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Paleolithic locations of the Derbinsky archaeological area (Krasnoyarsk reservoir)


I.V. Stasyuk, E.V. Akimova, E.A. Tomilova, S.A. Laukhin,

A.F. Sanko, M.Yu. Tikhomirov, Yu.M. Makhlayeva

The article describes preliminary investigation results with respect to Paleolithic sites of the Derbina archaeological zone in the northern part of the Krasnoyarsk water-reservoir. Up to now, about 20 sites are known here, most of which represent points of concentration of mass archaeological and faunistic material exposed on the river bank. Directly from profiles and digging points, faunistic remains of mammals, sporadic stone artifacts and all malacofauna were obtained. All the identified sites are dated back to two stages of the Late Paleolithic: the early stage (the Kono-schelsky cold snap — 29-30 thous. years ago) and the late stage (second half of the Sartansky cold snap — about 12-13 thous. years ago). The first group is associated with the sites of Derbina IV, V; Ust-Maltat I, II; and, presumably, Derbina II, VI, VII). All these sites share a number of common features with respect to initial splitting (preservation of the elements made using the Levalluazsky technique, origin of a front splitting with an unstable shape pattern) and a set of stone implements (combination of bifacial and plate tools in one complex, similar shapes of spikes and scrubbers, non-availability of cutting tools). At the same time, one could trace certain differences between the complexes, most probably, due to chronological background. As a working hypothesis, we assume a variant of two stages existing in the Derbina industry during the Konoschelsky time within the Maltat area: Ust-Maltat stage and the Derbina stage.

The camp site of Blizhny Log is taken as a reference item of the late Sartansky group. Sporadic artifacts of that time were obtained at the sites of Maltat and Derbina IV, IX.

Assumed two development directions in the Derbina Paleolithic of the Sartansky time: Maltat direction — with V-shaped micronuclei, and the Blizhny Log direction — with prismatic micronuclei.

The Derbinsky gulf of the Krasnoyarsk reservoir formed in the lower current of the Derbina River, the right inflow of Yenisei is located in 70 km above a dam of the Krasnoyarsk hydroelectric power station, on a prisloneniye of North Minusinsk Depression to East Sayan's (fig. 1) raising. During processing of coast of a reservoir, deposits of the integumentary thickness, generally top Pleistocene lying on private watersheds of a nizkogorye were bared. Destruction by coastal processes of the archaeological locations concentrated on coast of the gulf results in concentration and the subsequent destruction by abrasion of mass archaeological and faunistic material. Here about 20 monuments of a late paleolith with the exhibited cultural layer are known. In situ, from cuts and excavations, are received the faunistic remains of mammals, not numerous stone artifacts and all malakofauna.

The first locations of the Stone Age were opened by employees of LAPSS IIFIF FROM Academy of Sciences of the USSR (IAE Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science) E.V. Akimova, V.P. Chekhoy and the photographer N.G. Usaninoy in 1993. The rich lifting archaeological material collected by M.Yu. Tikhomirov also belongs to the same time [Akimov, Cech, 1995]. In 1996 E.V. Akimova, I.V. Stasyuk, E.A. Tomilo-voy and M.Yu. Tikhomirov carried out joint archaeological investigation on the right bank of the Derbinsky gulf, on the most perspective site — near the gulf Maltat where the greatest number of locations is concentrated.

Stationary works in the Derbinsky gulf were begun in 1998 by archaeological group of KGPU and IAE Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science. For three field seasons (1998-2000) both coast of the gulf and the lower course of its largest inflows are surveyed: Maltata, Kizharta and Nezhi. The main attention was paid to the area of the gulf of the Maltat River where besides collecting archaeological material excavation of parking the Near Log, Derbin IV and V is carried out, studying quarternary deposits in coastal exposures and ledges is begun (since 2000). In very schematical look the structure of a section and some paleoecological reconstruction are already published [Akimova, etc., 1998, 1999, 2000a; Laukhin, etc., 2000a, b]; Derbin V's location is discussed in this collection.

