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Military physical training of youth at the end of XIX - the beginning of the XX century on the example of the Kuban Cossacks

e. V. Manuzin

MILITARY PHYSICAL TRAINING of YOUTH at the end of XIX - the BEGINNING of the 20th CENTURY on the example of the KUBAN COSSACKS

Work is presented by department of history and a technique of its teaching Slavic - on - Kuban of the state Pedagogical Institute.

In article the author considers such aspect of history of education in Russia as physical training of children at the end of XIX - the beginning of the 20th century. In progressively changing social and economic and political conditions of the end of XIX -


the beginnings of the 20th century in Kuban there was an objective process of so-called "decossackization" and growth of individualization of consciousness of the Cossacks connected with it. In the considered sphere there is a gradual decrease in a role of a family and communal component in military physical training of youth. Society assigns educational function to army (regional power) and the state (central power) more and more. In work the measures undertaken for creation of a system of children's military physical training are presented. As it is represented to the author, the situation in the sphere of physical education of the Kuban Cossack army differed from All-Russian a little, and Kuban, as well as the whole country, entered in the beginning of the 20th century with obviously weak system of military physical training of youth.

E. Manuzin


The author of the paper considers such an aspect of the education history in Russia as physical education of children in the late 19th - early 20h centuries. Under the progressively changing social, economic and political conditions of the late 19th - early 20h centuries, the Kuban region faced the objective process of so-called decos-sackisation and the increase of the Cossacks& consciousness individualisation connected with this process. The gradual decrease of the role of the family and community component in military-physical education of youth was observed. The society was more and more imposing the educational function on the army (regional power) of and the state (central authority). The paper presents the measures undertaken to create a system of children&s military-physical training. In the author&s view, state of affairs in the Kuban Cossack army&s physical culture differed little from the all-Russian one. As the whole country, Kuban entered the 20h century with an obviously weak system of military-physical education of youth.

The keen interest in a problem of history of complex physical training of youth is attracted by the fact that this question kept the relevance eventually, and century later in view of the general deterioration in health of the nation became even more sharply. In this sense the studying past experience is of particular importance for creation of the concept of physical training and development of youth in the future. The subject of physical training gains not smaller value in Russia in the light of the future Olympic Games in Sochi in 2014

The research of this subject on the example of the Kuban Cossack army is represented reasonable in connection with some circumstances:

1. The militarized structure of the Cossack army forced its management to pay to an issue of physical training of youth special attention.
2. Development of a question on the example of the Kuban Cossack army shows how the issue of physical and military training of children at the end of XIX - the beginning of the 20th century gradually stopped being business intra family and communal, becoming more and more state; also shows as far as the state could cope with this function, new to it.
3. Having all forms of initial and average educational institutions of pre-revolutionary Russia in the structure, Kuban can give

idea of a condition of teaching physical education in institutions of army and state submission.

Military-patriotic and physical training before establishment in Kuban in the 1880th of wide network of initial educational institutions developed within families, army and communities. Even after creation of network of schools, training of Cossacks for military service was mainly business of family, the village and army (army collecting).

The description of such element of preparation Kuban kazachat to military service as a fancy riding it was provided in "The Kuban regional sheets" in 1892: "... looking narrowly at life of the village it is possible to see kazachat - future Dzhigits. At first you see them on horses on a watering place - without saddle, without bridle, but always at a trot or mashed, and even in a pit, eyes shine - it is visible that on a horse - it at pleasure top. At a meeting of herd the boys overtaking each other seeking to lift something from the earth are visible ask what horses in herd the best - immediately will tell... Further - you meet them already by young children of the preparatory category in army - on the young horses - there learn to reach the earth at full tilt, to jump headfirst... From camps return with a rank of "Dzhigit", and even with a prize for a fancy riding - horses are accustomed to lay down on the place and at full tilt. The vanity forces to last less courageous and dashing therefore matter of a fancy riding in army in children and young men of Cossacks is developed - Cossacks treat it with love" [19]. Allocated several receptions of a fancy riding: jumps through an obstacle with firing, the cabin and a flankirovka, ability to put quickly a horse on a pit and to open because of it fire. Also the so-called free fancy riding worked: lifting of objects at full tilt, a sprygivaniye and jumping when driving, jump costing also with change from a horse on a horse, a gallop headfirst with a support a shoulder on a saddle. The main objective of similar exercises - "to develop perfection of possession of a horse and weapon in young Cossacks and to take from the owner of a horse and weapon perhaps big benefits in defeat of the enemy" [19]. Firing and

