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Russia and problem of a deideologizition in the historical and political concept of brothers Strugatsky



In article the problems of a deideopogization and the choice of ideology put within the historical and political analysis of Strugatsky made in 1960-h-70-h are considered relevant and today. The author pays attention that Strugatsky not only asked about positive and negative lines of existence of society with ideology and without it, but also considered the main forms of ideology taken by their generation.

The problems of deideologization and choice of ideology, raised in the historical and political analysis of Strugatsky brothers in 1960s-1970s, are still relevant today. The author draws attention to the fact that the brothers A. and B. Strugatsky not only raised the issue of positive and negative features of the existence of society with the ideology and without it, but also considered the main forms of ideologies of their generation.

Strugatsky, ideological vacuum, deideologization, ideology, communism, liberalism, national idea, men of the sixties, power, purposes and values; Strugatsky brothers, ideological vacuum, deideologization, ideology, communism, liberalism, national idea, men of the sixties, power, purposes and values.

More than two decades in Russia officially and at the level of certain fractions of a political class the thesis about need of deideologization of political and state life dominates. However, it exists along with constantly repeating appeals to search of "the national idea". The constitution of the Russian Federation fixes the ban on existence of the state ideology. But the state ideology and the dominating ideology is different things. The legislation cannot establish ideology, obligatory to confession. But cannot counteract society in acceptance of a system of basic postulates, significant for it, by it.

The ideology is not a certain set of "mythemes" though without actually political myths the society is full-fledged too cannot exist. The ideology is values and the purpose of society. This its axiological kernel and the accepted model of political and economic system. The society which does not have the purposes and values, most likely, is capable only to degradation.

Interesting the fact that this question — the question of historical hopelessness and the tragedy of "an ideological vacuum" — put four decades ago and in a political and art form was considered by A. and B. Strugatsky, with an amazing accuracy having predicted succession of events. It is about one of the most tragically sounding their works — the novel "Fateful hail".

The difficult series of the social and political collisions which began, in particular, with the XX congress of the CPSU became an occasion or the reason for this purpose. By the time of writing of the novel this event somewhat already was the distant past. It must be kept in mind that Strugatsky belonged to generation and generation of people which in the 70th reached a maturity and reached a certain social standing. These are the people who entered active public life in years after the Great Patriotic War, the people who are brought up during "a heroic era" of the Soviet Union and being the convinced communists. At least, Strugatsky so testify to themselves. The XX congress struck a blow to their belief, but it generated also new hopes. However having replaced -


Sergeyevna is the graduate student of department of national history of the Latest time of Istorikoarkhivny institute of RGGU

shayasya the power step by step increased a distance among themselves and those expectations — still quite communistic — which existed at this generation. The beginning of the 60th became time of adoption of the futuristic program of the CPSU, but its way was paved, in particular, and social and fantastic literature of the second half of the 50th

The same XX congress, along with an attack on the previous period, created also a certain order for modeling of communistic utopias which could awaken imagination of society. And such utopias began to be created actively

— I. Efremov "fog Andromedy", "Midday, the 22nd century" A. and B. Strugatsky. By the time of announcement of the Program all intelligently active part of society (and as show polls, it was the main consumer of a fantasy), was ready to accept the idea of fast construction of communistic society and accepted it.

By the time of approach of the period of "an ideological vacuum" the power several times was replaced, and serious social changes did not happen. The atmosphere in society began to change, and to the place of the ideas of the forced construction of communism the idea of long "systematic progress" began to come. And at the same time many, so to say, "stylistic features" of behavior of the power caused a certain bewilderment and misunderstanding just in many of those who fully divided romanticism and pathos of "break in the future", the communistic "world of Half a day".

Strugatsky never refused the communistic idea, but events of political and social history more and more called into question their belief.

Reflections on a subject about need of existence of the focusing ideology and its essence found reflection in novels by writers of the late period — "Inhabited Island", "A fateful hail", "The guy from an underworld".

In the late sixties Strugatsky offer and formulate the concept "progressor", in their understanding — the person who seeks to change the world around to the best, and ask about how he has to behave in society which completely is under control of the manipulation of consciousness which is carried out by the power.

