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CHECHEN-INGUSHETIA in days of the GREAT PATRIOTIC WAR of 1941-1945: QUESTION HISTORIOGRAPHY



UDK 94 (47+57) & #34;1917/1991"

CHECHEN-INGUSHETIA in days of the GREAT PATRIOTIC WAR of 1941-1945: HISTORIOGRAPHY of the QUESTION

© 2009 of S.S. Tsutsulayev

Chechen state university, Chechen State University,

Sheripov St., 32, Grozny, 364907, Sheripov St., 32, Grozny, 364907,

admin@chesu.ru admin@chesu.ru

The analysis of historical literature showed that soldiers of Chechen-Ingushetia were involved in all largest fights and battles of the Great Patriotic War. Besides, in it dedicated work of workers in the back of the enemy, their participation in work of the industry, agriculture and construction of defensive works is shown.

The analysis of historic literature showed that Checheno-Ingushetiya joined battle in all huge battles in GPW as well it showed the self-sacrifice ofworking people in rear s enemy, their participation of work in industry, agriculture and constructing of defense work.

Already in days of the Great Patriotic War brochures, essays, stories about heroism of Chechens and Ingushs were published. However this literature cannot be carried to research. Its basic purpose consisted in promotion of experience of fight against the enemy, education of soldiers on fighting traditions and heroic examples [1].

After deportation of these people to the eastern regions of the USSR the development of the considered subject was suspended, and only after restoration of autonomy, in January, 1957, the research of this problem, as well as all history of the repressed people of the North Caucasus began. However, some works published during the post-war period when Chechens and Ingushs still were in places of special resettlement nevertheless contain some information on a taboo subject. So, V. Grossman wrote in the documentary story "Years of War": "Among yellow fallen leaves there are strict hillocks graves, simple board monuments with a surname, a name, date of death. Sometime there will be a severe and dark obelisk, a monument to heroes here. And people will read a name of the battalion commander Smerchinsky, the founder of a crossing, will read a name of his successor - the Chechen captain Eziyev" [2].

The first scientific work about a contribution of Chechen-Ingushetia to a victory over fascism are popular scientific essays of Z.K. Dzhambulatova [3]. They are written generally on materials of the Groznensky Rabochy newspaper of the military period. The author gives numerous examples of the feats made those days by soldiers of Chechen-Ingushetia, actions and heroism of certain fighters and commanders, divisions, parts and connections of troops of the Red Army are described and estimated. Z.K. Dzhambulatova studies the course of fighting of a separate Checheno-Ingush division at a defensive boundary near Mozdok and Malgobek, fights near the cities of Mineralnye Vody,

Georgiyevsk, gives many facts about unprecedented heroism of soldiers and officers, in particular how the separate Checheno-Ingush division under S. Visaitov's command with honor performed fighting tasks of command. At the same time the quantitative structure of a division designated in 1800 Chechens and Ingushs that corresponds to the number of almost cavalry crew raises doubts.

In the following work the author, leaning on the considerable actual material published in the Groznensky Rabochy newspaper of the military period (19411945) showed a contribution of workers of Chechen-Ingushetia to the solution of the tasks facing the Soviet hinterland [4]. It managed to open to some extent development of some primary branches of the industry of the republic at various stages of war. Oil industry and railway transport of the republic means. Despite rather small amount of work, the author managed to show and results of labor heroism in the industry and agriculture. At the same time some plots, such as fight for economy of fuel, materials and electric power that made one of the main not only economic, but also military tasks in the years of war, did not receive due lighting.

In the monograph by V.I. Filkin of the same period the role of the Checheno-Ingush party organization in days of the Great Patriotic War [5] reveals examples of fighting activity of both earlier famous, and unknown war heroes are described. On fronts of field army they together with all Soviet soldiers, added many heroic pages, battling in the far North, in the districts of Murmansk and Karelia, protecting Leningrad, being involved in fights near Moscow and in the Battle of Stalingrad...

In the book by V.I. Filkin there are interesting data not only on labor heroism of workers and peasants of the republic, but also on fight of working class, the intellectuals for creation of new designs, improvement of technological processes in oil industry of Chechen-Ingushetia. Describing these facts, the author marks out the main aspects, gives an assessment of their economic value.