fencing were also necessary skills in which tried to train prior to the beginning of service. At the beginning of the 20th century "the base of military education is transferred to school" and to see in it, like S.G. Alexandrov, only sign of "unification of structure of means of physical training and military and applied preparation" [1, page 61-68] would be superficial assessment. Orders on army No. 339 of November 24, 1910 (about production in villages of maneuvers) and No. 370 of December 22, 1910 (about training of young Cossack pupils at the Cossack schools in the front and data obligatory for young Cossacks), [1, page 33] actually recognize already not simply outlined, but also actively developing crisis not only on intra public, but at the intra family level of physical and military-patriotic training. For some reason nobody was going to assign to schools these duties twenty more years before, despite already available enough schools (more than two hundred). A strong next indication of the beginning natural process of the decossackization which became the 20th century, obvious by the beginning, for all is available. The famous figure and the publicist of conservative sense in Kuban P.P. Orlov wrote lines behind which pain and an appeal to the Cossacks which are already leaving a cultural and military scene of the country is obviously heard: "Let healthy military life boils, let all come to look at war games - it is better, than to sit at a fence, to shoot the breeze and to nibble sunflower seeds. Let villages will get for firing of a gun and cartridges. Sport the Cossack attire, do not change it for a jacket, you come in uniforms to royal holidays in schools, sing chorus the anthem... You do not go military teams to Christmas and New Year on villages from non-residents to collect fifties - to these you humiliate yourself as the soldiers carrying a rank. Do not sing songs from another town, sing the family. Keep quiet under holidays and do not allow youth to shout songs." [22, page 255-261]. The last appeal is especially interesting - on the night of holidays (generally religious) there are church services - sis-

the subject of religious education approved through schools did not cope with duties of the moral mentor. Obviously, the army management remembered training of the Cossack youth only when the government decided to leave nevertheless (for military reasons) the Cossack troops as original formations. Also the fact that funds for carrying out firing practice at general education educational institutions of area were allocated from state treasury signed by the Minister of War [26] indirectly demonstrates to it.

The gymnastics was considered as "an optional subject", i.e. not entering in developed by the Ministry of national education and the approved "minimum" of objects of study when opening school is most high. As a rule, in the bulk the lowest, initial and average educational institutions "optional" objects were the gymnastics, music and, speaking to the modern language, "labor" objects - joiner's, metalwork, forge, tanning crafts, gardening, truck farming, beekeeping and also a household and needlework if it was talked of women's schools [18, page 80-87]. Their opening was assigned to local societies as required in a subject and in the presence of means [21, page 66, 67].

Societies could not specify teaching some additional subject (in it and the principle of its non-obligation consisted) or discussed introduction of these disciplines during the descent making the decision on opening of school at once [20, page 92, 93]. Could enter them later when money for hiring of teachers appeared or the need for special knowledge appeared - sentences of communities in details registered items of expenditure on introduction at themselves schools and separate classes [23, page 160]. The example of that is interest in gardening, beekeeping and crafts which sharply increased in the 1890th in connection with development of market communications and the aspiration connected with it to train in this business of children [23, page 21]. With solutions of public descents passed all in both cases of paper bureaucratic tse-

a kidney of a system of education, approved at first as inspectors of areas whom the cities, the village or the farm, after - directorate of national schools and, at last, the trustee of the Caucasian educational district concerned [2].

Gymnastics. In that form (or approximately in that) in what we present physical education classes at the beginning of the 21st century, during the studied period it existed only in the most provided average educational institutions (first of all in so-called "Kuban" - financed by army treasury). It was the sokolsky technique providing obligatory existence of a sports form, uniform for all, existence of physical warm-up, occupation with gymnastic apparatus, group exercises, elements of a sports competition, "construction" of "live pyramids", obligatory "chants", music and songs [3]. In absolute majority of educational institutions of area, even where the gymnastics was entered, she reminded military initial drill more. The servility and a military system, with the program made on the basis of the Charter of not front Cossack service of 1875 and the Charter about garrison service of 1884 [4] were its obligatory components. The curriculum of similar schools looked as follows: a) single training; b) rack and movement of the head; c) turns; d) movement step; e) osazhivaniye and adjunction; e) preliminary concepts about a pedestrian system; g) about teams; h) alignment of a pedestrian system and chief's meeting; i) the movement by the front directly and in half-turned; j) movement by ranks; k) creation of ranks from the front and the front from ranks [13]. It is clear, that about any sports form there was no speech also. Classes were given in the same clothes, as on obligatory objects. So, in the recommendation of introduction of a uniform dress code for pupils of city schools (these schools from all initial were better provided both methodically, and it is material) also such argument was adduced: "... the student form is irreplaceable as during gymnastic uprazh-

