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Category: History

Office-work on registration of the noble rights by officials of Army of Donskoy

 © 2006 of N.V. Gorbunov


Throughout XVIII - the first half of the 19th century. The area of Army of Donskoy endures the period of significant changes connected with loss of autonomy and self-government and with transition to submission to the central authorities therefore becomes a component of the Russian Empire. In the social and economic sphere there comes time of social differentiation: from the Cossack weight the layer rich foremen is allocated, it occupies army lands, occupies them alien low-Russians, and later and serfs. Thus, large land tenure is formed. Don the foreman seeks to secure legally land rights and serfs, i.e. to receive the status of nobility.

We make an attempt to consider, how exactly there was a process of registration of the noble rights of officials of Army of Donskoy.

In the history of the Don nobility the first half of the 19th century was the period of formation and legislative registration of social legal status. "Table of ranks", entered by Peter I, allowed the officials who received an ober-officer rank on military service or awarded the order by Russian to acquire the rights of the hereditary nobility. "To military ranks which will serve to ober-officers not from noblemen; then who will receive a rank, it the essence is the nobleman and his children who will be born in ober-officers" [1]. It led to increase in number of the highest estate in Russia at the expense of the representatives of unprivileged layers who toadied from the lower ranks.

The army Don at the beginning of the 18th century was not a part of the system of the all-Russian chinoproizvodstvo. To Dona there was own order of ranks, and for feats the Cossacks received from emperors in an award gifts in the form of monetary encouragement, silver ware, caftans, portraits of the regal persons decorated with diamonds, etc. [2]. But already with 30 - the 40th of the 18th century donets begin to complain both army ranks, and the Russian awards. Thus, by the end of century over 200 Don foremen had ranks of regular army that granted them the right to the hereditary nobility. The decree of September 22, 1798 balanced the Cossack and army ranks. But it did not lead to an equalization of rights of the Don officials with Russian as action "Tables of ranks" and the Appointed diploma to the nobility did not extend on donts fully. The right of the Russian official for the nobility existed already on one its production in a rank "without an osoblivy statement it in this state" [3] whereas the Don officials had to confirm the noble rights with diplomas of Heraldry of the Ruling Senate.

Throughout XVIII - the first third of the 19th century in Army Don was not own accurate rules by which the Don official has to make out the nobility. Besides, to Dona there was no Nobility deputy assemly which, by the Russian legislation, was engaged in consideration of the noble rights. This duty, by situation of August 7, 1824, was assigned to itself by Army office.

The beginning of mass registration by the Don officials of the noble rights falls on time after acceptance in 1835. "The provision on management of Army of Donskoy" in which accurately was defined who had the rights for noble advantage and what army authorities have to consider proofs of these rights.

According to alphabetic lists of the noble genealogical book in which the ancestors of the Don noble childbirth, names of definitions of Army office, Army board and Army deputy meeting, made and soprichislenny with the indication of time of an exit, on recognition in the nobility and also decrees of Heraldry of the Ruling Senate on the adoption of these definitions are listed it is possible to establish that the first applications of the Don officials on recognition of their or their children and grandchildren in the nobility appear in the second half of the 20th of the 19th century [4]. Decisions on applications were reflected in minutes of presence of Army office in 10 years, from 1825 to 1835 [5]. For 1825 and 1826 about one definition of Army office on descendants of a Cossack captain and the chevalier of the order St. meets. Annas 4 degrees of Fedor Stepanovich Alentyev and colonel Ivan Ivanovich Krasnov. Every next year the quantity them increased.

On the content of definition were quite extensive and free on form of presentation, included the application of the official, transfer of proofs to the nobility, references from laws and the decision on recognition or non-recognition of the applicant in the noble rights. The definitions of the reference to acts included in the text demonstrate that at decision-making on noble origin of children of the official the Army office was based on the all-Russian legislation: To the appointed diploma to the nobility of April 21, 1785, the decree of February 6, 1828 and other documents [6]. In them was defined that as proof of noble origin of children of military officials patents for ranks, track records in which the valid origin of service and also records in metrics about the lawful birth was shown are accepted.