All locations, are generally destroyed by abrasion processes, and archaeological and faunistic materials are projected on the coastal shallows developed by a reservoir. In arrangement of monuments in modern (before creation of a reservoir) a relief of regularities it is not traced yet while in a paleorelyefa the confinedness of all monuments to waterways according to ancient logs is obvious.

On coastal shallows of the Derbinsky gulf the numerous remains of placetotsenovy fauna (11 types) which main part is made are collected: the horse, a bison (are most numerous), a mammoth, a woolly rhinoceros, a pendant, a snow ram, a maral, an elk, a bull. Predators are presented by the incidental remains of a cave lion, wolf, cave hyena [1].

Fig. 1. Location of the Derbinsky archaeological area (And, B) and locations of a paleolith in this area (B)

The source of raw materials of the stone industry has two main sources: Yenisei galechnik traditional for all monuments of a paleolith of the region (hornstones, flints) and bouldery and pebble material of the pool of Derbina (trachytes, andesites). Also nearby exits of radical breeds of the same structure could be an additional source of raw materials. The surface of the objects made of them is subject to strong chemical aeration. According to preliminary data, mainly the industry of monuments of karginsky time was based on local raw materials. On sites where only finalnosartansky deposits are washed away, products from hornstone and siliceous breeds prevail. At the same time raw materials are not the reliable indicator of age of the stone industry on any given location.

The right bank of the Derbinsky gulf On the right bank of the Derbinsky gulf smaller gulfs Small Maltat (Derbinets River) and Maltat are located (rr. Maltat and Konzhul). The line of the coast quite equal, with the smooth bends which are formed in alignments of dens. Derbina's site is studied by Priustyeva insufficiently. There only one location of Derbin VI is known. The site of the gulf Maltat where locations Maltat, the Near Log, the Small Log of I and II, Ust-Maltat I, Derbina V and a series of intermediate points with not numerous archaeological collecting were open is most perspective right priustyevy.

[11 Definition of fauna are made by A.A. Gulyaev, N.V. Martynovich, N.D. Ovodov.

Maltat. The location is located in 1.5 km from the mouth of the gulf. On a coastal shallow, on the surface of the washed-away reddish clay more than 400 artifacts from hornstone, flint and chalcedony were collected [Akimov, Cech, 1995].

The congestion of products from pinkish siliceous effuzi-v recorded in a northeast part of location in 1993 is of the greatest interest. On a coastal shallow, on the site about 20 sq.m, 66 artifacts of which 35 copies make nukleusa, their preparations and fragments are collected. Nine nukleus belong to face one-areal monofronts with a priostrenny keel and to a degree the allocated crest (fig. 2, 14, 16, 18). Platforms are issued by longitudinal frontal removal, a left lateral retouch, or completely covered with a bouldery crust. In single copies various options one-two-areal mono - and bifront (fig. 2, 17), preparation of wedge-shaped nukleus are met. Single products from pinkish effuziv were found also in the next years.

The general nature of lifting materials demonstrates as combination, and, perhaps, younger age of a complex. Maltat is almost only point where along with large plane and face forms, traditional for Derbina, are found prismatic (fig. 2, 15) and wedge-shaped mikronukleusa. Among tools trailer microscrapers on plates prevail, skreblovidny and peaked tools on otshchepa, a dvulezviyny cutter-nukleus on large primary chip are found in single copies.

& lt; * 7 8 9 10 11 17

Fig. 2. Stone stock of the parking Near Log (1-13) and locations Maltat (14-18)

Near Log. The parking is located on the right priustyevy site of the log of the Neighbor. This site, perhaps, was a part of the natural boundary located between eminences: height of coastal exposure here no more than 2 m whereas on the next pickets reaches 6-10 m

At the bottom of a coastal ledge up to 1.5 m high and in a surf strip, on a surface of the derbin-sky pedosediment about 200 artifacts among which two-areal mono-frontal nukleusa with adjacent or opposite location of platforms, one-areal monofrontal ("ploskospinny") nukleus, face nukleusa, preparation of a microwedge-shaped nukleus on pebble, trailer scrapers with convex working edge on otshchepovy preparations, a provertka with diagonalno the focused massive edge, fragments of plates with various combinations of a dorsal and ventral retouch on both outcasts, an insert on a massive microplate, the dolotovidny tool on a large plate, plates and otshchepa with a retouch, beaten pebbles are collected.