Despite all advantages in its work work of local authorities on development of agriculture, mobilization of means of the population for needs of the front, on construction of defensive boundaries is rather poorly opened, documents of the central archives of the country which would allow to reflect more stoutly a contribution of Chechen-Ingushetia to a victory over fascist aggressors are not used.

Among participants of fight against Hitlerite aggressors there are people who made really legendary feats and the awarded ranks of the Hero of the Soviet Union. It is told about them in the collection of essays which appeared to 40-year anniversary of the Great Victory the third edition [6]. In it much more stoutly in comparison with the previous editions fighting feats of brave sons of Chechen-Ingushetia, Heroes of the Soviet Union are shown. However the scientific value of essays decreases a little because in them it is impossible to distinguish documentary materials, memoirs of participants of war and judgments of authors.

Since the second half of the 60th of the 20th century the scientific development of this problem considerably extended. At this time were published the collection heroic byly and also V.I. Filkin's work where this issue is touched [7]. Interesting data on heavy fighting with superior forces of the opponent near Malgobek and heroes of defense of the city are available in the collection of essays "Fortress not Terek", written and participants of fights [8]. These essays and memoirs of participants of those battles allowed historians to make more or less concrete idea of scales, the direction, forms and the nature of the fights which were taking place in the territory of Chechen-Ingushetia, in particular near Malgobek (in 1979 there was the third edition of this book). Additions and changes concerned generally specification of some facts of the fights happening near Malgobek.

One of sections in "Essays of history of Chechen-Ingush ASSR...", devoted to the period of the Great Patriotic War, it is written by M.A. Abazatov and V.I. Filkin [9]. In him participation of workers of Chechen-Ingushetia in defeat of fascism is reflected in fronts of war, in the guerrilla movement in the back of the enemy, their heroic and dedicated work in our back. Authors, using already earlier known and unknown facts and digital data, give names of those who showed courage and courage during the Great Patriotic War, show development of the industry, republic agriculture during the war, but at the same time do not give the scientific device where those sources which they used would appear, stating this material.

The noticeable contribution in a research of history of Chechen-Ingushetia in days of the Great Patriotic War was made by one more work of M.A. Abazatov [10]. Work is written on the basis of archive materials which considerable part is for the first time introduced for scientific use. For disclosure of a goal it studied fighting directives, orders, indications and orders of command of the North Caucasian and Transcaucasian fronts, operational information of armies and bodies of these fronts, materials of headquarters of the front and armies, the description of fighting of troops of the 9, 37, 44, 56 armies, the 10 and 8 engineer armies, the 4th Guards Kuban Cossack cavalry corps.

M.A. Abazatov showed also a labor feat of railroad workers of Chechen-Ingushetia. The republic was crossed by railway lines Moscow - Baku, Astrakhan - Grozny.

The author drew important conclusions in the scientific relation, the contribution of soldiers and home front workers to a victory over the German fascism is accurately defined. However, despite all this, in work there are also some shortcomings. The main thing from them is what is held back consequences of deportation of the Chechen and Ingush people and the word "deportation" on the relation as to the people, and her soldiers who were on fronts of the Great Patriotic War is not used.

In the 70-80th much more, than earlier, researchers from Chechen-Ingushetia were engaged in the history of the industry and agriculture and their separate aspects. Among them first of all it is necessary to call M.A. Karatayeva's articles devoted to activities of the party organizations of the republics of the North Caucasus for mobilization of a labor feat of women on production in days of the Great Patriotic War and to problems of reorganization of the national economy of the republic on the military harmony and V.H. Magomayev devoted to ideological and political work at the industrial enterprises of Chechen-Ingushetia in days of the Great Patriotic War and to a socialist competition of working class of Chechen-Ingushetia [11].

It is told about labor feats of the Checheno-Ingush people in A. Bolbukh's work and also in the popular scientific edition "Gorod Grozny" written by group of authors and small V. Simarzin's work on volume [12]. The separate parties of the studied problem, such as participation of women in war, found reflection in the book by E. Isaev and 3. Isaeva, about a feat of the scientific intellectuals of Chechen-Ingushetia in days of the Great Patriotic War, and the veteran of war, the former Deputy Minister of Internal Affairs of Chechen-Ingush ASSR I.V. Kurylev told of a fighting way of militia of Chechen-Ingushetia [13].

