officer lands: they became the hereditary property of their owners.

The aspiration of the Ministry of Defence to standardization of the "Cossack" legislation raised on the agenda a question of development of similar situation for the Siberian army. According to the order of the governor general of Western Siberia of the general aide-de-camp A.P. Hrushchov the draft of the provision

"About providing officers of the Siberian Cossack army" it was prepared by local army committee in 1872. Unlike the Don law, it granted to cool ranks the right to choose a way of the material security out of service: investment with lands of hereditary property or receiving monetary pay from army kazny7. Owing to small profitability of lands of the Siberian army most of his officers inclined to the second option.

The bill was not supported by Head department of irregular troops as represented "a sharp difference with the provisions approved already for other Cossack troops". The position of the Defense Ministry was caused not only the aspiration to unify legislative practice, but also fear that implementation of this project can upset already poor army treasury: at the beginning of the 1870th the government subsidies made more than 60% army dokhodov8.

In 1875 members of the local committee created by already new governor general of Western Siberia general aide-de-camp N.G. Kaznako-vy persistently and consistently advocating the material interests of the Siberian Cossack officers, offered the compromise way of solving the problem which arranged the Ministry of Defence. It formed the basis of the provision "About Providing Generals, the Headquarters — and Subaltern Officers and Cool Officials of the Siberian Cossack Army" which is most highly approved on May 7, 1877 9 Significantly differing from similar acts and considering local specifics, this law assigned to a part of the Siberian Cossack officers a real possibility of the choice - service "on pension" or "on the earth".

Hereditary lands without fail allocated all persons which had lifelong sites (the last had to become a kernel of their hereditary plots). Therefore all officers and officials of army were divided into three categories: 1) received the first cool rank till August 30, 1877 (that is about day of publication of the law on places) and the having lifelong sites; 2) not having which received the first cool rank till this day, but similar sites; 3) received the first cool rank after August 30, 1877. Persons of the second category had the right to refuse land providing and to serve "on pension". Officers of the third category at retirement had to be provided with monetary pensions. However, unlike other Cossack troops, and they if desired could exchange the pension for the site of hereditary property.

The special position of the government concerning officer land tenure in the Siberian army did not come down only to it. If on Don and Kuban it sought to limit growth of officer land tenure, then in Western Siberia - opposite, tried to stimulate it. A number of the additional rights and privileges provided to cool ranks at a floor - testifies to interest of governmental bodies and army administration in planting in the Siberian army of officer land tenure

cheniya of the land plots. So, officers could choose the place for withdrawal of the site, however, with a condition, "that stanitsa societies were not constrained in use of the lands occupied by them at all". For officers of the 2nd and 3rd categories the 10-year term of applications for withdrawal of sites of hereditary property was defined - till August 30, 1887 (in other troops it was year). The norm of land providing cool ranks in the Siberian army grew several times: it was necessary to the subaltern officer 600 des., the headquarters officer - 1,000 des. comfortable earth. Moreover, the army administration was allowed to increase the area of their sites on the basis of rules about taxation land surveying which were applied to yurtovy plots. The earth of hereditary property were not subject to taxation by any money dues or duties (to Dona they were assessed with 1.5-kopeck collecting in favor of army treasury and duty for formation of the army pension capital).

Besides, the aspiration of the government to increase officer land tenure in the Siberian army brightly was shown in introduction of the tough rule of investment with hereditary sites (according to G.E. Katanayev, "surprising dependent land tenure") retired officers, officer widows and orphans (widows and their children had the right to a half of the site which was due to their husband and the father). They "had to "sit down on the earth" or are more faithful - to be considered sat down on it, without knowing what with it now to do" 10. Intention to create a basis of future economic development of army in the form of officer "model" farms, how many desire to cut down costs of army treasury on pension payments was the main reason for it not so much.

