The Science Work
History
Site is for sale: mail@thesciencework.com
Category: History

Categories "Idleness" and Trud in the context of modernization of the Russian culture of xviiinachala xx of a century



literatura

1. V.N. Petukhov. Corporations in the Russian industry: legislation and practice: Nauch. - prakt. settlement M, 1999.
2. D. Bell. Future post-industrial society. M, 1999.
3. E. Toffler. The third wave. M, 1999.
4. New post-industrial wave in the West. The anthology / Under the editorship of V.L. Inozemtsev. M, 1999.
5. Tsit. on: V.L. Inozemtsev. The creative beginnings of modern corporation//In ten years. To the concept post-economic

societies. M, 1998.

6. Tsit. on: V.L. Inozemtsev. Outside economic society. M, 1998.

V.V. Shevtsov

CATEGORIES "IDLENESS" And "WORK" in the context of MODERNIZATION of the RUSSIAN CULTURE of XVIII-of the BEGINNING of the 20th CENTURY

Tomsk state university

The major components in human life are work as a way of development of surrounding reality and ensuring own activity (and under favorable conditions and as a way of self-expression) and the idleness time interrupting the course of labor daily occurrence the period of unemployment, freedom from obligatory affairs devoted to implementation of special festive "text".

The attitude of the certain person, his positioning in society is in many respects based on these categories which study is capable to bring closer to understanding of one more measurement of history, of the measurement opening an originality of various historical periods, revealing communication of the past with the present when the holiday and the related system of symbols and behavior models lost the initial sacral meanings and became a part of mass culture, and perception of work approached its initial semantic value - "heavy burden, disappointment, grief".

Era of the XVIII century began with the large-scale changes in the history of Russia connected with the forced modernization and the beginning of transition of medieval culture to the culture of Modern times. New skills, behavior models and requirements were acquired first of all by a noble upper crust which Peter I "prinevolit" to wear clothes of the European breed, to learn foreign languages, to get an education, to visit assemblies, to comprehend knowledge of secular behavior and leisure. In Peter's time the sphere of serious was very significantly complemented with the sphere game, to promoting statement of new forms of behavior and rehabilitation of fun.

However assimilation by the Russian nobility of norms of the European hostel was minor, at -

kladny in relation to assimilation of military and technical skills by it and to execution of public service. In this regard the first Russian emperor only enhanced the tradition created by his regal predecessors considering the nobility as a group of military and administrative employees.

At the same time along with introduction of the advanced innovations in social and economic and political life, on the Russian soil the change of the knightly, aristocratic ideal of the Middle Ages which was already consigning to the past in which ideals of a holiday were above ideals of productive work was carried out.

Implementation by the Russian nobility of this ideal began during a postpetrovsky era when it gradually began to be exempted from public service, reserving former and acquiring the new rights. The vital energy of the Russian nobility began to concentrate in many respects in spheres of demonstrative idleness and wasteful consumption, in imitation the European standards. The nobility gained lines of "an idle class" 1, reproducing the medieval knightly ideal which was already consigning to the past in Western Europe.

If to compare the portrait of the medieval knight made by V. Zombart and A.Ya. Gurevich to the Russian nobleman of an Ekaterina's century, then we will find almost full coincidence.

"Messages life of the señor means to live "full чашей" and to allow to live much; it means to spend the days in the war and on hunting and to burn nights in a cheerful circle of cheerful drinking companions, behind dicing or in embraces of beautiful women. It means to build locks and churches, means to show gloss and splendor in tournaments or in other torzhe-

1 Authorship of this definition belongs to the American economist and the sociologist T. Weblen (see: T. Weblen. Theory of an idle class. M, 1984).

stvenny cases, means to live in luxury as far as allow and even means do not allow... Despises money of senhoras: they are dirty, just as also any acquisition activity is dirty" [1, page 12-13].

"Among the valors characterizing the feudal señor the generosity was on the first place... Renta who is brought together by it from the possession gives him the chance to arrange feasts, festivals, to receive guests, to distribute gifts - a word, to live in grand style... Thrift, thrift - the qualities contraindicated to it class ethics. The bailiff, the managing director, the head care for his income, put him - to eat and spend on drink received, to give away and waste property, and the more widely and with a bigger pomp he will manage to make it, the its glory will be louder and social standing is higher, the he will use great respect and prestige" [2, page 194-195].