The cultural layer was revealed in a coastal ledge, at a depth of 1.9-2.2 m from a day surface. In an excavation (20 sq.m) the following section is traced:

1. 0-0.45 m — the humic horizon of the modern soil, languages falls to a layer 2.
2. 0.45-0.8 m — loam brown-gray, not layered, gradually passes into a layer 3.
3. 0.8-2.75 m — loam pale-yellow-gray to gray, not layered, with numerous white dots, with incrustations on hair backs.
4. 2.75-4.5 m — loam gray with a reddish-brown shade with numerous incrustations of a white carbonate on backs of plants. At a depth of 2.9 m the pro-layer of loam of a yellowish-gray average lies thin (up to 2-3 cm). Contacts of a pro-layer indistinct. In the range of 3.4-3.5 m the horizon enriched with white carbonate spots with a diameter of 0.5-1 cm is described. From depth of 3.6 m the reddish-brown shade gradually turns pale. In the range of 3.9-4.4 m loam gray average, almost deprived of silt, lean, with an earthy break. The third phalanx of a horse is found in it at a depth of 3.95-4 m of in situ. Perhaps, the layer 5 begins with depth of 3.9 m. However the hole has insufficient depth for allocation of this layer.

The cultural layer has no sooty coloring and is traced only on the archaeological remains and small indefinable fragments of bones [Akimova, etc., 1998]. A layer surface uneven with a bias in east and southern directions.

Of 276 artifacts the majority is made by small otshchepa and scales. Cannon set nemnogochislenen, but is rather informative. 11 microplates of irregular shape with a retouch on edge (fig. 2, 6-12) are found in a layer. In some cases on opposite edge the traces of zalom characteristic of the inserts inserted into a horn frame are traced. Only mikronukleus (?) it is typologically close to scrapers of a high form (fig. 2, 5). Among scrapers copies with two opposite edges (in one case — with a ledge-klyuvikom" in the central part) are met (fig. 2, 1, 3, 4). On a lamellar chip the tool in the form of a provertka with a wide stupid zhalets and scraper teamwork of an edge (fig. 2, 2) is manufactured. Two large plates with a rough shock retouch on edge (fig. 2, 15) are found.

On all power of a layer 3 the plentiful fauna of land mollusks of a loessial complex is collected. 19,639 sinks from 12 samples are defined. Taxonomical structure very poor — only 7 taxons. Pupilla loessica Lozek prevails (32-75%), its abundance is characteristic of cold phases of placetotsenovy freezing. The significant role belongs to Vallonia tenuilabris (Braun) — 7,848,8%, Pupilla sterri (Voith) — 1-21.1% and Succinea oblonga elongata Sand — 1.9-18%. Interestingly joint stay, besides in significant amounts, two last: the representative of cold dry steppes (P. sterri) and cold, but concerning the humidified landscapes (S. oblonga elongata). In general the fauna has "more periglyatsialny" shape in comparison with also very cold-loving malakofauny the derbinsky pedosediment (see article in this collection about Derbin V). In the most general plan it is considered that the end of sartansky freezing was the most arid, and at the beginning of its moisture security was more. Joint finding of significant amounts of Pupilla sterri and Succinea oblonga elongata can demonstrate accumulation of precipitation of a layer 3 not in the most arid end of sartansky glacial time. The age of the parking can be dated the second half of sartansky time.