On September 7, 1879 the governor general of Western Siberia N.G. Kaznakov approved "Detailed rules of dissociation of plots to officers of the Siberian Cossack army" 11. Withdrawal of sites of hereditary property had to be carried out along with taxation land surveying of yurtovy plots or at once after its termination. On the basis of the applications submitted officers the army economic board made region lists of sequence of receiving sites on a rank and seniority. The massif of the free army lands which are subject to branch in hereditary property broke previously into sites. They looked round the authorized representative of future owners, were in case of need equalized, and then distributed on a lot in the presence of representatives of army administration. After that the design plan of group of nearby sites which was submitted for approval of the governor general was formed. From the moment of the approval of design plans the officers and their families could use the lands. During the next - formal - stage of land surveying, constant boundary signs on borders of sites were established and their final plans were formed. The site passed into full property after receiving it the owner of the astringent document -

"this". From now on it could be descended and be on sale: all general rules for private hereditary vladeniy12 extended to it.

The design land surveying of sites of officer hereditary property which began in 1880 came to the end to the middle of the 1890th. Simultaneous land surveying of yurtovy lands and officer sites in most cases was impossible. Withdrawal of hereditary lands significantly lagged behind that was explained by absence at boundary party of exact idea of quantity, the square and places of withdrawal of sites for cool ranks. One of the reasons of it was abuse of officers of the privileges provided to them: 10-year term of applications for receiving the earth and right to choose place. Some officers long could not be defined: to serve them "on pension" or "on the earth". So, the centurion P.A. Babikov submitted five applications for desire to serve "on pension" and six - about the return. Design of officer sites was also complicated by absence in a number of regions of free army stocks.

By 1897 for officers and their families it was allocated 587,422 des. (about 12% of army lands) in eight counties of the Akmola and Semipalatinsk regions: Peter and Paul - 137,547 des., Omsk - 158,023 des., Kokchetav - 28,810 des., Pavlodar - 148,875.5 des., Semipalatinsk-73,927.5 des., Ust-Kamenogorsk - 23,500.5 des., Karkaralinsky-15,330 des., and Zaysan - 1,408.5 des.13. Sites of hereditary property in the Akmola, Atbasarsky Counties of the Akmola region and the Biysk County of the Tomsk province were not that was explained, first, by absence in these regions of army stocks and, secondly, the ban to allocate officer sites on lands which accessory to the Siberian army was challenged by the local civil authorities.

For 512 persons the land surveyors of army boundary party cut 732 sites, at 34% of the earth from them were in several places. Owners of lifelong sites for full land providing under the law needed to receive on May 7, 1877 additional plots. To take away them near former sites, as a rule, there was no opportunity. Therefore additional sites were designed where there were free army lands, is frequent - in other counties. Two sites also a part of the officers who received during the period from 1877 to 1887 the headquarters - officer ranks owned. Their ober-officer plots also increased due to new land branches.

Forest-steppe, steppe and foothill zones of the army territory differed the nature of soils and climatic conditions markedly. Significant fluctuation of the sizes of officer sites and various ratio of grounds in their structure was a consequence of it. By our calculations, in the Siberian army the land area (sites) of a cool rank was much higher than the average Don sizes (to Dona sites the size to

200 des. made 72%14). So, the share of the officer plots which were not exceeding 200 des. made 2%, from 200 to 500 des. - 16%, from 500 to 800 des.-24%, from 800 to 1,500 des. - 40%, more than 1,500 tithes - 18%. Comfortable lands as a part of officer plots prevailed and made from 74 to 94% of their total area. Only the Karkaralinsky County where neudobya on lands the cool ranks were reached by 46% was an exception.

With the end of design land surveying of plots of hereditary property by the end of the 19th century in general process of an institutionalization of officer land tenure in army came to the end though its legal registration far did not end: formal land surveying of officer lands considerably lagged behind design. By 1897 no more than 24% of their total area were formal obmezhevano (140,341 des.), in one and a half decades - only 63.5% (335,046 des.). By this time only three quarters of owners of lands of officer hereditary property - 392 of 524 people - had sites with finally issued granitsami15. Since 1912 the formal land surveying of officer lands was stopped in connection with the beginning of their full reland surveying.