In Europe this ideal more and more lost the positions under the influence of the Reformation, educational criticism and the principles of "petty-bourgeois virtue" and, at last, was resolutely overthrown in the citadel - in France. The medieval nobility was forced out by the "new nobility" focused on moneymaking, economic activity, a utilitarizm, the rational organization of time. Leisure, time of a holiday it began to be understood as the small period of time restoring forces for the subsequent labor activity.

In the 18th century, and in particular in XIX (which as the phenomenon historical, but not chronological, conducts the counting since 1789), the unreasonable generosity, idleness, contempt for productive work in the European tradition were perceived as an anachronism. Individual rushes towards "the pleasure" restrained pressure of corporate ethics and awareness of advantage to keep decent shape: "It is necessary to abstain from any dissipations, to be shown only in decent society; it is impossible to be the drunkard, the player, the ladies' man; it is necessary to go to a sacred mass or to a Sunday sermon; in sum, follows and in the external behavior in relation to light also to be kind "petty bourgeois" - from business interest. Because such moral way of life lifts the credit" [1, page 99-100].

"Work and production become an ideal, and soon and an idol. Europe puts on a working dress. The public advantage, thirst for education and scientific judgment become dominants of cultural process", - I. Heyzinga in the work noted [3, page 216].

Therefore British, the French and other representatives of dynamically developing nations are so monotonous in the descriptions of the Russian society - they saw themselves in the past rather the aristocracy. Many maxims about secular emptiness, those are

atralnost, idleness, squandering, external morals nearly word for word repeated the statements of the French moralists of the XVII century of Lab-ryuyera and La Rochefoucauld about the fatherland.

The Russian nobility which in actually Middle Ages in the majority was poor financially dependent, subordinated and obliged by service to the state, could carry out a knightly ideal only in the 18th century. During Modern times the nobility realized itself the independent corporation which is surpassing all other estates and having the exclusive rights in property, judicial, administrative and cultural spheres. The nobility found material independence, release from the state duties and ample opportunities to choose an occupation. At last, the sphere of leisure activity, prestigious consumption, cultivation of norms of intra class ethics and etiquette became priority both on time and on the spent efforts in comparison with economic, public and political activity.

It is possible to tell that the culture of the Russian nobility of the 18th century in many respects developed as the culture of the festive, playful ways of behavior which developed as a result of a disproportion between free time and time of work. "Results of the western influence - a painful impression of an idle game, an entertainment, - V.O. Klyuchevsky noted, is because that the western influence was necessary for us for essential business, and it in the 18th century fell on the Wednesday living others work and which remained idle therefore forced to fill leisure with a game, an entertainment" [4, page 112].

Besides, it should be noted that in noble subculture the space of a holiday was not limited to ceremonial meanings and time as it is characteristic of traditional communities. One of essential lines of a holiday is a suspension of action of moral standards and activization of spontaneous, sensual manifestations of human nature therefore the holiday surplus in the noble environment generated degradation of morals (that provided to M.M. Shcherbatov extensive material for his conservative and critical composition).

Created during an Ekaterina's era of a form of positioning of the nobility in society did to

it recognizable throughout all subsequent existence of imperial Russia. Characters of convivial culture of an Ekaterina's century were objects of admiration and imitation not only among the contemporaries surrounding them, but also for the subsequent times were depicted for future hedonists as "nice ancestors" whose acts were considered as true manifestations of "the Russian grandness".

In the 19th century in noble society there were very important changes which can be designated as spiritual break. If in the 18th century Russian the Far Eastern Military District -

the ryanstvo acquired outer sides of the European culture - the world of things, requirements, behavior models and also learned to understand and use the European ideas, in the 19th century the creative, independent reflection concerning the acquired foreign culture experience began. From social elite the elite intellectual took shape. The intellectual spirit of this educated minority was connected with judgment of process of familiarizing with the western culture, sharp awareness of the ethnicity and the appeal to national roots, need of intellectual self-development and socially important activity.