Ust-Maltat I. The location is located on the small cape on the left board of the Midday log, directly in the mouth of the gulf Maltat. Height of exposures does not exceed 3.5-4 m. The short description of a section in a coastal ledge:

1. 0-0.5 m — the humic horizon of the modern soil.
2. 0.5-0.8 m — loam brown-gray not layered, strongly porous. The lower contact with zateka up to 0.9 m in a roof of a layer 3.
3. 0.8-2.3 m — loam gray to ash-gray, average to heavy, aleurolite, not layered, porous.
4. 2.3-2.93 m — loam gray with a reddish-brown shade, easy to an average, dense, not layered. Top and lower contacts accurate.
5. 2.93-3.06 m — loam brownish gray average, not layered, porous, with plentiful krotovina: on 70 cm of a layer it is noted 11 krotovin with a diameter of 10-12 cm
6. 3.06-3.35 m — loam gray with a reddish-brown shade, dense, not layered, average.
7. 3.35-4.0 m — loam gray, in average and lower parts with a beige shade, above and below neyasnosloisty; in a middle part with accurate difficult thin lamination, with traces of solif-lyuktsionny smyatiya. Puffs poorly gumusirovana.
8. 4.0-5.0 m — loam chestnut, heavy, gumusirovanny intensively above, from top to bottom the density of coloring weakens, the reddish shade appears. At the top of a layer the layered and mesh, passing from top to bottom into lamellar taksitovy paleokriogenny texture. Below the layer 8 forms wedge-shaped structure up to 30-40 cm and 0.9-1 m wide down. Places of breed of a layer 9 razdergana, are taken away.
9. 5.0-5.2 m (power visible) — clay whitish-gray, strongly aleurolite, with rare thin horizontally wavy layers of loam of color of cocoa.

Archaeological and faunistic material was built on the surface of the washed-away loams of the derbinsky pedosediment [Laukhin, etc., 2000a, b] and in a rear part of a shallow, in a strip of accumulation of beach deposits. The number of stone stock reaches 6 thousand copies [Makh-layeva, etc., 2000].

Nukleusa are presented by the following options: bifrontal two-three-areal plane (fig. 3, 12), monofrontal two-areal ("polar"), one-areal monofrontal face (fig. 3, 10), mikronukleusa one-areal monofronts ("ploskospinny"), face mikronukleusa.

Trailer scrapers on otshchepa, plates, including with a slanted edge, tiles, primary chips, regional chips from tools are numerous; oval scrapers on otshchepa with one or two opposite edges (fig. 3, 5-9).

Scraped are made, as a rule, on plates and lamellar chips and also on otshchepa, flat pebble. Skreblovidny tools with an oval ledge are met, scraped - little-enders.

Dolotovidny tools are not numerous, have the large and average sizes, are manufactured on otshchepa with one-two pairs of opposite working edges (fig. 3, 11).

The most numerous is the group of osterias and little-enders: pro-splittings and provertka with the massive speaker a zhalets on large preparations (chips, plates, fragments of products or the renewed products); edges with a triangular ledge, in some cases morphologically approaching trailer scrapers.

Bifasialny tools and their preparations are not numerous, have oval and roundish, usually asymmetric, forms.

Otshchepa and lamellar chips with a regional retouch are found in mass quantity (skreblovidny, nozhevidny, gear vyemchatye tools).

Pebble tools are presented by choppers, choppers planes, chippers.

On the site mouths of Maltat, about 300 m long are directly lower, two large spots of concentration of archaeological material divided by the interval less than 100 m coinciding with small decrease in a relief were revealed.

Small Log of I (east spot of finds). Archaeological material was built on densely grassed surface of a coastal shallow about 6 thousand sq.m. The total number of artifacts contains more than 1 thousand pieces. Among them two-areal bifrontal nukleusa, pyramidal mikronukleusa; trailer scrapers on plates and otshchepa, including a dvulezviyny scraper on chip off with working edges on opposite faces and the ends, the scraper combined with pro-splitting; scraped - uniface; little-enders on plates, the bifasialny tool, provertka on otshchepa, in one case with two zhalets, dolotovidny tools on an otshche-groin, plates with a retouch on one or both edges, a microplate with a working retouch, plates, otshchepa, beaten pebbles.

Small Log of II (western spot of finds). As a part of the collection collected about surfaces of a coastal shallow (about 4 thousand sq.m) there are 900 artifacts among which: one-two-areal mono - and bifrontal nukleusa, preparation of a face nukleus, mikronukleusa, the little-ender uniface, a provertka and pro-splittings on otshchepa with one or two zhalets, trailer scrapers on plates and otshchepa, including a high form, choppers, planes, chippers, plates and microplates with a retouch, the dolotovidny tool, plates, otshchepa, beaten pebbles.