Many works were published by researchers of the republic and in the 80-90th. So, a number of collections of essays and also the documentary story by P.P. Brikel [14] in which a lot of place is allocated to soldiers from Chechen-Ingushetia were published.

A substantial contribution to business of unbiased interpretation of history of participation of the people of the North Caucasus, in

that number and Chechen in the Great Patriotic War, also M.M. Ibragimov brought [15].

A specific place in a historiography of history of Chechen-Ingushetia in the Great Patriotic War is held by H.A. Gakayev's work [16]. He used documentary materials, stored in the central and local party and state archives of the country, periodicals materials. A historiographic basis of work are the generalizing works on stories of the Great Patriotic War and also monographic researches and scientific articles of historians in which life of the republic and activity of its party organization in 19411945 is considered. The author lights feats of arms of soldiers of Chechen-Ingushetia on fronts of war, telling some new names from among become famous in battles. Also the labor contribution of workers of the republic during the war was succeeded to reveal H.A. Gakayeva. In the monograph there are well developed explanatory notes.

In the book "Chechens: history and the present" one of heads also belongs to H.A. Gakayev [17]. In it the scientist discloses the courage and heroism shown by Chechens in fights against fascist aggressors. Here found reflection and those negative sides which took place in the history of the people including at illumination of the questions concerning the period of the Great Patriotic War. At the same time work is not rich with a documentary basis yet. There are shortcomings and of development of explanatory notes.

On the western frontier Chechens and Ingushs participated in heroic defense of Brest together with all representatives of our people. "Brest is a nutlet fiery" [18] - the book on which H. Oshayev scrupulously worked many years. It is devoted to Chechens and Ingushs - defenders of the Brest fortress which assumed the cruel attacks of fascists in the first hours of war. As established X. Oshayev, from 2000 Russian soldiers and officers who died at defense of a citadel and three forts adjoining it (Kob-rinsky, Terespolsky and Holmsky) over two hundred were Vainakhs. In the museum of Brest several names of defenders from Chechen-Ingushetia are beaten out.

The author provides very important list of 275 Checheno-Ingush participants of defense of the Brest fortress and the area adjoining to it. The list is made by it on the basis of these district military registration and enlistment offices, the Village Councils where there were military and registration tables, the certificates of participants of war, letters and photos which remained at relatives according to messages of close relatives, friends and familiar soldiers.

Speaking about participation of Chechens and Ingushs in the Great Patriotic War, H. Oshayev highlights that as a percentage of the population the number of the Chechen and Ingush veterans did not concede to number of participants of war of other people of the Soviet Union at all. Using revealed by it and sources available to it, X. Oshayev brought the most reasonable for those times figure of participants

The Great Patriotic War from among Chechens and Ingushs - 27,500 people [19]. As the author specified, this figure incomplete and demands further specification by means of attraction of sources, inaccessible in its time. Being based on the data of X. Oshayeva and attracting new sources, modern researchers call number of the Chechen and Ingush participants of war to 40 thousand people.

H.D. Oshayev's researches contributed significantly to a matter historiography, have considerable value for study and revision of a number of former historic facts about participation of Chechens and Ingushs in the Great Patriotic War, about the history of genocide against Vainakhs in 1944, for exposure of fabrications of any falsifiers of history, for discrediting of slanderous attacks to our people and its history.

The published memoirs of the veteran of war, the former Minister of Agriculture of the republic V. Rusin are very relevant and useful [20].

Thus, the analysis of historical literature on participation of the people of Chechen-Ingushetia in the Great Patriotic War allows to draw a conclusion that researchers did considerable work. By them it is revealed that in 1941-1945 the soldiers of these people were involved in all largest fights and battles, feats of soldiers, sergeants and officers, the awarded high awards including ranks of the Hero of the Soviet Union, became an object and a subject of special study. The analysis of literature confirms also dedication of workers in the back of the enemy, their participation in work of the industry, agriculture and construction of defensive works and transport.

But in this direction it is necessary to make much. The generalizing work about a contribution of the people of the Chechen Republic to a victory over fascist Germany is necessary. Besides, in these researches almost nothing is told that at the final stage the most part of soldiers of these people were recalled from fronts on "national" sign and as all Chechen and Ingush people were sent to Siberia and Central Asia. Also those difficulties which they had to face on the special settlement are not described. But there was a mass of the invented and distorted documents for justification of eviction of the whole people. And now some authors use them, trying to realize contrary to the historical truth old Stalin beriyevskiye labels of "helpers of invaders", "traitors of the Homeland", "gangster elements" and so forth. This problem is extremely difficult and relevant, many aspects keep it the value and now.