In this regard L.N. Tolstoy's biography serves as one of the most indicative examples. In a course of life of this writer cultural and psychological layers XVIII and XIX of centuries were crossed, the general development of the Russian culture was reflected. In youth Tolstoy reproduced heritage

XVIII century, adhering to the scenario, typical for a noble etos. He was guided by "external good manners" (comme il faut), led dissolute motovsky a life of not settled nobleman, gaining income from the manor. "Nights of a tsyganer-stvo", women, wine parties, cards, oppressive idleness - all this preceded finding of the purpose by Tolstoy. "My life was usual, worthless, from the wordly point of view, life of unscrupulous young people", - Tolstoy already in the evening of life wrote. He even wanted to destroy diaries of the bachelorhood that "to address children and public only in the patriarchal look", but nevertheless left them for edification of descendants [5, page 16]. Only in the course of personal and creative growth "the person the player" gave way to "the creative person" 19th century 18th century

Transition to appolonov-sky came from the dionissiysky beginning only at a smaller part of social elite. Noble most of XIX - the head of the 20th century remained at the external infantile level of reproduction of the European culture, providing to contemporaries and historians material for sad conclusions about spiritual impoverishment of social tops.

A.F. Tyutcheva who carried out at the imperial yard from 1853 to 1866 so spoke of carriers of supreme authority in Russia: "A small handful on the education and a way of life become absolutely alien to the country, demoralized by life among luxury and superficial pleasures which homeland - the Italian opera or the French restaurant, reading - newspaper feuilletons, and the only law - achievement of the greatest material welfare, - this small handful... directs the fate of the great people!" [6, page 42].

According to the territorial figure and the teacher N.F. Bunakov, the aspiration "was a common desire of the prereform nobility to have fun, please -

sya to live fast to the taste... evenings with music, dances, plentiful dinners, a hazardous gambling game, wine parties, here what was filled majority life". And though this society was not deprived of "intellectual development, esthetic tastes of external Europeanism", but lived "without truly moral bases, without great civil valors, without requirements of live, reasonable work" [7, page 30].

In post-reform time the unwillingness and inability of the nobility to limit the sphere of prestigious consumption and leisure vital ideals in favor of utilitarian activity accepted dramatic character. The Tambov landowner S.N. Terpigorev estimated position of noblemen-land owners as "impoverishment" (though, of course, it was relative as loss of material independence and impossibility of reproduction of a way of life "a full bowl"). The essential material supplies received as a result of redemption operation did not save from ruin as they were spent for again "to leap" and "be restored" to life. The nobility still, without reducing turns, continued to reproduce positioning forms, characteristic of an Ekaterina's era, in society, hoping for support of the state: "Now "we" spent the last remains, and spent them with the same aplomb, unclear, improbable and inexplicable for anybody, and thoughtless persistence. Most remarkable here the fact that it was no binge of the person from despair. We to the last ruble - a sigh trusted in the life and waited that just about there will be our absolute, sheer recovery, and again countrywomen, sturgeon, caviar, champagne, champagne and champagne!." [8, page 632].

The Russian historian N.A. Astafyev noted that public life of Russia was characterized by strengthening of atheistic, materialistic and consumer moods at the turn of the century. "If human life comes to an end with body death if the destiny of the person is only his real mortal life if life is purely physical, then acquisition of perhaps bigger quantity of earthly goods, physical pleasures has to be its purpose, obviously. Instead of aspiration recent still to honest, ideal, - a pursuit of a profit as characteristic feature of our time, all the acquaintance. It also is clear, - as money can satisfy with everything requirements and whims of our animal nature" [9, page 29-30]. This "the harmful spirit of our time", according to Astafyev, was created in the West under the influence of development of natural sciences, atheism and a utilitarizm.

The idea about "noxious influence of the West" is not new. Another is important: as well as many pochvennik, Astafyev in the heat of a publicistic oblichitelstvo of the present and the immoral secular West ignored a factor of internal state

the Russian society which did very doubtful a possibility of rescue in "Word of God". The Russian society took the direction of development which results Astafyev observed at the turn of the century at the beginning of the 18th century, and many lines the unacceptable author of "bourgeois culture" arose and developed in the noble environment.