In 1993 P. Chekhoy in exposure of a coastal ledge on this site at a depth of 3.2 m, in heavy brown loam, residues of charcoal and beaten bones are recorded [Akimov, Cech, 1995]. Later this horizon on cuts of Derbina V, Ust-Maltat I and other points on both coast of the gulf was dated konoshchelsky time.

A basic monument of a paleolith of the Derbinsky gulf is Derbina V located in 600 m Maltat's mouths are lower (see article in this collection).

Higher than Maltat's mouth, along the right bank of Derbina, a series of points with the concentrated or scattered spots of finds on a coastal shallow is revealed. Ust-Maltat II, Derbina IV, VII and IX are of the greatest interest locations here.

Ust-Maltat II. The location is located on the left priustyevy site of the gulf Maltat, on the small cape. Archaeological and faunistic material is recorded in the exhibited state on the site of a coastal shallow about 10 thousand The location is opened by M.Yu. Tikhomirov in 1994. As a part of its collection two-areal monofrontal nukleusa, tips-bifasy (fig. 4, 4, 6), little-enders with a regional dorsal retouch on perimeter, peaked scraped - unifaces, in some cases with a ventral side job an obushka, scraped-bifasy also unifaces, tools on plates with an abrupt or priostryayushchy dorsal retouch on one or both equal straight lines or convex edges, trailer scrapers with a regional retouch on perimeter or directly on working edge, oval scrapers on otshchepa, the large dolotovidny tool, lamellar chips, plates and otshchepa with a retouch at the edges, in one case — on the direct distal end.

On materials of works of 1998-99 the total number of the stone artifacts recorded on a coastal shallow exceeds 5 thousand copies, the vast majority of which — chips, otshchepa, beaten pebbles. As a main type of raw materials served local breeds (andesites, trachytes) and the Yenisei galechnik, however a part of morphologically expressive material (tools on the extended plates) is executed from brownish effuziv. Such variety of raw materials distinguishes this location from the general circle of monuments of the area and, perhaps, is reflection of some chronological heterogeneity of collections.

In technology of primary splitting the most archaic are traced (for a derbinsky paleolith) lines: the prismatic principle of a skalyvaniye is combined with pronounced levallu-azsky methods of preparation of nukleus: radial "subconic" registration of the counterfront, "obuzhivaniye" of a frontal part with lateraly, a priostreniye of a distal part, processing blow -

ny platforms series of frontal removals. Face nukleusa do not form noticeable series and do not show steady receptions of a skalyvaniyaa!.

Fig. 4. Stone stock of location Ust-Maltat II

By quantity and a ratio of the planes of a skalyvaniye and shock platforms one-areal monofronts in plane and face options, with the prepared series of small frontal removals mown by shock platforms are allocated including — with radial registration of the counterfront; two-areal "polar" mono - and bifronta with the platforms prepared by one or several removals; three-areal bifront, with two opposite platforms and the direction of a skalyvaniye, cross in relation to the first front, on the second; radial mono - and bifronta; one-areal bifront with the alternating direction of removals.

also the cannon complex differs in

in a Certain morphological heterogeneity. As preparations of tools of the same category were used as the extended plates, and massive chips and otshchepa. The most expressive element of a complex are tools (possibly, the scraping functions) on the narrow extended plates with a regional retouch on perimeter (fig. 4, 7). In general among skrebet prevail longitudinal on plates and lamellar chips with a dorsal retouch on perimeter (fig. 4, 3) or one edge, but in single copies combined are met scraped - little-enders on plates; scraped cross dorsal on otshchepa, including double scraped; the preparations combined on otshchepa with an asymmetric axis; on flat pebble; cross on the ventral of a pebble chip and on a podzhivlyayushchy chip from a nukleus. Among scrapers are most numerous trailer on plates, lamellar chips with a retouch, as a rule, on one or both edges of preparation (fig. 4, 1, 2, 4). Harak-

terny sign is allocation of working edge dredging, in some cases the asymmetric location of the working region, shift it to one edge, on the angle of preparation is traced. Scrapers on otshchepa (height and location of the region, the nature of processing, specifics of preparation) differ in a big typological variety.