Even more difficult the situation with obtaining by owners full authority of property for the sites was. "Data" prior to the beginning of the 20th century were practically not issued for them. The fact is that the considerable part of officer sites was allocated in a 10-verstny strip which lands till 1904 were in temporary use of army and could not carry over officers. Besides, uncertainty of a part of army borders long time did not allow to issue "data" on the sites adjoining to disputed territories. Therefore by the beginning of 1900 because of incompleteness of a complex of boundary actions of only 11 land owners received astringent documents for the sites.

Active issue of these documents by army economic board was carried out from 1906 to 1912 therefore "data" on sites of officer hereditary property were obtained by 382 persons. Thus, the vast majority of owners of officer sites (or their successors) acquired the rights of full land ownership only in the first decade of the 20th century 142 persons (27%) did not receive them and up to 1917 owned the lands without the right of alienation poslednikh16.

the Social composition of owners of officer lands in the Siberian Cossack army was not uniform. Sites of hereditary property belonged not only to the Cossack cool ranks, but also ordinary Cossacks whose fathers officers had the right for their receiving, to the officer widows and daughters who married merchants and petty bourgeoises, so - passed into other estate. The special category of owners was made by the persons who bought officer plots from their initial owners. At the beginning of the 20th century a considerable part of lands of hereditary property it is only formal about -

a dolzhala to be considered as "officer". By the beginning of 1917 the second generation of officers who had no rights (except hereditary) on receiving the special land plots served in the Siberian Cossack regiments already.

Realization by officers and their families of the possessory rights for the sites allocated to them can be considered as continuously developing process of office of the earth as property object from the earth as subject to managing. Cool ranks did not become "pioneers of economic development of edge", investment with their lands of hereditary property did not lead to emergence in the Siberian army of network of privately owned "model farms". Officers-land owners and their successors, as a rule, could not compete with the businessmen moving on the territory of army having experience of conducting large and average agricultural production and making big funds in it. The main ways of use by owners of the lands became their delivery for rent and sale. The transition of officer sites to hands of commoners which began in the Siberian army with some lateness repeated a situation on Don and Kuban where cool ranks by first years of the 20th century lost up to 60% hereditary zemel17.

In this plan the lands of officer hereditary property were fated to play a special role in development of capitalism in Steppes agriculture. In the conditions of extensive agrarian production they became one of the main components when forming the local land market. "... There were whole groups, artels and societies of colonists of the southern provinces and peasants who wished to lodge on officer sites the whole villages and to be engaged in agriculture, cattle breeding. The price of sites rose up to 35 rub for tithe at once and, gradually increasing in some places close to the railroad, big cities... reached 75-100 and more than a rub for tithe. The general sale and buying up of sites began. All army officials and successors of persons which were originally granted these sites started liquidating the relations to the earth and to sell the plots... to anyone, on the gained money began to buy houses in the cities of Omsk, Petropavlovsk, Pavlodar, Semipalatinsk, etc. for own housing and delivery in hiring" 18. Some sites in 15-20 years changed four-five owners. For example, lands horunzhy P.A. Golenkova at the settlement. Black yarskogo the Pavlodar County by 1912 passed into the fifth hands. By 1911 almost fourth part of the officer sites which were in the Akmola region - 105 plots - were already sold predprinimatelyam19. Only German colonists prior to World War I got in property 73,840 des. (12.5%) from structure officer zemel20.

The beginning of the 20th century became time of abrupt turn of government policy for officer lands in the Siberian Cossack army.

In the conditions of the growing resettlement movement and the agrarian capitalism developing in the region the central and local authorities saw in them one of the major means for the solution of a part of intra army problems. For more stable existence of army as military and economic organism it was decided to offer the interests of most of hereditary land owners: increase in number of army land quitrent articles at the expense of pieces from officer sites promised some improvement of a condition of army treasury. Mobilization of 1900, crop failures and hunger of 1900 - 1902 exhausted it to such an extent that, for example, implementation of budget expenses of army in 1902 became possible only after granting 250 thousand rubles by the government in an interest-free loan. Therefore during the begun reland surveying of officer lands their part was withdrawn and returned in an army stock.