The Russian nobility which began after reforms is prompt to lose the positions in economy, kept the situation in policy and remained the dominating sample in the sphere of culture and life. In class society with the heightened sense of social hierarchy and accurate distinctions the highest-lowest marked by certain attributes, each social group sought not only to keep the class status, but also to get closer to the standard of living standing above on a social ladder. Even the Russian raznochinny intellectuals which are formed from the middle of the 19th century emphasizing independence of the previous cultural tradition and the existing social hierarchy in the daily behavior sought to be guided by the way of life peculiar to the noble aristocracy.

Just as in the 18th century the Russian nobility imitated the European samples, in the 19th century well-founded city layers (first of all merchants) sought to imitate, according to the lights and abilities, to already Europeanized Russian nobility. It is natural that many recipients and remained at the primitive level of reproduction of external forms. Especially as for deep understanding and assimilation of a standard system of the nobility it was necessary to have a significant amount of free time.

Despite self-criticism and criticism of nobility from the intellectuals, charge of social dependence and consumerism, reproaches in economic and political passivity, condemnation of external superficial it is Europeanized-nosti, the nobility in general carried out very important cultural mission in the Russian society. The nobility became the conductor of the Western European culture in the Russian society both within noble subculture and under its influence the great building of the Russian culture of the 19th century in all its diverse manifestations was built - from art and literature till an image of the well-mannered person.

Except wasteful consumption the nobility made priority and such categories of personal development as high education level, the standard of speech, foreign language skills, rules of good form, idea of honor and nobility. This vector of development setting the direction to all society was not the worst at all and still remains a significant reference point. In the noble environment the sphere of leisure was realized not

only as the sphere of rest and entertainments, but also as the sphere of personal creative self-realization.

In country subculture the ratio of categories "work" and "holiday" was other. Agricultural work was a form of value and free activity on an obustroyeniye and expansion of the cultural and economic space. Transforming the nature, the person perceived it as an integrated part to himself, but not as a simple object of application of work. All-consuming work was counterbalanced with holiday time when the moderation and concentration were replaced by fun, a game, consumption of alcohol, liberty in communication of floors. Work and rest supplemented each other, interacted and united the general paradigms.

The sphere of a holiday was closely connected with ceremonial meanings. So, a game as a holiday component beyond its limits lost the sacral sanction and hobby for it on weekdays was considered as "empty occupation" (idle = empty). Only for youth for registration of the marriage relations the playing time and space extended at the expense of everyday life.

In folklore texts the limitlessness of festive time corresponded to a way of life of "evil spirit" and peripheral, dangerous space. Devils, water and others "dirty" on feasts, weddings, in taverns and uninhabited houses with hunting indulge in such classes "invented" by them as wine drink, tobacco smoking, shulersky card play and bones.

With development of the factory industry the value of work and the attitude towards its results underwent changes. Work of the worker is the pragmatical activity perceived as a duty and as loss of time of life. The identity of the worker in the countries with the catching-up economy is only an appendage to already existing means and the relations of production, he is important as the performer of limited set of mechanical skills, creative and esthetic perception of an object of work is minimized. Results of such activity especially materialistic - money and a fragment of the artificial reality which is the property of the industrialist. Having exempted from the burdening and monotonous work, the worker sought to fill underloading of impressions with the extreme, festive manifestations (anti-work, anti-creation) which are not connected with ceremonial and public functions. So spheres of a holiday and work lost coherence and gained oppositional character.

Fixed working hours, weakening of family and communal regulators of behavior, the festive atmosphere of the city led to change of alternation of work and the rest subordinated to natural and natural rhythms - time of a holiday could -

to begin the Leningrad Region upon termination of work or after delivery of week earnings. Such elements of festive behavior as consumption of alcohol, plentiful food, gamblings, sexual freedom in the conditions of the city became significant reference points in itself, outside the context of festive time. Increase of stubborn contradictions in the village, loss of a support at the collapsing communal institutes created need for festive removal of the arisen social discomfort both by departure to the city, and by transfer in rural daily occurrence of city values.

