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Category: History

School and ideology

e. A. Makeeva


Work is presented by department of history and the right of the Penza state pedagogical university of V.G. Belinsky. The research supervisor - the doctor of historical sciences, professor N.B. Baranova

Article is devoted to features of school policy of the Soviet power. Special attention in it is paid to a problem of influence of ideology of the Soviet period on the content of educational process.

This article is devoted to the peculiarities of the Soviet authorities’ school politics. Special attention is paid to the problem of the Soviet ideology’s influence on the educational system on the whole.

Being determined historically, the educational policy cannot remain steady. It is reformed according to objective conditions in which there is a country, with her needs for the necessary level of education and the culture of the population and young shift and also need to increase and reproduce intellectual potential of society. Along with these objective conditions formation of educational policy is influenced also by subjective factors, such as strategic and tactical tasks of ruling party, group interests of various social groups and representing them in political system of parties and social movements.

Carrying out reforms in the educational sphere at the present stage aggravated the need for judgment of historical lessons of development of the Russian society. To understand features of the Russian history, the analysis of the main components of educational policy of the Soviet power is necessary.

The history of the Russian school and mood of the authorities and society are closely connected among themselves. The education system was means of planting of official ideology throughout the Soviet period. The systems of training and education were first of all the main mechanisms out of -

friction of new semantics in consciousness of people at all totalitarian modes. The political ideology took root into consciousness of the person literally from a day nursery, everything that contradicted it, was resolutely cut. Content, methods and forms of the organization of teaching and educational process were directed to formation of ideological conviction, the power considered an education system first of all the tool of communistic education. Nevertheless the Soviet school has many achievements on the account. Therefore it is impossible to reject without grounds all receptions and methods used in the Soviet education. The scientific analysis of both positive, and negative experience of the Soviet school is necessary. During the Soviet period the power paid special attention to national education. In party resolutions it was repeatedly emphasized that economic, socio-political, scientific and technical development of the country depends on achievements of school policy. In carrying out school policy a lot of success was achieved. The general average about - a razovaniye was entered into the studied period, the content of training is improved, educational process had high educational potential, a lot of things were made in the organization of leisure of younger generation, new forms of work with pupils appeared. Soviet

the school was held in the deserved respect in the international educational community because gave rather strong knowledge of fundamentals of sciences, formed complete outlook, brought up the disciplined, moral personality. However excessive ideological and political orientation in the organizations of educational process and also discrepancy of many ideological postulates of reality and to requirements of society did not yield the planned results and resulted in passivity from teachers and pupils.

During the Soviet period the system of school education constantly was in the center of ideological work of party therefore force of its ideological influence was directly projected on the content of teaching and educational process. The party membership of education followed from the main tasks of communistic construction, from need of constant and resolute fight against bourgeois ideology.

The value of ideological work in Soviet period was always high. Any party undertaking had the developed ideological providing: preparation and carrying out various political holidays and anniversaries, promotion of a socialist competition, the scientific conferences dated for political dates, meetings, community work days.

At the organization and carrying out political holidays and anniversaries also the school did not stand aside. In one of reports Penza oblono about a condition of teaching and educational work at schools of area it was noted that preparation for the 100 anniversary since the birth of Lenin, to the 50 anniversary of Lenin Komsomol, to the 50 anniversary since the birth of the pioneer organization opened for pedagogical staff of schools more opportunities for improvement educational raboty1.

The party organizations watched closely participation of younger generation in social and political life of area. In one of the resolutions

the regional committee of party recommended "to direct public activity of Komsomol members and pioneers to studying materials and decisions of the XXIV congress of the CPSU, materials of the XVI congress of Komsomol, conditions of the all-Union march of pioneer groups Always — It Is Ready! announced in honor of the 50 anniversary of the All-Union pioneer organization. To provide active participation of Komsomol members, pioneers and school students in routes of the All-Union march and implementation of decisions of a congress" 2.

In the content of teaching and educational process of school features of ideological activity of the party were reflected. At schools special attention was paid to praise of party, positioning of the regular congresses as events, fatal for country, to V.I. Lenin's glorification, glorification to L.I. Brezhnev, to promotion of superiority of the Soviet way of life, studying classical texts and official documents.

The work subject, the organization of socialist competitions, meetings of leaders of student production teams became one of the main directions of school life. The priority was given to the organizations of teaching and educational process to carrying out various political holidays and anniversaries, the organization of festive rituals, scientific conferences, mass actions dated for political dates.