February 26, 1904. The Council of War called into question results of allocation of land of officer hereditary property in Siberian Cossack voyske21. For this purpose essential shortcomings of the former legislation concerning lands of this category, and violation of the instruction for design land surveying of officer sites which were consciously allowed at the time by local authorities with the tacit consent of the Ministry of Defence for attraction to land ensuring bigger quantity of cool ranks were the cause. This measure did not concern sites for which their owners already acquired the rights of full property.

Reland surveying of officer sites began in 1905. The order of withdrawal of "excessively zamezhevanny lands" was the following. After the end of new land surveying and determination of the area of surplus the owner was offered to choose the part of the site which was subject a piece. From the moment of the adoption of works the piece was enlisted by army economic board in an army stock, and to its former owner was forbidden them to use. From 1905 to 1911 the area of officer lands in army was reduced on 73,931 des., or on 12,3%22. These results in no small measure predetermined the beginning new, not less large-scale, reland surveying of officer lands.

Repeated check of results of works on land surveying of officer lands in the Siberian army became one of the directions of the senatorial audit which is carried out in 1910 - 1911 in the Omsk military district. Almost in all examined sites (about 100) auditors found "illegally designed" surplus of the comfortable earth which extent fluctuated from 10 to 250% of the total area relying their owners under the law on May 7, 1877 23 Checking consciously refused to consider a method for determining the size of officer sites which used in 1880 - the 1890th ranks of army boundary party. Then according to the instruction for land surveying of lands of January 5, 1879 the land area was defined with degree of profitability of the earth (tithe of the arable land of an average dosto-

when processing the tithe of a meadow of average advantage - about 4 rub had to bring instvo annually on average 13 rub of gross income). In 1910 - 1911 the auditors estimated lands on quality of grounds, and used the criteria elaborated by agronomics and soil science by the beginning of the 20th century (at the same time results of land management on yurtovy lands were not called into question). One of opponents of this audit fairly noted: "... When sites were allocated, nobody heard about existence of so-called "dry agriculture", there were neither skating rinks for consolidation of the soil, nor tractors, etc." 24

A result of senatorial audit the decision of the Council of War on reland surveying approved on September 9, 1911 in the Siberian Cossack army of all sites of officer hereditary property which owners did not obtain "data" 25 yet became most royal. The revealed surplus had to come to an army stock again. The Council of War agreed that a part of owners did not acquire full authority of property for the lands for the reasons "in most cases from them not depending" that reland surveying of their sites postponed obtaining "data" indefinitely. However, according to his members, "the interests of individuals in this case have to be as necessary sacrificed to public concerns" 26.

In June, 1912 the Commission on an obmezhevaniye of officer sites in the Siberian Cossack army which activity was regulated by the instruction approved by the Steppe governor general E.O. Schmitt was formed. According to official figures, the acreage of officer hereditary property since 1912 prior to the beginning of 1916 decreased by 23,177 des.27 Actually reduction was more large-scale: only in 1913 for transfer to an army stock by the commission it was prepared 59,688 des.28 By our calculations, following the results of works for this period a piece was subject not less than 73,220 des. officer zemel29.

Such difference in data is explained by what is frequent between definition as a part of the officer site of surplus of the earth and its official transfer in an army stock there passed considerable term. For example, a part of the surplus which is cut off in 1912 was enlisted in an army stock only in a year - in November, 1913. Some pieces allocated in 1913 were formalized behind army only in 1916. The similar situation was connected with a number of boundary formalities and check by army economic board of results of works on each officer site. Besides, the army administration sought to create from the pieces which had the different sizes, a configuration and grounds, new quitrent articles more convenient for agricultural production or classes crafts. It became by joint reorganization of pieces and army rent sites to which officer plots adjoined.

Works on reland surveying of sites of officer hereditary property were suspended in April, 1917 according to decision I of an army congress (circle) "until the common decision of the land question by the Constituent assembly". Despite incompleteness of a campaign, by 1917 the reland surveying of sites of cool ranks together with the continuing purchase of these lands by commoners reduced the total area of officer land tenure in the Siberian army on a third (to 401,549 des.): not less than 100 - 130 thousand des. it was sold, the rest is withdrawn in army zapas30.