The processed products are presented to Bifasialno by the single whole and split copies of listovidny and oval forms. The edges issued by a regional retouch on the distal ends of lamellar, as a rule, preparations are also not numerous. In two cases of an edge are combined with scrapers. Also dolotovidny tools are found in single copies reztsevidny (including r1ezez esapeee).

Pebble tools (choppers, planes, chippers) differ on the steepness and a uniform of the worker


Derbina IV. The location is located in 600 m east Ust-Maltata II. The first collecting on this site is made in 1993. In 1998 on a coastal shallow the large spot of archaeological and faunistic material with a total area about 15 thousand sq.m was revealed.

As a part of a collection (568 copies) the numerous upholstered pebbles without certain typological signs and obvious traces of any use, a nukleusa one-areal monofrontal (fig. 5, 3), two-areal bifrontal and monofrontal (fig. 5, 9, 11), two-areal bifront with plane and face removals, various options of face nukleus up to three-areal three-frontal, massive bifas with a pebble crust on the wide basis, choppers with direct and convex cross working edge (in one case with "handle"), chippers, planes, scraped also skreblovidny tools on large otshchepa and lamellar chips (fig.

5, 10), dolotovidny tools, one - and dvulezviyny trailer scrapers on plates (fig. 5, 4-6, 8), microscrapers on otshchepa, little-enders, plates and otshchepa with a retouch. On this site obviously uneven-age material, and products finalnoplacetotsenovy is fixed (rannegolotsenovy?) shape concentrate in east part of location. Mikrodo-lotovidny tools, scrapers of trailer and oval forms on small plates, mikronukleusa can belong to them.

In 1998 in coastal exposure at a depth of 3.5 m chips and fragments of bones were recorded. In 1999 the excavation of 25 sq.m which revealed the kulturosoderzhashchy horizon in a derbinsky pedosediment karginsky is put here (konoshchelsky?) time at a depth of 3.3-3.8 m

66 stone artifacts among which two two-areal "polar" monofrontal nukleus (fig. 5, 2), a scraper with a retouch on perimeter on a silicon otshche-p, primary otshchep with a gear retouch, a plane on the split pebble with the oval, strongly acting working edge, a fragment of the cutting tool (?) on a massive pebble chip with a bilateral shock retouch, preparation of the bifasialny tool (fig. 5, 1), a fragment of preparation of the uncertain tool with a regional step retouch, plates, chips, otshchepa are found in an excavation. Here the fragment of the lower jaw of a cave lion and indefinable small fragments of bones are found.

Derbina IX. The location is located on the left board of the large log with its stream proceeding on a bottom. Archaeological material is built on a shallow, at the bottom of coastal exposure up to 10 m high. The basic duties were made in 1993

Here 30 artifacts made mainly on otshchepa of chalcedony and fine-grained quartz are found. As a part of a collection wedge-shaped nukleus, a series of mikrodolotovidny tools, a side scraper on primary chip off, otshchepa with a retouch on perimeter, narrow plates with a retouch on concave edge, (fragment), a microedge on chip off an edge on a plate, plates and otshchepa with a working retouch. Both on typology of artifacts and on selection of stone raw materials of Derbin IX drops out of a complex of karginsky monuments and it is previously carried by us to sartansky time.

Derbina VII. The location is located in 4 km above Maltat's mouth, opposite to the gulf Kizhart, on the speaker to the cape. On a coastal shallow 215 artifacts among which a nukleusa two-areal mono - and bifront (fig. 6, 12, 16), one-areal monofronts, preparation of a wedge-shaped nukleus on uniface (fig. 6, 15), the dolotovidny tool-bifas (fig. 6, 1Z), the dolotovidny tool on chip off (fig. 6, 11) are collected, the little-ender on a fragment of an otshchep (fig. 6, 14), scraped-lovidnye also nozhevidny tools on plates and lamellar chips, a trailer scraper (fig. 6, 7), plates with a retouch on one edge, fragments of tools, choppers planes, the chipper, beaten pebbles, chips, otshchepa.