neniye, and when performing written works" [6]. It was not frequent speeches and about the system of teaching, except drill. It is quite explainable the fact that schools according to the rules existing then appointed to gymnastics teachers the lowest salary - even at the beginning of the 20th century it did not exceed 75-100 rub a year (1/4 teacher's) [1, page 33]. Under such circumstances it was possible to find teachers on such low rate only among the retired village constables and officers seeking to find a side job who conducted a subject according to the experience [8]. On the one hand, can seem that not so it and is bad - at the Cossack schools teach future Cossack fighters initial drill. On the other hand, data of huge percent of rejection of Cossacks on assembly points [16] - a direct consequence of superiority of drill over all-physical are indicative. Orders of the nakazny ataman No. 339 of November 24, 1910 and No. 370 of December 22, 1910 on carrying out maneuvers and teaching a military system and also an appeal of the conservative-minded publicist of Kuban P. Orlov to "improvement of the Cossacks" [10] least of all reminded simple measures for systematization of front and gymnastic education (according to S.G. Alexandrov's opinion) [1, page 65-68]. Earlier in similar measures for some reason requirement was not though there were already both schools and retired military in villages. This cry from the heart - an indicator of the outlined crisis in the system of training of the Cossacks. There were a few teachers of a technique of society "Sokol", they were written out from St. Petersburg with purpose of a salary in 1500 rub/year and more than [11].

Some kind of standard of local scale for schools of Kuban by the beginning of the 20th century was the Kuban Aleksandrovsky real school in which were taught by separate disciplines sokolsky gymnastics, gymnastics plastic (the last consisted of preparatory receptions, positions, a marching to the sound of music and executions of some dances) and a military system [7]. On the program of training in a military system of pupils

The Kuban Aleksandrovsky real school I consider it necessary to stop especially as it was the fullest program of teaching a subject in the Kuban region. It consisted of the following sections:

1. Value for the serviceman of the person of his Imperial Majesty and its Most august Family.
2. A concept about a banner and national flag, clarification of appointment of the Cossack and the oath, ability to distinguish naming and intitulation of military and civil ranks.
3. Essence of military discipline. Servility.
4. System, rank, front and flank.
5. Teams.
6. Rule of an afterfeast of military valor.
7. Turns.
8. Construction and calculation of a rank on the first and second numbers.
9. Platoon. Close system of a platoon: construction, alignment and calculation. Turns of a platoon.
10. Centesimal column; its construction, evolution and expansion.
11. Loose system. General indications of dispersal of a platoon and hundreds.
12. Creation of a platoon for a ceremonial march: the developed column system on offices and parts hundreds.
13. A course of an assault at arms, acquaintance with a rifle and its appointment (for pupils of the 4-5th classes). Assault at arms: from a leg suit, from a leg on a shoulder, from a shoulder to a leg, from a leg on guard, "on a prayer".
14. Firing: rank, platoon, in one hundred and chain. Acquaintance with the short systems of foreign rifles (Japanese, German, French, English, Turkish, Swiss, Austrian).
15. Morse alphabet. Alarm system flags and lamps.
16. Acquaintance to the nature and relief. Determination of distances and height of objects of an eye estimation [7].

In other large educational institutions of Kuban the gymnastics was limited to free movements, a marching and exercises on shells [22, page 253-255]. Within Kuban-

sky Mariinsky women's school "the female gymnastics" - the generalized option of the general gymnastic exercises with the reduced set of exercises acted on apparatuses therefore it reminded plastic gymnastics [25] more.

On a technique of society of Sokol (it is the system of doctor Miroslav Tyrsh) it is also necessary to stop especially as it is possible to reckon the new system of physical training of youth from it. The Sokolsky system provided complex physical training of pupils when the gymnastics appears at us as physical education classes in its modern value. Besides actually physical development she assumed moral and patriotic education and the amateur competitive element which is making related it with modern artistic gymnastics [14]. The keen interest in Russia in Sokol at the beginning of the 20th century is connected with the known share of envy to the Czech school - the founder of the sokolsky movement who without special expenses, on enthusiasm created the full-fledged system of physical and patriotic training in the Czech Republic [24, page 92]. In Kuban the universal distribution of Sokol was interfered by existence of a small amount of trainers-mentors owing to what - their piece distribution between the major and most provided educational institutions. So, the decision on the direction of the teacher of Sokol in the Kuban Aleksandrovsky real school was made by the Council of War signed by the emperor of January 13, 1912 [26]. From here and the high salary appointed to teachers, and the last created almost utter impossibility to have such teacher for absolute majority of schools.