Consideration of the case began with the application submitted the official to the Military expedition of Army office about recognition him and his children in the rights for the nobility and on delivery corresponding svi-

detelstvo. As proof of the origin the official submitted the track record of the father or the decree on his resignation with the indication of time of receiving an ober-officer rank or award. Concerning time of the birth of those persons to which the right for the nobility, was appropriated on February 9, 1825. The army office adopted the resolution under which "it was necessary to check the certificates submitted from parsons with prichty with the sheets which are available in Archive of those villages in which they were born. If they are concordants with each other, to accept them in the basis if represent a contradiction, then learn-nenii to treat a spiritual consistory about references on the metrics which are available there" [7]. Before establishment in Army Don in 1829 own diocese requests were made in Ekaterinoslavsky, Voronezh and Kharkiv spiritual consistories. The copy from the certificate of the parson was certified by the detective administration of the district. Certificates of twelve noble persons confirming origin of the applicant could be provided to a reinforcement. In addition the Army office addressed to stanitsa board about providing the official report about whether the applicant of the rights for the nobility lost and whether consisted under trial. On the basis of collected proofs the definition about recognition of the applicant in the rights for the nobility with the instruction was taken out that "according to the official list it should be shown from military noblemen" [8]. To the applicant the copy of the protocol of Army office and the same copy and proofs was issued were forwarded in Heraldry of the Ruling Senate.

Occurs in magazines of Army office several cases opened according to applications of officials of Army on recognition of their children by noblemen who were born in the lower ranks. Applicants refer to Paragraph 13 of Article 92 of the Appointed diploma in which it is stated that "if there will be no children born in ober-officers, and is before, and the father will ask humbly, then to give the nobility also to those, only to one son, about a cat - rum the father will ask". The army office refused consideration of similar affairs, referring to own order of July 4, 1825, that with such applications the officials have to address directly the nakazny ataman.

On May 26, 1835 the emperor signed the decree on an adoption of "The provision on management of Army of Donskoy". "Situation" began to work since January 1, 1836. This act finally reserved the nobility rights for the Don officials. In it accurately was established who and on what bases could confirm the noble origin. The Army board was engaged in consideration of the noble rights of officials. It "was obliged to bring all military noblemen in Army in exact popularity and, having considered previously proofs of everyone, to make the conclusion who, according to him, has the right to call the children or children to be called noblemen and who has no this right, and then already to start certification about

noble origin of everyone" [9]. The last was based on official lists of fathers, grandfathers and entries in registers of births.

From 1836 to 1840 the definitions about recognition in the nobility on the basis of collected proofs according to the report from an executive expedition were taken out at a meeting of presence of Army board, as a part of the senior board member and 4 asessor and were fixed in magazines of the solved cases [10]. Considerably differ in the structure of definition of Army office and Army board from each other. If the first include detailed statement of all features of business with proofs and references, then the last represent only the decision made on the case of the nobility of the official.

On February 9, 1840 in the field of Donskoy's Army the Deputy meeting was open. On the basis of "The provision of 1835" the army deputy replacing with himself the provincial leader of the nobility and district deputies were its part. The object of activity of the Deputy meeting joined all duties provincial and district leaders, including consideration of proofs and issue of certificates on the nobility [11]. Removal of definitions on noble affairs began since February 20, 1841 [12]. And since 1842 the officials began to send applications directly to the Meeting.

Unlike definitions of Army office, free on form of presentation, the minutes of meetings of presence of the Army Deputy meeting on which decisions on the rights of officials and their children on the nobility were made are very extensive in a form, have accurate structure and give an idea of how office-work was conducted. At the beginning of the document the application of the official on recognition of his lawful children by noblemen was stated. Further excerpts from the produced evidence about noble origin of the applicant followed. First of all it were certificates of the Novocherkassk spiritual consistory that according to registers of births of such church in the second part about brakosochetavshikhsya record about commission of a legal marriage, with the indication of exact date, names of guarantors and the priest of that church in which the wedding ceremony was carried out appears. In the same way the consistory gave certificates from metrics on the birth of children of the applicant. In the document exact date of birth and the child's baptisms, a name of the priest and godfathers (the godfather and mother) was specified. If the applicant had several children, certificates were granted by a consistory on everyone. These references were provided in the text of the protocol completely.

Quite often the nobility was made out on merits not of the father, and grandfather or even great-grandfather. In this case the applicant had to provide the documents which are precisely proving his origin from the founder of a sort, namely the copy from metrics, certified by a consistory about legal marriages and the births of generations of ancestors starting with on what merits the right for the nobility was asked. Thus, in one dock -

the cop it could be listed up to five generations of one sort [13].

In definitions and minutes of the Deputy meeting instructions on the fact that records about marriage of the official or about the birth of his children according to registers of births are missed often meet. In this case the Novocherkassk spiritual consistory gave the order in the Detective administration to make investigation. During it in the village where there lived the official, "general search" was conducted (interrogation of witnesses) during which not less than 12 souls of noble persons had to confirm commission of marriage and the birth of children under the oath. Besides, the additional certificate was served by ispovedny paintings for several years in which the family composition with the indication of age was by name listed. Proceeding from all proofs, the consistory made the decision which was provided in definition. In it registered that the Novocherkassk spiritual consistory defined, and His Most Reverend Eminence the preosvyashchenneyshy archbishop Novocherkassk claimed that on the basis of the Code of laws of civil legality of marriage or the birth is acknowledged. In case to establish origin of the applicant there was no opportunity, the Deputy meeting refused the rights for the nobility.