Through understanding of similar manipulation, through understanding of its extreneity to people and through attempts of fight against it they come to a problem of the tragedy of deideologization, understanding that it can lead not only to disintegration of public relations, and then generate hunger, robbery and inflation, but also society dooms to senselessness and unproductiveness of its existence.

Especially difficult psychological period for them comes after the events of 1968 in Czechoslovakia. Having taken introduction of Soviet troops to the sister republic painfully, they, on the one hand, arrive at an idea that communism seeming them in dreams can be only certain historical prospect, but not business directly tomorrow. And that the power existing at that time can hardly lead to its creation. But, on the other hand, as B. Strugatsky in the 2000th wrote, they were not ready and did not want to accept bourgeois ideology, understanding her lameness. It also generates what he will call "an ideological vacuum" and that was characteristic then for people of their generation. In general the Soviet society then still kept formal commitment of communistic ideology, but its certain "cooled-down" option — the principles admitted and were not challenged, but obviously did not possess mobilization influence.

In the 70th of reflection of Strugatsky about an ideological vacuum are built in the integral concept which authors state in the novel experiment "Fateful hail".

Each chapter of the novel is attempt to consider behavior separate public gruppy1.

So, the first contains a research of reaction democratic and self-coping (though already ill bureaucratization) societies on danger. The city there attack packs of baboons. Panic is started anew, then people will organize self-defense. But, having understood its inefficiency, owing to inertia the groups begin to exterminate all who appear on the way. In the third part we see the mechanics of a coup shown with special accounting of a role, which

1 V. Kaytokh. Brothers Strugatsky//A. Strugatsky, B. Strugatsky. Powerless this world. — Donetsk, 2003, page 577.

the liberal intellectuals play in it. The fourth is already a picture of "society of prosperity". Fascists solved economic problems, put forward the programs uniting the population, the new president will organize "great building" and begins "an experiment with experimenters" that very reminds some communistic slogans. But nobody trusts in these slogans, and society is ready to begin "full revolts" 1.

Strugatsky in the look certain mediated, turned consistently consider communistic ideology in the option its heated, heroized, the cooled-down ideology of "late socialism", the liberal ideology and "Gejger's ideology". The first — falls a victim of own heat, her appeal to mobilization and fight faces loss of reference points when fight becomes the purpose of fight. The second — ideology of "late socialism" — becomes its back, but is not capable to inspire people on creation any more. The liberal ideology is inefficient and leads to chaos, and only coming to power of "fascist" Gejger allows to bring order. But Gejger — at all not the fascist. He is some kind of deideologized technocratic radical, and one of his main opponents — ideological discord and opposition.

"I will be ruthless! For the sake of the people! I will be tough! For the sake of the people! I will not allow any discord! There will be enough fight between people! Any communists! Any socialists! Any capitalists! Any fascists! Stop fighting with each other! Let's fight the friend for the friend!.

>. Any parties! Any nationalities! Any classes! Everyone who preaches discord — on a lamp!.

— If the poor continues to fight against the rich! If communists continue to fight against capitalists! If black continue to fight against white! We will be crushed! We will be destroyed!. But if we! Let's get up shoulder to shoulder! Squeezing weapon in hands! Or jackhammer! Or plow handles! Then there will be no such force which could break us! Our weapon — unity! Our weapon — the truth!


heavy it was! Yes, us

1 In the same place, page 578.

trapped! But, I swear god, the animal is too great for this trap!.

— And! — the crowd bellowed and dizzily ceased.

The sun flashed.

For the first time in twelve days the sun flashed, flared a gold disk on the ordinary bridge, blinded, burned the gray faded faces, intolerably began to sparkle in glasses of windows, recovered and lit millions of paints" 2.

The fourth form of ideology is not ideology in essence: it does not bear in itself any creative idea, unlike "nakalenno-communistic", she is not capable to set the perspective purposes before society. Gejger results society in material prosperity, but in the conditions of lack of real ideology and the purposes of social development offered by it he is not capable to sate spiritual needs of people.