Originally (in the second half of the 19th century) on teaching gymnastics, even where it was entered, two hourly occupations a week were taken away. The ministry of national education in 1889 suggested to find for it time due to reduction of duration of the conducted 5 lessons from 55 to 50 minutes and accession to received

25 minutes, from the relying 30 minutes on a big change [5]. At the beginning of the 20th century, especially after the Russo-Japanese war recognized as necessary holding three classes in a week - such number of hours recommended to include the uchilishchny management in the class timetable of schools at which local societies decided to finance except the main objects also gymnastics [17, page 184-186]. At the most part of schools (initial) teaching gymnastics came down to so-called military gymnastics. It included movements ("torsions", "stoopings", "swings" "cultivations and data") hands, legs, the head and a trunk in combination with front classes (construction and the movement of ranks, columns, povzvodno, centesimal training (elements of cavalry preparation), alignment of a system) and "servility" - intitulation of ranks, short data on the oath, a banner, etc. Tried to correct a similar situation only in 1910 when because of "a low condition of gymnastics at schools" of school were obliged to send to Ekaterinodar teachers on gymnastics courses to diversify the program of teaching and "to attract of children interest in a subject" [17, page 184-186]. The program of these courses was a mash of the same front classes, military gymnastics, elements of sokolsky gymnastics, exercises on apparatuses, literature (intitulation, servility...) and outdoor games. Front classes consisted from: a) a practical training of an afterfeast of military valor standing and passing; b) platoon training; c) centesimal training.

The military gymnastics included: a) movements of the head; b) movements of hands; c) movements of legs; d) movements of a trunk [25]. The gymnastics by the Sokolsky method for these schools consisted in the following: a) disconnection of columns and transition to mass exercises; b) general mass joint exercises of free movements; c) mass general exercises with sticks. Exercises on shells took place in a look: a) jumps from an inclined board; b) parallel bars; c) horizontal bars (crossbeams). The literature included:

a) intitulation of Imperial persons; b) military ranks, intitulation and their external differences; c) atamans of Cossacks; d) Cossack troops; e) primary parts of the Kuban Cossack army; e) short data of history of the Kuban Cossack army; g) servility (respect and expression of respect for chiefs and seniors); h) short data: 1) banner; 2) value of the oath; 3) appointment of the Cossack [15].

Games shared on: a) with singing, such, as "Fokina children", "soldiers", "the gardener and workers", "grinder", "carpenters", "bunny wabbit", "grandfather Eremey"; b) simple outdoor games: "robbers go", "catch the last", "cooper", "hunters and hares", "patches", "give a hand", "traps", "labyrinth" [9].

Despite obvious progress in numerical indicators of teaching gymnastics in initial schools of area (in 1881-139 schools where it was taught, and in 1913-559) [12], in general it is possible to claim with confidence that the uniform, effective and effective system of physical training within elementary comprehensive school in Kuban of the pre-revolutionary period was not created - the specified 559 schools with teaching gymnastics made no more than 25% of all Kuban schools. Between levels of teaching gymnastics in Kuban the essential distinction was Aleksandrovsk Real school and in wide network of initial schools. Existence of the beautiful and correctly verified teaching

gymnastics of real school does not reflect a situation in area in general.

In progressively changing social and economic and political conditions of the end of XIX - the beginnings of the 20th century in Kuban there was an objective process of so-called "decossackization" and growth connected with it not only economic independence, but also individualization of consciousness of the Cossack population. In this regard there is a gradual decrease in a role of a family and public component in military physical training of youth. Society assigns this educational function to army (regional power) and the state (central power) more and more. It should be noted that neither the army nor the state was ready to similar additional duties and within the structures (educational institutions of different level) which are available at their order could not create the effective system of children's military physical training.

From our point of view, the situation in the sphere of physical education of the Kuban Cossack army in general differed from All-Russian a little and is a sign indicator. Kuban, as well as the whole country, entered in the beginning of the 20th century with obviously weak system of military physical training of youth. Ahead were: World War I and Civil the wars, revolution and epidemics which claimed at physically weakened nation is more than lives, than all revolutions and wars of the beginning of the century combined...


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Cameron Emory Leslie
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