The important place in teaching and educational process was allocated for ideological and political education. In the studied years in the pioneer organization there were a lot of new mass forms of work attracting millions of children. Big distribution in the Penza region was received by such mass actions as the pioneer two-year-old, a review of groups - "satellites of the seven-year-old", participation in the All-Union campaign in historical places "Shine, Lenin stars" 3.

Big distribution received carrying out all-Union Lenin offsets, marches of pioneer groups, obshcheshkol-

20 1

ny Komsomol and pioneer evenings and meetings, reviews of pioneer teams, Little Octobrist and pioneer collecting, organization of political holidays.

The collectivism became one of the most important structural elements of the Soviet ideology. The main goal of the Soviet educational policy was in that all younger generation (since a school bench) became like-minded, edinoorganizovanny, acting according to uniform standards. It was much simpler to be made if the bulk of pupils is orderly issued. For carrying out the official line the parties were created the youth organizations.

The pioneering and Komsomol were at the head of all school actions. In activity of data of the organizations the wide positive experience was accumulated: this association of the younger generation the general idea, the organization inside - and out-of-school activity of pupils, attention to improvement of quality of knowledge of school students, work with lagging behind. However the pioneer and Komsomol organizations were first of all the political organizations. Their activity was entirely devoted to communistic education of younger generation, through them the party carried out the ideology, exercised control over the younger generation. In activity of the youth organizations the power did not accept self-education and self-education. The Soviet socialization was directed, first of all, to leveling of the personality, the approval of monoideological agreement of opinion and authoritativeness of power structures. Throughout the considered period in Komsomol the crisis phenomena began to accrue.

Introduction of new advanced standard curricula and programs became one of the most important achievements of the Soviet power during the studied period. Much attention was paid to improvement of quality of education, education improvement, complex use of educational visual aids and technical

tutorials. In the mid-sixties - the middle of the 1980th there were new interesting techniques in the organization of teaching and educational process which gained the development at the present stage.

During the considered period considerable attention began to be paid to various forms of education in fixed and vneuroch - Nov time. At schools, scientific conferences, debates, readings, quizzes, exhibitions were often held, work of circles, clubs on interests, creative associations was organized.

It is impossible to tell that teaching subject matters was through ideologized. By preparation for lessons of the teacher set tasks of moral and esthetic education. At lessons the pupils comprehended such concepts as Rodina, a feat, the patriot, learned about victories of the people, learned to love the native nature, to appreciate the richness of the homeland created by work of the people.

In the organization of political education many good points were put. This type of education allows to form at pupils of quality of the citizen and the patriot of the country respecting its symbolics, able to analyze domestic and foreign policy of the state and other countries ready to participate in political life of society. In the studied years the pupils from early age were recruited in public life, to them the love and respect for traditions of the state took root.

Certainly, during the Soviet period a lot of things were made in education of younger generation. Life of pupils was filled with participation in collecting, reviews, marches, celebratory assemblies, backpackings, relays, war games, competitions, labor raids, meetings, amateur performances. However at the organization of any educational action priority attention was paid to the ideological and political sphere that resulted in their banality, a facade, double

to standards. More and more contradictions collected between what was told on "educational hours", and what occurred behind a threshold of school. The majority of party postulates did not correspond to needs of the younger generation any more. Nevertheless during the studied period the educational system had considerable potential in education of the qualities inherent in the person, such as honesty, modesty, ability to work and live in collective, dedication, gr an azhdanstvennost.

The world of education is the real-life reality developing on the regularities, but, undoubtedly, to some extent dependent on social concrete historical

of conditions. The ideology is always present at school education. School education, and first of all humanitarian, forms outlook of youth which defines social and political views and consequently, and ideology.

Speaking about ideology in its modern value, it is necessary to raise a question of formation of the state and patriotic ideology focused on education of the patriotic citizen of the Russian society, the ideology functioning in real macrosociety. At school it is necessary to form ideology, and it, most likely, there has to be a humanistic ideology with a certain set of the values which are saved up in previous years.

1 State archive of the Penza region (further: GAPO). F. r-1381. Op. 1. 2750. L. 43.
2 GAPO. F. r-1381. Op. 1. 2750. L. 146-147.
3 GAPO. F. r-2543. Op. 1. 147. L. 9-10.
Frida Daniela
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