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V.D. Dzidzoyev Caucasus of the end of the XX century: trends of ethnopolitical development (historical and politological research). the 2nd prod. Vladikavkaz, 2004. 359 pages.



dzidzoyev V.D. Kavkaz of the end of the XX century: trends of ethnopolitical development (historical and politological research). the 2nd prod. Vladikavkaz, 2004. 359 pages

The author of the reviewed book - the doctor of historical sciences, professor V.D. Dzidzoyev - 25 years specialize on national policy and the international relations in the Caucasus, interethnic conflictology.

Relationship between the people and the states at the end of the 20th century considerably became complicated, and in this situation as V.D. Dzidzoyev fairly notes, "we are interested in a role of historical science and historians in the international conflicts and wars; what their position in normalization of an international, social and political situation in any given republic, the region, the country?" (page 15).

Recently in a historiography of the Caucasus there were works promoting nationalism, extremism, the anti-Russian ideas, etc. Thus, some authors turned history from science into the tool of promotion of nationalism, extremism, chauvinism, international war. Today manipulation of historical consciousness of people to please of a certain part of new political and national elite is successfully carried out.

To suspend process of falsification of history, historiographic developments in which the deep scientific and critical analysis not only historical researches, but also any publications on historical subjects, especially in the field of the international relations would be given are necessary. In this regard issue of the second edition of the monograph of V.D. Dzidzoyev "The Caucasus of the end of the XX century is represented timely: trends of ethnopolitical development (is-toriko-politological research)".

The monograph consists of introduction, three chapters, notes to them and the conclusions. Chapter 1 "Character and features of the Georgian-Ossetian ethnopolitical opposition" is devoted to the analysis of a historiography of the Georgian-Ossetian and Georgian-Abkhazian relations. Here the attention is concentrated on several most significant works of the Georgian historians (The Ossetian question. Tbilisi, 1994; A.M. Menteshashvili. From the history of relationship of the Georgian, Abkhazian and Ossetian people (1918 - 1921). Tbilisi, 1990, etc.) in which, according to V.D. Dzidzoyev, are forged history of Ossetians, Georgians, Abkhazians, Russia, etc. The author of the monograph proved to be the competent expert who perfectly owns sources and the facts, is well familiar with a historiography and gives rather reasoned estimates to works of the Georgian historians.

Chapter 2 "Processes of eviction and rehabilitation of the deported people and an ethnopolitical situation in the Caucasus" is devoted to the analysis of a historiography of deportation and homecoming of Balkars, Karachays, Ingushs, Chechens, Meskhetian Turks and other people. According to issues of eviction and homecoming of the punished people of the Caucasus,

according to the author, many jugglings are often allowed, the far-fetched versions which are not supported by the documents are published. He gives concrete examples of falsifications which demand the reasoned objections and even revelations.

The chapter 3 "Violence and a non-violence in policy, or the Chechen crisis" will draw the greatest attention of experts-konfliktologov (historians, sociologists, political scientists, etc.). Here the Chechen crisis of the 90th of the 20th century, a historiography of this complex and knotty problem is analyzed. The author analyzes not only large works of prominent experts, but also hundreds of newspaper and journal articles devoted to Chechnya the 90th

The author proved to be the competent expert of political history of all Caucasus. He concentrated attention on the analysis and a condition of the latest historiography of the Caucasus. The particular emphasis is placed on the materials devoted to the Georgian-Ossetian, Georgian-Abkhazian, Ossetian-Ingush relationship and also deportation of the Caucasian people and the Russian-Chechen war of 1994 - 1996. It is difficult not to agree with the author that it is impossible to build relationship between the people, the centuries living in neighborliness on estimates of the separate facts taken out of history context. The appeal to history is not just enlightenment. Wrong interpretation of historic facts, as a rule, leads to difficult, quite often acute political, legal, international and other issues. Therefore unattainable luxury is the free interpretation of the facts of history. In other words, rough falsification of historic facts and events is worthy serious, reasonable criticism that at the high professional level is done by the author of the reviewed monograph.

V.D. Dzidzoyev notes that in a pursuit of false novelty and sensations many researchers, by politicians, publicists allow withdrawal from the historical truth, the facts and events of the past to please to a momentary environment are wrongly and unilaterally covered.

Falsification of historical data, concealment of some and protrusion of others create the fertile field for manipulation and cheap politics to what it is a lot of examples in modern domestic historical science and the press. V.D. Dzidzoyev considers this problem very scrupulously from scientific and methodical positions. The importance of its fundamental work is defined by need of the reasoned exposure of falsifiers of history, applicants for academic degrees which distort historical reality, especially in the sphere of the international relations.

Without applying for exhaustive illumination of so extensive problem, the author concentrated the attention mainly on the most burning questions of the last time: it is the first attempt in scales of the Caucasus to give the generalizing analysis Real

riografiya.

V.D. Dzidzoyev stands up for a strong refusal of researchers from the unchecked facts, far-fetched versions, sensational conclusions far from original science. It gives convincing facts of derogation or artificial exaggeration of a role of some separate nation in the general historical process. Notes that in recent years in a domestic historiography the tendency to treat historic facts and events from especially nationalist positions what it is in detail told in all three chapters of the reviewed monograph about was found.

To "researchers" of such sense worthy repulse by V.D. Dzidzoyev also becomes. Certainly, work has polemic character and pursues one aim - to approach the historical truth and it is better to understand some controversial issues of history.

At the same time separate defects occur in the monograph by V.D. Dzidzoyev. First, work

it is written prior to the beginning of the second stage of "the Chechen war", i.e. till 1999, and, probably, therefore there is no analysis of the latest publications on the Chechen crisis that reduces the general level of a research.

Secondly, it is paid to O. Ayshayev, D. Shabayev, B. Bogatyrev, B. Kostoyev's works too much attention and others whose tendentious concepts are discredited by the author. Thirdly, it would be advisable to give the list of the literature which is the most objectively stating historic facts and events on all cases in point. It would provide substantial assistance to both experts, and readers.

In work insignificant repetitions, grammatical and stylistic mistakes meet.

However noted shortcomings do not belittle the scientific and social and political importance of the reviewed work. The historical science is in great need in such researches.

B.S. Salamov

Patrick Douglas
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