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To a question of formation of historical representations at ethnic minorities of Krasnoyarsk in the course of the general education



s. V. Prokudina

To the QUESTION OF FORMATION of HISTORICAL REPRESENTATIONS AT ETHNIC MINORITIES of KRASNOYARSK IN PROCESS

GENERAL EDUCATION

Work is presented by department of pedagogics and psychology of the Siberian state technological university.

The research supervisor - the candidate of pedagogical sciences, associate professor O.A. Shusherina

In article the problem of formation of historical representations at ethnic minorities of Krasnoyarsk is considered. The materials given below were received during the research conducted in 2000. The research shows that own vision of history and also dissatisfaction with school historical education is characteristic of ethnic minorities.

The analysis of the article is based on the research carried out in 2000 and includes the data concerning Krasnoyarsk ethnic minorities’ view on their native history formed in secondary school. According to the research, Krasnoyarsk ethnic minorities have their original ideas about their history and are not satisfied with the school programmes.

Historical representations are an important component ethnic samosoznaniya1. Modern researches show that ideas of history are formed generally in the course of the general education. Certainly, a part is played by also various additional sources of information (oral tradition, books, telecasts, etc.). But knowledge gained at school is basic after all. It is supposed that in the course of school training at pupils scientific ideas of the history of our country have to be formed and

the people inhabiting it. But whether there really is it?

In the present article it is offered to consider the problem of formation of historical representations at representatives of three ethnic groups living in Krasnoyarsk. During the research conducted in 2000 were interviewed representatives of the Tatar, Ukrainian and German diasporas. The specified three groups are the oldest and also some of the most numerous in Krasnoyarsk. At the same time the share of each of them in total population is very small: the Uke -

inets make 2.5%, Tatars - 1.3%, and Germans - 0.7%. 338 people, from them Tatars - 170, Ukrainians - 143, Germans-75 were interviewed (all respondents are more senior than 18 years). The obtained data, of course, are preliminary. Nevertheless some results drew our attention.

Almost all respondents expressed discontent that history which is taught at school "is written by Russians and for Russians". This reproach equally belongs both to Soviet, and to modern Russian schools. In the Soviet Union there was a secret hierarchy of the people according to which some of them could be considered as "backward", and others - on the contrary, "developed". The minorities which are rather described in this article it is possible to provide the statements of the Soviet figures of the 20th of the 20th century about the cultural level of various people of the Yenisei province: Tatars are "backward", Ukrainians - as well as russkiye2, Germans - higher urovnya3. Such relation somewhat remained still. It is interesting that estrangement level from "history of Russians" and also desire to compensate a certain offense by "memory" of great fulfillments of the past are obviously connected with above-mentioned hierarchy: "backward" Tatars have it the highest, at "equal" Ukrainians is not so high.

At modern Russian schools of history of the non-russian people not enough attention is still paid. Representatives of ethnic minorities make the main claim even not to the volume of the material offered in textbooks, and first of all to interpretations of any given events of the past. For this reason the problem of teaching history, from our point of view, cannot be solved due to creation of open classrooms, elective courses it.: it is impossible to treat the same facts at the general lessons of history in one image, and on elective courses - to others!

Is result of insufficient attention to history of ethnic minorities at domestic schools developed

they have peculiar ideas of history of the people. Many respondents could not remember any important event in the history of the people. Especially there are a lot of such answers at Tatars - 90, i.e. at more than a half of all respondents. In group of Ukrainians of any historical event could not remember 58 people, Germans - 18. From a conversation with respondents it is possible to draw a conclusion that the problem is not that these people really do not know any historical event, and that they do not associate the all-Russian story with history of the people. For example, all respondents know that in 1941-45 there was a war, but they connect this event only with history of Russians, but not with the.

Peculiar answers were given also by those who could remember any historical events connected with history of the people. So, at Tatars the mongolo-tatar yoke (51 answers) was most often called, and the mention of it was followed by comments like "our Tatar yoke", "a yoke when we governed 400 years Russians", and 400 years - not the slip, such period of time called many respondents. It is characteristic that the Volga Bulgaria is mentioned much less often (only 18 answers). Some Tatars confuse the Volga Bulgaria with modern Bulgaria (the comment in this case sounds so: "our ancestors created the first state in Bulgaria"). Others, knowing that it was the certain state, emphasize its antiquity and wealth, especially in comparison with Kievan Rus'. It is interesting that the Kazan khanate was mentioned by only three persons, and even these three remember it vaguely. But defeat of Kazan at Ivan the Terrible was remembered by 18 people. Naturally, capture of Kazan in sharply negative expressions is described. Four add to the fact of capture of Kazan still a violent baptism of Tatars.

Germans, as well as Tatars, do not associate the story with the history of Russia, but

associate it with the history of Germany. Most often among the major events World War I of 1939-45 was called, but it is interesting that negative consequences of war are realized only for Germany ("war ruined Germany"), but not to other countries. Two more events which are negatively estimated are connected with a mention of war in consciousness of Germans: a construction of the Berlin wall, the partition of Germany into two states (12 answers) and deportation of Germans to Siberia from the Volga region (14 answers). Besides, a part of respondents could remember falling of the Berlin wall and the reunification of Germany (15 answers). This event, on the contrary, is assessed positively. In general positive assessment of history of Germany, underlining of its world achievements in the field of economy and culture is characteristic of Germans.

Ukrainians among the major historical events most often called finding of independence by Ukraine in 1991 (33 answers), fascist occupation during the Great Patriotic War (29 answers) and also reunion of Ukraine with Russia in 1654 (25 answers). And if independence finding by almost all respondents is assessed positively, then reunion with Russia - is neutral or is even negative.

The provided data demonstrate that ethnic minorities of Krasnoyarsk, first, do not realize the history of the USSR and Russia as ""; secondly, from -

rush to the fact of accession to Russia and also to policy of Russians for the people rather negatively; and thirdly, seek to emphasize the greatness in the past (Tatars - marking out the unity with the Golden Horde, Germans - due to self-identification with the rich and developed Germany, and Ukrainians - with the independent, quickly developing Ukraine). Besides, representatives of all three groups take great pain to prove the superiority over Russians.

The relation of ethnic minorities to history described here, cultivated at them offense, alienation from Russians cannot but be alarming. The obtained data confirm presence of the hidden tension which under adverse circumstances can quite create a conflict situation.

Now stories, claims are characteristic of representatives of ethnic minorities the vision on the fact that not enough attention, dissatisfaction with school historical education is paid to history of ethnic minorities. Here, in our opinion, there is also a problem: how it is possible to consider opinion of ethnic minorities on the content of historical education? In the conditions of the ethnic tension which developed in our country this problem becomes especially current and requires to itself special attention.

1 M.N. Guboglo. Identification of identity. M.: Science, 2003. Page 210.
2 GAKK. F. r-49. Op. 1. 398. NN. 100-104.
3 TSHIDNI KK. T. 60. Op. 1. 832. NN. 40-42.
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