As well as in a case with the Europeanized nobility

XVIII century, in country estate of the second half

XIX -the head of the 20th century there was an aspiration to become "the polished person", i.e. to reproduce first of all outer sides of life of the social elite acting as the bearer of "the European civilization". These aspirations can be tracked not only in real changes in daily life, but also in the imagined world of folklore images. The happy and free hero was presented in the Russian household fairy tales as staying in divergence, idleness and content, and achievement of this state happened by means of sudden social take-off, by means of a magic subject [10, page 240-260].

There was a paradoxical situation: while the educated estate at last took a keen interest in the man, in folk speech, in the national roots and seriously thought of leveling by European civilization of original culture, in the environment of the people to which populists and specialists in folklore went, the steady tendency to rejection of traditional values was found. The second stage of disintegration of the Russian traditional culture which mentioned any more not an upper crust, but its bulk began. Just as in Europe the 16-18th centuries where "aristocratic and knightly culture is turned and adapts for less exacting tastes of a plebs" [2, page 504], in Russia occurred 19th century the massovization of culture of tops which, however, did not raise the culture of the people to the level, and, on the contrary, was reduced to the level of the mass carrier. Despite differences in mental characteristics, the mechanism of perception of foreign culture innovations both in noble and in country subcultures it was typologically similar and equally ugly: same picture of "damage of customs" and fading of traditional value orientations. The peasantry reproduced life on "a domonical leg" in already outdated option of the 18th century. Infantile extremism in relation to the culture, the aspiration to expand idleness time, "education", gluttony, panache in clothes on European manners, interest in gamblings - this way already took place at the time the Russian nobility. Among peasants,

the foreign words which got gloves, picked up and devoting free time to wine and cards we recognize the noble greenhorns trying to reproduce the most attractive sides of the European hostel in their understanding.

The journalist and the publicist V.O. Mikhnevich wrote in very emotional form that distribution of "civilization" in the people accepts the nature of the "comical obezyannichestvo" which is followed by contempt for all native: "All these frock coats, vests, "pannier", etc. pieces of the wardrobe and house stuff which is cut out and sewed on fashion on the "German" style, are brought in country life along with weight new, without discrimination grabbed on the city street, the most part unclear or clear at random, the ideas, concepts of words, habits, manners and prejudices from the sphere of intelligent life... Some wild, ugly amalgam of the mutilated scraps and particles of the European culture with the depersonalized, decaying remains and lines of the becoming obsolete old type of "man", with his primitive roughness and ignorance which some also remain further and neprikosnovenny of all antiquated heritage turns out" [11, page 389-390].

the Writer G.I. Uspensky with alarm noted invasion of a new wave of greenhorns, "savrasov-future" from the circle of country "exploiters": "... they - in "pinzhaka", "at hours", collect according to tyatenkiny receipts and sit at a traktirny institution. Cognac, port wine - it is known to them. Cards also in a great demand. These new people never knew and do not learn what is books that means to read about any literally questions, neither burning, nor not burning, nobody and ever them them thought about any the sort to brainwork does not know, cannot be put to any business where the mind tension because money profits simple otnyatiy the stranger is necessary" [12, page 404-405].

Of course, the thought of protection of agricultural orders and cultivation of the agrarian sector to which Mikhnevich and Uspensky gradually brought the reader did not correspond to the objective course of history. The description of that transitional type as carrier of vital reference points and requirements of an idle class, as opposed to traditional ideals is much more important. Despite severe criticism, it is possible to expect the subsequent results of evolution of these transitional vital forms, based on a noble precedent. Within odes-legged and two generations full transition from country to the urbanized type of the personality having not smaller potential for intellectual and creative growth, of course, was impossible.

However if concerning the nobility the significant role was played by time factor, then in a case with the peasantry the natural course of time was pre-

M.A. Slyusarenko. "Silver age" of Russia and festive culture nachalaHHveka

rvano the revolution encouraging destruction of everything that was associated with the power and existence of the barin. But removal of one population group involves irreversible changes for others. Bulgakov Sharikov became the grotesque embodiment of the city outcast who rose on a wave of postulation of primitivism. The simplest entertainments (tavern, circus, a cinematograph), boorish behavior, consumerism, social aggression, a pursuit of the material benefits, categoricalness of judgments, ignoring of standards of morality and morals (announced by bourgeois) - these qualities ceased to be counterbalanced with more cultural society etched by the state and flooded by outcasts.