Further the protocol contained an extract from the official list transferred from Army watch in which service of the applicant with the indication of time of receiving ranks and also age of children was stated.

After consideration of all proofs on the basis of t. The IX Code of laws about states the decision was made whether the applicant and his children can have recognized the right to take "advantages to the Russian noble nobility Most gracious granted". From this definition the copy "behind appropriate signing and sealing" was issued, and the same copy with all documents was provided in Heraldry of the Ruling Senate. Collecting was raised from the applicant.

Those children of the official who were given birth in the Cossack or uryadnichy rank of the father, recognized as ober-officer children not from noblemen.

Thus, from the middle of the 20th of the 19th century many Don officials received confirmation of the noble rank in local authorities. But the validity of definition of Army office, Army board and Deputy meeting was gained after a statement in the central public institutions. Heraldry of the Ruling Senate was the supreme body of protection of class privileges of the nobility. Its duties also included the certificate and fixing to the official and his children of the rights of nobility. But massively decrees of Heraldry on the Don noble affairs began to appear since 1842 - 1844. And from the middle of the 30th of the 19th century in the nobility the department of military settlements was engaged in a statement. On the basis of the article of 13 t. The V Set of military resolutions, it made decisions on recognition in the nobility of children the headquarters - and subaltern officers

Donskoy's troops which according to lists had to be shown now "from noblemen". Orders of department through Army watch were sent to the Army deputy for a ghost to execution [14].

Since 1842 decrees from Heraldry on the basis of definitions of Army authorities begin to come to Army Don massively. Decrees were issued from its imperial majesty from Heraldry to the Army Deputy meeting. Early decrees, for 1842 - 1843, in a form are similar to definitions. In them proofs of the rights for the nobility were in detail stated, and the decision was made at the end that "Heraldry, having considered all aforesaid documents and finding it concordant with the rules stated in articles of volume IX of the Code of laws about states (prod. 1842) believes definition of Army office (or Army board, the Deputy meeting) about recognition of children of the official Voysk of Donskoy having the right to use the nobility to approve" [15]. Later decrees were sent on specially printed forms. These documents did not contain information on any more on the basis of what children of the official admitted noblemen, they represented only directly decisions.

Decrees of Heraldry could contain also refusal in recognition by noblemen because of failure to provide any given documents. So, for example, to the son of the major general Osip Vasilyevich Ilovaysky it was refused because of "not application to definition of the official list of the father" [16]. Besides, the decree could contain confirmation of the rights only of one of the official's children because the spiritual consistory did not provide birth certificates about the birth of the others.

Nevertheless the majority of definitions of Army authorities admitted as correct. Thus, from 40th of the 19th century the Don officials not only could have the rights and advantages of the Russian noble nobility, but were officially approved on lawful merits in this rank with the children, grandchildren, etc. So in the field of Donskoy's Army childbirth of the hereditary nobility was formed.

Literature and notes

1. The I PSZ. T. VI. No. 3890.
2. A.I. A.I. Don Cossacks. A breast in crosses... (From the history of grants, awards and distinctions of the Don Cossacks of XVI - the beginning of the 20th centuries)//the Don vremennik. 2002. Page 56-63; 2004. Page 181-203.
3. The approved opinion of the State Council of February 6, 1828 is most high. The II PSZ. T. III. No. 1773.
4. GARO, t. 304, op. 3, 661-663.
5. In the same place, t. 341, op. 1. Minutes of presence.
6. The I PSZ. T. XXII. No. 16187; The II PSZ. T. III. No. 1773.
7. GARO, t. 341, op. 1, 1412, l. 103-106.
8. In the same place, l. 115-118.
9. Provision on management of the Don Army. SPb., 1835. Part III, Chapter 15, § 454 - 455.
10. GARO, t. 301, op. 8. Magazines of Army of the Don Army Board.
11. Provision on management of the Don Army. SPb., 1835. Part III, Chapter 7, § 75 - 77.
12. Minutes of meetings of the Army Deputy meeting remained in GARO, t. 304, op. 1, 551, 593, 665, etc.

See, for example, definition on descendants of the lieutenant colonel Kirey Petrov Dubovskov//GARO, t. 304, op. 1, 551, l. 64-69 about. In the same place, op. 2, 38. In the same place, op. 1, 6440, 6442, 6444. In the same place, op. 1, 6442, l. 147.

Rostov state university

On March 31, 2006

Adele Dulcie
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