Literature

1. M.A. Abazatov. The Checheno-Ingush people in Great Oteche-

stvenny war of the Soviet Union. Grozny, 1943; Hero

Soviet Union Hanpasha Nuradilov. Grozny, 1943.

2. V. Grossman Years of war. M, 1947. Page 209.
3. Z.K. Dzhambulatova. Sons of Chechen-Ingushetia on fronts

Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945//Izv. Checheno-Ingush NIIIYaIL. Grozny, 1960. T. 2. Page 54-80.

4. Z.K. Dzhambulatova. Labor affairs of Chechen-Ingushetia in the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945//Izv. Checheno-Ingush NIIIYaIL. Grozny, 1959. T. 1. Page 134-157.
5. V.I. Filkin. The Checheno-Ingush party organization in days of the Great Patriotic War of the Soviet Union. Grozny, 1960.
6. Gold stars of Chechen-Ingushetia. Grozny, 1985.
7. Heroic were. Grozny, 1965; V.I. Filkin. Nice way of fight and work. Grozny, 1968. Page 177-186.
8. Fortress on Terek. They protected Malgobek. Grozny, 1979.
9. Essays of history of Chechen-Ingush ASSR since the most ancient times up to now: in 2 t. T. 2. Grozny, 1972. Page 210280.
10. M.A. Abazatov. Chechen-Ingush ASSR in the Great Patriotic War of the Soviet Union. Grozny, 1973.
11. M.A. Karatayeva. Activities of the party organizations of autonomous republics of the North Caucasus for mobilization of a labor feat of women on production in days of the Great Patriotic War//the Party organizations of Chechen-Ingushetia in fight for increase in activity of workers in construction of socialism and communism. Grozny, 1982. Page 52-74; It. Reorganization of the national economy of Chechen-Ingushetia on a military harmony during an initial stage of the Great Patriotic War (July, 1941 - August, 1942)//Current problems of socialist construction in Chechen-Ingushetia. Grozny, 1986. Page 82-104; M.A. Karatayeva, Magomayev VH. Reorganization of ideological and political work at the industrial enterprises of Chechen-Ingushetia in days of the Great Patriotic War//Great October and sotsia-

listichesky transformations in Chechen-Ingushetia. Grozny, 1987. Page 32-48; Them. Development of a socialist competition at the industrial enterprises of Chechen-Ingushetia in days of the Great Patriotic War (1941-1945)//Working class of Chechen-Ingushetia - the leading force of socialist construction. Grozny, 1989. Page 36-51.

12. A.V. Bolbukh. History of workers of Chechen-Ingush ASSR. Grozny, 1986; City of Grozny / under the editorship of A.I. Kazakov. Grozny, 1984; Simarzin B.C. Heroic Grozny. Grozny, 1968.
13. E.A. Isaev, Z.E. Isaeva. Memory of fiery years. Grozny, 1987; With call of duty / under the editorship of M. Pavlov. Grozny, 1985; I.V. Kurylev. Fighting way of militia of Chechen-Ingushetia. Grozny, 1976.
14. S.T. Voronin.... There was a war national. Grozny, 1980; S. Parshuto. So guardsmen battled. Grozny, 1982; V.F. Tributs. Baltic Fleet sailors come. Kaliningrad, 1969; Ways roads. Grozny, 1984; P.P. Brikel. Last raid. Grozny, 1984.
15. M.M. Ibragimov. The power and society in days of the Great Patriotic War. M, 1998; It. The people of the North Caucasus in the period of the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945 of M., 1997.
16. GakaevH. And. In the years of severe tests. Grozny, 1988.
17. Chechens: history and present. M, 1996. Page 235258.
18. OshaevH. D. Brest - a nutlet fiery. Grozny, 1990.
19. H.D. Oshayev. Word about a regiment Checheno-Ingush: sb. documentary works of art. Nalchik, 2004.
20. Russinian V.F. Dostoinstvo of proud. Nalchik, 2005.

Came to edition On May 14, 2009

Vincent Moore
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