After the February revolution of this category of army lands it was fated to become a subject of bitter struggle of diverse political forces, many of which saw a necessary condition of permission of the intra class and interclass contradictions existing in the Siberian Cossack army in elimination of officer land tenure.

1 Code of laws of the Russian Empire. T. XII. Part 2. SPb., 1857. Page 13.
2 State Archive of the Omsk Region (SAOR). T. 67. Op. 1. 1046. L. 115 about.
3 GAOO. T. 67. Op. 1. 1054. L. 11.
4 GAOO. T. 67. Op. 1. 1070. L. 386 about.; 1169. L. 22 about.; 1441. L. 137.
5 GAOO. T. 67. Op. 1. 1170. L. 11-26; 1441. L. 137.
6 April 23 1870 the provision on providing generals, the headquarters - and ober-was accepted "

officers and cool officials of Donskoy troops" (The collection of government directives on the Cossack troops. T. VI. SPb., 1871. Page 71-81).

7 GAOO. T. 67. Op. 1. 1244. L. 37-38, 58-58 about.
8 F.N. Usov. Statistical description of the Siberian Cossack army. SPb., 1879. Page 106; GAOO. T. 67. Op. 1. 1305. L. 508 about.
9 Complete collection of laws of the Russian Empire. The 2nd meeting. T.Sh. Otd. I. No. 57 304.
10 G.E. Katanayev. Officers and ordinary our Cossacks (to a question of land management in the Siberian Cossack army). Omsk, 1918. Page 11-12.
11 Detailed rules of dissociation of plots of to officers of the Siberian Cossack army. Omsk, headless. Page 1-12.
12 The collection of government directives on the Cossack troops. T. XIII. Part 1. SPb., 1878. Page 143.
13 The status report on the Siberian Cossack army for 1897 of Part 2. Omsk, 1899. Page 3, 6.

of 14 Switches of I.P. Don during a capitalism era (the 60th - the middle of the 90th of the 19th century)//Essays from

stories of the South of Russia. Rostov N / D, 1962. Page 64.

15 The status report on the Siberian Cossack army for 1912 of Part 2. Omsk, 1913. Page 38-39.
16 The status report on the Siberian Cossack army for 1915 of Part 2. Omsk, 1916. Page 26.
17 V.A. Zolotov, I.P. Switches. An agrarian question to Dona at the end of XIX - the beginning of the 20th century//Essays of economic development of Don. Rostov N / D, 1960. Page 28; Lebedik NI. Crisis of agrarian policy of a tsarism in the Cossack areas before the Great October revolution (on materials of the Kuban army)//the Cossacks in the October revolution and civil war. Cherkessk, 1984. Page 236.
18 G.E. Katanayev. Decree. soch. Page 19-20.
19 L.M. Goryushkin. Siberian peasantry at the turn of the century. Novosibirsk, 1967. Page 126.
20 GAOO. T. 67. Op. 2. 2930. L. 126.
21 The collection of government directives on the Cossack troops for 1904 SPb, 1905. T. %. Page 568-569.
22 The status report on the Siberian Cossack army for 1904 of Part 2. Omsk, 1906. Page 17-18; The Status report on the Siberian Cossack army for 1910 of Part 2. Omsk, 1911. Page 20-21.
23 GAOO. T. 67. Op. 2. D. 3194. L. 1^1.
24 GAOO. T. 67. Op. 2. D. 2972. L. 22.
25 The order on the Siberian Cossack army No. 185 of November 26, 1912
26 The order on the Siberian Cossack army No. 23 of January 18, 1916
27 The status report on the Siberian Cossack army for 1912 of Part 2. Omsk, 1913. Page 39; The Status report on the Siberian Cossack army for 1915 of Part 2. Omsk, 1916. Page 25.
28 GAOO. T. 67. Op. 2. D. 2790. L. 121 about.-126.
29 GAOO. T. 67. Op. 2. D. 2790. L. 119-126; Orders on the Siberian Cossack army

No. 183 of November 11, 1913; No. 18 of January 15, 1916; No. 187 of April 18, 1916; No. 400 of September 9, 1916

30 Free Cossack. 1918. On February 20 (on March 5). No. 6.
Berg Arnhild
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