Even in Soviet period, despite idealization and aprioristic innocence of working class, nesmot-

rya on enormous measures for "eminence" of its leisure, the Soviet sociologists recognized that such features as alcoholism, tendency to disorderly conduct and in general low cultural requirements, continued to be characteristic of a working environment and tended to growth [13, page 141]. Emergence of these processes was explained by exploiter essence of autocracy when this public evil was generated "by oppression, darkness, downtroddenness of masses, cynical policy of ruling circles", and the subsequent existence again with the taken roots remnants of the exploiter past, "sad inertia of history". More essential and deep reason consists in oblivion of traditional regulators of behavior and inversion of a social ideal when ignorant, but the proletarian, became higher and "better" than the educated intellectual.

Literature

1. V. Zombart of Bourgeois. Etudes on the history of spiritual development of the modern economic person. M, 1994.
2. A.Ya. Gurevich. Categories of medieval culture//Gurevich A.Ya. Izbr. works. T. 2. M, 1999.
3. Y. Heyzinga. Homo ludens. M, 1992.
4. V.O. Klyuchevsky. The western influence in Russia after Pyotr//Unpublished works. M, 1983.
5. A.I. Shiffman. Leo Tolstoy's diaries//L.N. Tolstoy of SOBR. soch.: In 20 t. T. 19: Diaries of 1847-1894 of M., 1965.
6. A.F. Tyutcheva. At court of two emperors. Memoirs. Diary. 1853-1855. M, 1990.
7. N.F. Bunakov. My life, in connection with the all-Russian life, mainly provincial. 1837-1905 SPb., 1909.
8. S.N. Terpigorev. Impoverishment//Domestic notes. Issue 8. SPb., 1880.
9. N.A. Astafyev. About a spirit of the age. SPb., 1900.
10. V.V. Shevtsov. Images of a game, the player and playing cards in the Russian folklore//Questions of national and general history. Tomsk, 2003.
11. V.O. Mikhnevich. Historical etudes of the Russian life. T. 2. SPb., 1882.
12. G.I. Uspensky god to sins suffers//Uspensky G.I. Sobr. soch.: In 9 t. T. 5. M, 1956.
13. L.A. Gordon, etc. Lines of a socialist way of life: life of city workers yesterday, today, tomorrow. M, 1977.

M.A. Slyusarenko

"SILVER AGE" of RUSSIA AND FESTIVE CULTURE of the BEGINNING of the 20th CENTURY

Tomsk cultural and educational fund of P.I. Makushin

Enlightenment, an intuition of philosophers, poets, artists of Russia on a break of ages of the nineteenth and twentieth became a source of masterpieces of the Russian culture of this period and very significant component of world culture. "Silver age" is an integral part of the Russian history noted by a special spiritual condition of the Russian society. "It is characterized by the system of values, a system of the relations of the artist and public, a form of relationship in artistic environment, statement and the decision by artists of the vital issues of time. Exactly a mirovideniye, features of public and spiritual life of an era operate art process" [1, page 23]. According to the Russian emigrant, the culturologist Vladimir Veydle, though "silver age", as well as Pushkin "zolo-proceeded

that", all years twenty, but it is impossible to delete these twenty years from our history. "They complete and topped its best two centuries" [2, page 220].

Numerous researches in the field of a spiritual condition of creative life in Russia at a boundary XIX and XX centuries prove that at this time there was a change of the dominating style of culture, world outlook and art vision of the whole generation. A. Novikov writes, leaning on V. Veydle's researches that everything then was updated or began to be updated: political consciousness of society and religious consciousness of Church, the universities and university science, philosophy, literature, music, theater - all art forms. The new deep phenomena in the Russian culture are characterized by aspiration in a new way to comprehend a role of the person, religion,

Dolores Allen
Other scientific works: