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Category: History

Review of anniversary publications of Darvinian subject



RETSENZII And SUMMARIES

Review of anniversary publications of Darvinian subject

E.I. Kolchinsky

St. Petersburg branch of Institute of history of natural sciences and equipment of S.I. Vavilov RAS, St. Petersburg, Russia; ekolchinsky@yandex.ru

Among the works devoted to the current state of evolutionary biology, its world outlook and cultural value especially it should be noted the fundamental book "Evolution. The first four billion years" under M. Ryyuz and J. Trevi-sa's edition with the preface of the creator of a sotsiobiologiya E. Vilsona1. Among her authors, and their more than hundred people, it is possible to see as leading experts in the field of history and philosophy of the evolutionary theory (G. Allen, J. Bettie, P. Bouler, D. Wilson, D. Dennet, A. Desmond, J. Kane, R. Nambers, R. Olbi, R. Richards, N. Rupke, B. Smokovitis, M. Fichtan, D.Hall, J. Hodge and others), and the largest biologists evolutionists — geneticists, paleontologists, sistematik, morphologists, anthropologists, ecologists and so on (F. Ayala, M. Benton, N. Gillham, B. Grant, D. Dzhokhanson, E. Carlson, G. MakGenri, L. Margulies, S. Maurice, D. Sepkovsky, E. Scott, A. Fedyukkiya, K. Fox, D. Folk, G. Frei, J. Hanken, B. and D. Charlesvoza, J. Shopf and others).

In the first part of the book the historical review of development of an evolutionary thought is given, the current state of the major problems of the evolutionary theory connected with origin of life, molecular evolution, ontogenesis evolution, social behavior of animals, evolution of the person is shown and also their value for medicine, philosophy, religion is covered. The second, most part of the book, represents a peculiar encyclopedia of evolutionary biology. It included hundreds of small articles devoted to development of the main problems of the evolutionary theory and its concepts, landmark books and biographies of her many creators. Undoubtedly, this book, it is evident

1 Evolution. The First Four Billion Years/Ed. by M. Ruse, J. Travis. Cambridge (Mass.); London: The Belknap Press, 2009. 979 p.

the showing fruitfulness of unity of history and the present, has to become desktop for each biologist and the historian of science.

Book by J.O. "Why evolution is faithful to a koine?" hardly applies on fundamen-dalnost2. R. Levontin's pupil and the large expert in studying speciation at drosophilas, the Koine tries to provide in a bright and available form as much as possible proofs from the different fields of biology, including molecular, in favor of the theory of natural selection. With interest are read sections on what role sex and play sexual selection in evolutions. In this book the issues of the evolutionary theory which are most discussed now are successfully grouped.

There were dozens of new books on the history of formation of the theory of natural selection and its perception in different countries, faiths, areas of knowledge, art forms.

The small book by John van Vaye "Darwin in Cambridge" 3 is devoted to formation of scientific interests of Ch. Darwin. Darwin estimated three years of stay in Cambridge as "the most joyful in my happy life". He considered the possibility to become professor at this university and sent to study here three sons. And though there is now no opportunity day after day to track Darwin's life in Kraysts-college, the author, being guided by recently found manuscripts and publications and also memoirs of those who knew Darwin the student, specified many details of his everyday life, a focus of interest and friends, progress and failures. The results of researches of Joe Pul which are been the basis for restoration of the room of Darwin in Kraysts-college are given in the appendix.

In the review of anniversary actions in the same number we note a key role of J. van Vaya in transfer to an electronic form of Darvinian hand-written inheritance. A part of its researches was issued in the form of the publications introducing for scientific use the large volume of archival information. For example, it published the first complete collection of notebooks of Ch. Darwin during his round-the-world travel in 1832 — 1837 of 4 V "Notebooks of Ch. Darwin of times of a travel on "Bigle"" fifteen books reflecting a focus of his interests and actions, direct results of its researches and observations in the field of geology, zoology, botany, ecology, meteorology, ethnography, archeology, linguistics entered. These scientific records are given together with maps, drawings, financial calculations, shopping lists, extracts from the read books, essays and notes about daily meetings. It is, perhaps, one of rare opportunities for the historian of science to track daily activity of future famous scientist in all its variety and completeness. Some opening and observations which became subsequently known thanks to Darwin's publications are given in "Notebooks" in the primary, raw look. Extensive comments explain each stage of its activity, focusing attention on the moments which made Darwin think on evolution of Earth and its inhabitants.

J. van Vaye published one more fundamental book "Short Publications of Ch. Darwin" 5 which his essays, articles, letters to editors and so on entered. The first of articles was published in 1829 when Darwin was a student. Then it was printed almost annually. Here also the first publication on natural selection in 1858 is included. With -

2 Coyne J.A. Why Evolution is True. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press., 2009. 309 p.
3 Wyhe J. van. Darwin in Cambridge. Cambridge: Christ&s College, 2009. 74 p.
4 Chachellor G., Wyhe J. van. Charles Darwin&s Notebooks from the Voyage of the Beagle/Ed. by G.Chancellor. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2008. 580 p.
5 Charles Darwin&s Shorter Publications, 1829-1883/J. van Wyhe. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2009. 556 p.

Fig. 1. Photo of the author of article

abusive the publisher the material painted by unique Darvinian humour contains data on how Darwin treated the Victorian society what focus of his interests in different spheres of science and culture with what it had abilities was.

In 2009 as the anniversary edition there was a volume of the chosen letters of Ch. Darwin "Origin" prepared earlier F. Burkhardtom6. It covers school days, study in Cambridge, a round-the-world travel, origin, development and the publication of the theory of natural selection. To this volume the author of the concept "faltering balance" S. Gould presented epistolary creativity of Darwin in historical and social and scientific contexts to the preface. The originator supplied letters with exact comments and short biographies of senders of Darwin. Ch. Darwin's correspondence from "Beagle" during a round-the-world travel prepared for printing also F was the day before published. Burkhardom7. Besides the letters allowing to see first-hand the freshest impressions of Ch. Darwin in his stories to the family placed there wonderful watercolors of one of Darwin's companions give the chance to personally see those countries and the people, animals and plants. The book "Evolution" includes as Ch. Darwin's letter in the period from 1860 to 1870, and the letter to it of friends,

6 Selected Letters of Charles Darwin, 1822-1859. Anniversary edition/Ed. by Fr. Burkhardt. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2009. 286 p.
7 Charles Darwin: The Beagle Letters/Ed. by Fr. Burkhardt. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2008. 544 p.

colleagues and critics who followed right after issue of "Origin of species" 8. The most intensive period in Darwin's creativity which came to the end with the edition of work "Origin of the Person and Sexual Selection" (1871) is reflected in them.

A number of new books was published by authors of the best scientific biographies of Ch. Darwin of the last decades. J. Brown published the book ""Origin видов" Darwin" 9, A. Desmond and J. Moore — "Sacred business of Darwin. Race, slavery and search of origin of the person" 10. The author of the well-known two-volume work about Ch. Darwin (1995 — 2002) in a lapidary form managed to state Brown the main contents of the previous works, having made fine introduction to laboratory of the ideas of Darwin. This book represents a good example of public statement of grandiose results of historical and scientific work. One of the best biographies of Ch. Darwin creating the revolutionary works in monotonous rural silence far from passions of the Victorian era, the book Cyrilla Eydona "Charles Darwin and time" 11 is considered.

The alliance of two other titled modern historians of science Desmond and Moore specializing in the field of history of biology of England of the 19th century as well as 17 years ago, was very successful. They and managed to prepare this time detailed on statement, unexpected according to contents, bright in a form and interpretation of circumstances of formation of Darwin, witty on giving, as evolutionist. According to them, to it it was led by need to prove unity of mankind with the purpose to beat out any natural science justification from slavery justification as an inevitable consequence of biological inequality. The purpose of release of mankind from slavery and eradication of racial inequality was the cornerstone of all creative activity of Darwin. The proof of unity of the person with the whole world of animals in his eyes would be the major step in this direction. Evolution meant emancipation of slaves in the USA for it. At all argumentativeness of similar treatment, the book obviously promotes recovery of moral justice in relation to the person, often the accused of release of people from morals and ethics, of planting of social Darwinism and even national socialism and communism. In Desmond and Moore's new book the creator of "Origin of species" appears as the great humanist. As authors consider, having only taken into account deeply acquired by Darwin in youth of norm of Christianity, it is possible to understand that surprising mix of its personal motives, painful fluctuations and the scientific radicalism which led at last in 1871 to the edition of the book "Origin of the Person".

Two books to anniversary were published by other well-known researcher of scientific heritage of M. Ch. Darwin of Hodzh12. In the first of them it collected the most successful articles about Ch. Darwin and about the history of the evolutionary ideas since the most ancient times up to now. The author, as before, pays special attention to strategy and structure of the Darvinian activity treated as "a uniform long argument" in favor of natural selection. Hodge brings statement of history of the evolutionary ideas to mathematical model of natural selection of J.B.S. Haldane and R. Fischer. In the second book he analyzes

8 Evolution: Selected Letters of Charles Darwin 1860-1870/Ed. by F. Burkhardt, A. Pearn, S Evans. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2008. 336 p.
9 Browne J. Darwin&s Origin of Species. A Biography. London: Atlantic book, 2006. 174 p.
10 Desmond A., Moore J. Darwin&s Sacred Cause. Rase, Slavery and the Quest for Human Origins. London; New York: Penguin Books, 2009. 485 p.
11 Aydon C. Charles Darwin. His Life and Times. Philadelfia; London: Running Press, 2007. 326 p.
12 Hodge M.J.S. Before and after Darwin. Aldershot: Asgate Publishing, 2008. 362 p.; Hodge M.J.S. Darwin Studies. A Theorist and his Theories in their ^ntexts. Aldershot: Asgate Publishing, 2009. 356 p.

a social context of creation of the Darvinian theory, susceptibility it various ideas occurring in society. Such approach allows to understand Darwin not as the certain heroic personality acting contrary to the norms dominating in society, values and concepts and as a product of a certain intellectual, cultural and religious environment. The book allows to estimate more deliberately influence on Darwin's creativity of materialistic philosophy and political economy of capitalism.

Various aspects of evolutionary and biological works of Ch. Darwin in the light of modern science are analyzed in the collective monograph "Origin of species" which was prepared by the leading historians of the evolutionary theory (P. Bouler, D. Depyyu, D. Coen, R. Olbi, R. Richards, M. Ryyuz, F. Sloan, B. Smokovitis, etc.) 13.

The collection of essays about Darvinian contemporaries written by B. Lightman "Evolutionary naturalism in the Victorian England", especially sections on the main propagandists of Darwinism T. Hexli and G. Spensere14 also concerns the darviniyena. The author considers that historians exaggerated an evolutionism role in blasting positions of church in England at the end of the 19th century. The end of domination of religious outlook during the Victorian era, according to him, was caused by a difficult konstellyation of socio-political, ideological, economic and cultural factors.

The comparative analysis of works of the writer J. Austin and Ch. Darwin who is carried out by the literary critic P. Graham led it to a conclusion that their huge popularity in the Victorian society is explainable similarity of approaches to the analysis mira15. As literature and science the author explains unexpected identification of so different spheres of intellectual activity to those, as Darwin, and Austin had ability to observe and describe the world surrounding them, having substantially exempted from the representations dominating around them. Representing society, Austin behaved like the naturalist, striving for the maximum objectivity and independence of the dominating views.

The paleontologist M. Boylter, the specialist in an extinction problem, devoted the research to how a house situation in a manor Down and the objects of a research chosen by Darwin predetermined evolution of his views of an opportunity spasmodic vidoobrazovaniya16. The author came to a conclusion that some objects, first of all the well-known orchids, delivered to Darwin examples of "perspective monsters", others forced it to accept gradualism. According to the geneticist of St. Jones, the fauna and flora of England played more important role in formation of views of Ch. Darwin, than Galápagos arkhipelag17. He reminds that Darwin spent only five weeks on Galapagos Islands, five years, and fifty years lived in a round-the-world travel and worked in Down. Researches of local insects, pigeons, usonogy and so on formed the basis of his many reasonings and conclusions.

The two-volume book prepared under edition of two famous historians evolutionary

became result of ten years' work of big collective of the scientific different countries
13 The Cambridge Companion to the & Origin of Species&//Ed. by M. Ruse, R. Richards. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2008. 428 p.
14 Lightman B. Evolutionary Naturalism in Victorian Britain. The & #34; Darwinians" and their Critics. Aldershot: Asgate Publishing, 2009. 348 p.
15 Graham P.W. Jane Austen Charles Darwin. Naturalists and Novelists. Aldershot: Asgate Publishing, 2008. 214 p.
16 Boulter M. Darwin&s Garden. Down House and The Origin of Species. London: Constable, 2009. 250 p.
17 Jones St. Darwin&s Island. London: Little Brown Co, 2009. 307 p.

Fig. 2. Photo of the author of article

biology E. - M. Engels and T.V. Glika18. This project was implemented within the general project "Perception of the English and Irish Authors in Europe" which is carried out several decades by British Academy. Under the leadership of the famous expert in the field of comparative literary criticism E. Shaffer about thirty works of this series are prepared and published. But before only one of them was devoted to the scientist — to I. Newton. The book about Darwin became the second such book. The difference of this project from all previous works about perception of Darwinism in different countries is that, first, the main attention is paid not to major scientific powers, but to the small countries, many of which those years were a part of empires: for example, Czech Republic, Poland, Estonia, Lithuania. Secondly, not perception of Darwin in general, and through a prism some special scientific, not necessarily biological, disciplines is analyzed. And, thirdly, in the book the perception of the Darvinian ideas in different faiths, in literature, art, theater, etc. is analyzed. Also the chronological list of the major events made by editors in the field of the evolutionary theory of any given country was new. It is pleasant that in very short transfer of the books (about 10) published after the II world war in our country and estimated by editors as significant for world science three works are prepared and published in LO IIET in the 1970-1980th

Also the book by R. Gordon "Dances with Darwin" 19, devoted to influence of the Darwin theory of evolution on modernization of manner of performance of songs and dances in France in the last quarter of XIX — the first decade of the 20th century has pioneer character. The author believes that the Darwinism rendered, along with promotion of the theory of epilepsy and a degeneration as prerequisites of an esthetics of new musical mass art in cabaret, influence on processes of formation of mass culture, its role in emergence of a dekadenstvo and surrealism.

In this anniversary left many books covering little-known aspects of life of Darwin or influence of its works on the world around. There is a wish to call magnificently illustrated book "Infinite forms. Charles Darwin, natural sciences and the fine arts" 20 in which it is told about influence of painting on Darwin's creativity and on formation of his ideas and also the return impact of works of Darwin on painting of the second half of XIX — the beginnings of the 20th century, including impressionists and postimpressionists. Also J. Smith and G.'s books Dausona21 are devoted to little-known aspects of influence of Ch. Darwin on literature and the fine arts.

The book by the great-great-granddaughter of Darwin Ruff Pedel "Darwin became an original innovation in the darviniyena. Life in poetry" 22. The author for the first time in world practice of writing of biographies of scientists with a big expression, soul and heart told about a course of life of the great ancestor in hundred small poems, having successfully issued his many ideas, theories and even excerpts from letters and diaries in the form of poetic lines. The book D. Beytson and V. Dzhenevey "Recipes of Mrs. Ch. Darwin" 23 immediately causes to buy a smile of affection and desire. Who will not want to try dishes with which fed

18 The Reception of Charles Darwin in Europe. Vol. 1 — 2/Ed. by E. - M. Engels, T.V. Glick. New York; London: Continuum, 2009. 659 p.
19 Gordon R.B. Dances with Darwin. 1875 — 1910. Vernacular Modernity in France. Aldershot: Asgate Publishing, 2009. 330 p.
20 Endless Forms. Charles Darwin, Natural Science and the Visual Arts/Ed. by D. Donald and J. Munro. New Haven; London: Yale Univ. Press, 2009. 344 p.
21 Smith J. Charles Darwin and Victorian Visual Culture. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2007. 396 p. Dawson G. Darwin, Literature and Victorian Respectability. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2008. 298 p.
22 PadelR. Darwin. Life in Poems. London: Chatto Windus, 2009. 141 p.
23 Bateson D., Janeway W. Mrs. Charles Darwin&s. Recipe book. New York: Glitterati. 2008. 175, XVI p.

Emma Darwin of the famous spouse. At the end of the book also the copies of some recipes written by Emma Darwin's hand are provided.

Among the books published to Darvinian anniversary, numerous modern reprintings of its works among which the special attention is drawn by perfectly issued and illustrated versions "Travel by the Ship " Bigl"", "Origins of species", including the simplified editions for children of various age and young men. There is a wish to call the academic publication "Darwin. Indelible press" 24. In one book four main works of Ch. Darwin marking the main stages of evolution of his ideas are placed. "A travel by the ship "Bigl"" (1839), "Origin of species by natural selection" (1859), "Origin of the person and sexual selection" (1871), "Expression of emotions at the person and animals" (1872). The editor and the author of short comments on the book — the Nobel Prize laureate J. Watson who deciphered the structure of DNA together with F. Crick. I will cite only the first words from the preface written to them: "Evolution is the great principle uniting all live. It offers justification and a way of deep understanding of life" 25. These words of one of the best-known biologists of all times and the people do not need comments.

Even so fluent and preliminary review of books, each of which has to become the subject of the serious analysis, shows that Darwin's anniversary is marked by formation not only new approaches to studying his creativity, but also new perspective methods of the historical and scientific analysis. The substantial contribution to development of social history of the science enriched with methods of the comparative literary and art criticism analysis is made. Darwin's anniversary showed that works of the great English naturalist continue to be one of the main sources of the analysis of science in a wide welfare context.

In a pursuit of a gene S.Yu. Shilov *, A.I. Yermolaev **

* St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia; serguei.shilov@gmail.com; & #34; St. Petersburg branch of Institute of history of natural sciences and equipment of S.I. Vavilov RAS, St. Petersburg, Russia; yamamura@yandex.ru

For what works on science stories are written? The simplest answer — to state "as it was" — is at the same time the most incorrect. The purposes of a scientific historiography are diverse and, as a rule, are not so primitive. The good book on stories of science is turned not only into the past, in much bigger degree it connects the past with the present and therefore it is always relevant. Let's exemplify told, directly related to the discussed book.

The volume of scientific information, to the necessary expert, that which existed still quite recently (from the historical point of view) significantly exceeded — in the middle

24 Darwin: The Indelible Stamp. The Evolution of an Idea//Ed., with œmmentary by J.D. Watson. Philadelphia; London: Runnung Press, 2005. 1261 p.
25 Ibid. P. VII.
Donna Johnson
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