The hero of the novel Voronin — a peculiar embodiment of generation. The Leningrad resident, 1928 of the birth, the star astronomer by training, left the USSR in 1951 and during the first period of the stay in the City was a typical "young Komsomol member". He thinks in categories of fight, "stay on the post", fidelity to business, full return to the Experiment identified with "creation of communism", disciplines, ruthlessness to vragu3.

He, as well as Strugatsky, thinks of need and admissibility of the human victims for fight for creation of a utopia: "The great strategist became great just because understood (and can be, knew from the birth): at all not the one who is able to play in due form wins; the one who is able to refuse at the right time all rules, to impose to a game the rules unknown to the opponent and when it is required — to refuse also them" 4 wins.

Losing understanding of the purpose, he comes to a conclusion that he cannot accept methods

— in many respects as well as Strugatsky. Moreover, he refuses participation in "a great game" — politike5.

Becomes a new point of world outlook evolution of Voronin liberal-

2 A. Strugatsky and B. Grad fateful//Meeting soch. in 11 t. - M, 2009, t. 7, with 327-328.
3 V. Kaytokh. Decree. soch., page 579.
4 A. Strugatsky and B. Decree. soch., page 248.
5 In the same place, page 250.

ny democratism which supporter he will be, after change of a profession having become the editor-in-chief of one of newspapers of the City. But new ideals are defenseless against violence: loss of all illyuziy1 becomes the second point of comprehension.

This way there pass all intellectuals of generation of Strugatsky, and partly and the Soviet society in general: from an era of communistic romanticism and faith in him, through its romantic denial of the 60th — to an ideological vacuum of the 70th

But another is more important for us. Problems of that generation in the 70th, and problems of today are important for us not so much. The way described by Strugatsky was repeated Soviet, and later by the Russian society after writing of the novel. From ideology of late socialism, through liberalization of the 80-90th — to modern society when the ideology does not exist and cannot give any "progressorsky" installations.

Not accidentally in one of the last interviews Boris Strugatsky in response to a question with what of the worlds of the novels he would identify today's Soviet society, answered: "It is the City of an era of Friedrich Gejger" 2.

Strugatsky at the end of "A fateful hail" give a peculiar answer to a question of what ideology there have to live the intellectuals: the hero remembers the recipe of life — need of the appeal to culture. However in fact is only the embodiment of refusal of writers of "a great game".

In later story "The Guy from an Underworld" Strugatsky put themselves to the place of the person who is brought up in the conditions of rigid, but capable to inspire on ideology feats and model close him a situation — the crash of this ideology. The ideology of the character of the story is obviously alien to the reader: it is ideology of the soldier who got used messages ruthless

1 V. Kaytokh. Decree. soch., page 581.
2 Yt!

the war which besides is not justified with any moral installations. But the fact of existence of this ideology, the power of the idea which penetrates all his life is valuable and is more expensive than the life to it, and it allows it to survive in any circumstances. At collision with ideology of "the world of Half a day" it is not so important for authors what ideology is right. The ideology, in a sense words, cannot be true or incorrect at all, it can be effective or not, can give any given degree of internal force to its carrier. Realities of the communistic world gradually break ideological installations of the hero.

By and large, it seems unresolved a question, it is how possible to replace ideology which the person absorbed since the birth, another. Strugatsky at this stage answer in the affirmative: it is possible. They are in active search of the new idea which can replace with itself old, but their search anyway remains in space of various interpretations of the communistic ideas in all their variety.

Thus, speaking about internal ideological installations of Strugatsky, it is possible to draw a conclusion that, having gone a long way of doubts and fluctuations, writers did not find replacement of ideology of the youth.

But their novels of the period of "an ideological vacuum" (70th) and the historical and political analysis which is carried out to them, on the one hand, approved them in a conclusion about hopelessness of society without ideology, with another — became providence of many problems of the subsequent, providence of the tragedy which comprehends the society which refused the values and strategic objectives.

Society without ideology is destructive. The most effective power which managed to stop chaos and to feed society will be as a result strategically inefficient if is not able to rely on ideology, i.e. on the purposes and values accepted by society or made by it for society.

van der Laan Bart
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