Left bank of the Derbinsky gulf

On the left bank of the Derbinsky gulf of location are located only in the lower Derbiny Current: from the mouth to the gulf Indulging (Derbina I, VIII, II, III). On the site from Nezhi to Kizhart the monuments are unknown (the coast is put by the radical breeds blocked by a thin loop of golotsenovy deposits). Above the gulf Kizhart only one location on the right priustyevy site of the gulf is known (see fig. 1).

(Indulging) Derbin III. The location is located on strongly acting cape, on the left priustyevy site of the gulf Indulging. Here 34 artifacts among which one-areal monofrontal nukleusa, scrapers trailer on otshchepa and plates and an angular high form, the mikrodolotovidny tool, otshchepa and plates with a retouch, fragments of products, plates, chips, otshchepa are collected. In 1993 the preparation of the neolytic axe with subgrinding of working edge was found here.

Derbina II (Snow). The location is located on strongly acting cape between Derbina and the gulf Snow. Archaeological material is projected on a coastal shallow on the mysovy site about 1 thousand sq.m.

Total number of the collecting made by us in 1993 and 1999 is 369 artifacts among which one-areal mono - and bifrontal nukleus (fig. 6, 6, 8), wedge-shaped mikronukleus with the accurate triangular front on primary chip off. Traces of face removals are traced also on a uniface fragment on a plate (fig. 6, 2). Among scrapers prevail trailer on plates (fig. 6, 3, 4), otshchep (fig. 6, 9, 10) and a high form on amorphous chips. The group is more diverse skrebet, the obushka which is turning on tools dorsal longitudinal regional registration on plates (fig. 6, 1) and large primary chips, in some cases with ventral flattening; dorsal on squared primary chip with two regions meeting at right angle; massive cross on bilaterally upholstered pebble; longitudinal bifa-sialny (fig. 6, 7). Preparations of little-enders are found and skrebet, dolotovidny tools (fig. 6, 5), choppers planes (including with strongly acting roundish working edge), chopping with wide or narrow working edge, plates and otshchepa with a retouch on one or both edges. In the single copy the pro-splitting where a zhalets it is schematically issued on a natural ledge of an otshchep is met.

Not numerous collecting was made on locations Kizhart, Derbina I, VIII, dated for strongly acting capes.

The exhibited nature of materials forces to approach their interpretations carefully. Practically always at sets of stone stock there is a certain part of "foreign" impurity, and determination of its quantitative and qualitative structure is one of the most essential in "archeology of reservoirs" of tasks. Also other available methods are for this purpose used typological, planigrafichesky [21. However experience on the Krasnoyarsk reservoir shows that the prevalence of a flat relief at the high hypsometric levels caused dispersal of settlements of the person in rather large territory — the exhibited locations, as a rule, "are not imposed" at each other. Degree of "contamination" of lifting materials in these cases differs in nothing from a habitual "archaeological background"! 3].

The general situation in the Derbinsky archaeological area is represented to us today as follows.

All revealed locations belong to two stages of a late paleolith: early (karginsky time) and late (finalnosartansky). Basic monuments are Derbina V (a konoshchelsky cold snap — 29-30 thousand l. N) and Near Log (about 12-13 thousand l. N). Also Ust-Maltat I, II are carried to the first group, Derbina IV in which stratigraphic cuts the artifacts and bone residues are found in a derbinsky pedosediment. On typology and morphology of stone stock Derbina II, VI are previously carried, by VII to the same group. All these monuments have a number of the general signs.

1. In primary splitting the elements of the levalluazsky equipment which are shown in specifics of preparation of basic elements — the front, the counterfront and the platform remain. One-two-areal plane nukleusa prevail. Origin of the face technology of splitting is traced on numerous nukleusa with not settled registration model. Emergence of the face equipment is fixed as transition of a skalyvaniye from the wide front of a nukleus to a narrow side, often without special preparation of the new plane of a skalyvaniye. The large number of options of microsplitting (face, "kopytovidny", "pyramidal"), perhaps, demonstrates search of its optimal technical variant.
2. In a uniform complex the processed tools and tools on plates executed in the equipment of a regional retouch are steadily combined bifasialno. At the same time the "correct", symmetric, listovidny bifasa are combined with the most expressive large narrow plates issued by the extended and scaly regional retouch on both edges. On locations with me-

it ordered forms of bifas wide plates with an irregular scaly retouch mainly on one edge prevail.

3. The leading forms of stone stock of derbinsky monuments are trailer scrapers on plates and otshchepa, little-enders, to a lesser extent dolotovidny tools. Practically there are no cutters, pro-splittings are single. The abundance of pebble forms in the form of choppers and planes is traditional for a late paleolith of Yenisei.

At the same time between monuments of this group certain distinctions probably having a chronological underlying cause are traced.

So, little-enders-bifasy are found only on the right bank of Derbina, and only on the monuments concentrated on both priustyevy sites of Maltat (Derbina IV, V, Ust-Maltat I, II). Single bifasialny products are met on Derbin II and VII, but bladed forms are not present there. Oval, almond-shaped and listovidny forms of bifas are found only on Derbin V and Ust-Maltat of II, and of I and other points similar "correctness" is not characteristic of Ust-Maltat. At the same time on Derbin V and Ust-Maltat the II bifasa are combined with representative series of tools on the extended plates, large and average by the size, with a regional retouch on one or both edges (little-enders, trailer scrapers). On Ust-Maltat of I edges on otshchepa and lamellar chips with various form and way of registration of working edge are most numerous and expressive (from triangular "sheets" to a provertok). Organic introduction in this row as a peculiar transitional form between trailer scrapers and provertka, scrapers with working edge in the form of strongly acting "nose" are. The similar situation is traced also on Derbin V and Ust-Maltat of II, but here it is not so expressive, as on Ust-Maltat of I. At the same time only on Derbin V are found, and in mass quantity, small (5-6 cm) listovidny bifasa.

As a working hypothesis the option of existence of two stages of the derbin-sky industry of konoshchelsky time on the maltatsky site is considered: ust-maltatskiya and derbinskiya. In the first case the most indicative element of complexes are edges and skreblovid-ny tools with narrow working edge on otshchepa, not numerous and not standardized bifasa, plates with a retouch. In the second — trailer scrapers, little-enders, listovidny symmetric bifasa, various tools on plates. In technology of primary splitting at first sight distinctions are expressed insufficiently distinctly. Dates for Derbina V belong to a der-binsky stage. Perhaps, later, in borders of karginsky or even rannesartansky time, are the monuments located outside the maltatsky site — Derbina II, VI, VII. At the same time not clear is position of location Maltat with karginsky specifics of primary splitting, a problematic stratigraphic position and obvious finalnopaleolitichesky inclusions.

Thus, according to preliminary data, in a derbinsky paleolith of karginsky time three stages within one technical tradition are looked through. However today there are no unconditional arguments in protection of this position and the internal chronology is not developed for karginsky group yet.

the alternating cast (according to preliminary data — finalnosartansky) groups of monuments is not clear to

yet. Cutters, microscrapers, mikrodolotovidny tools, wedge-shaped and prismatic mikronukleusa are found only on Maltat, on separate points of the right bank of the gulf Maltat, on east site of Derbina IV and Derbin IX. Wedge-shaped mikronukleus it is found on Derbin II. However on the Neighbor Logu, the only stratified monument of pozdnesartansky time, face microsplitting is obviously absent. It was suggested about two directions of development of a derbinsky paleolith in sartansky time: maltatsky — with wedge-shaped and blizhnelozhsky — with prismatic mikronukleusa.

Work is performed with financial support of RGNF — a grant 00-01-00095а and the Russian Federal Property Fund — a grant 00-05-64684.


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Bernard Conner
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