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Category: History

Peter I: gloss and poverty of modernization



s. A. NEFEDOV

PETER I: GLOSS AND POVERTY of MODERNIZATION

In article Peter I's reforms from positions of the technological interpretation of history developed by D. Diamond and U. Mac-Neil and having much in common with the theory of cultural circles and the theory of military revolution are considered. It is shown that Peter I's reforms followed the general scheme described within these theories: the fundamental military innovation (in this case - creation of the facilitated musket with a bayonet and linear tactics) causes a wave of gains, and the countries to which invasion threatens are forced to adopt hastily at first military equipment and the organization, and then industrial, administrative and partly the social system of the country aggressor. After a while, however, there comes the period of traditionalist reaction, and results of reforms substantially are lost.

I hope that I managed to convince you, readers that history, contrary to a cynical aphorism, it not "citation of facts and is more than devil". History really has general regularities and to try to find it an explanation - occupation not only fruitful, but also fascinating.

D. Diamond

Technological interpretation of history

The last decades of the 20th century are celebrated by new revival of macrohistorical researches, new attempts of broad historical synthesis. Among the famous historians trying to explain the world, the place of honor is taken by William Mac-Neil and Jared Diamond. Works of these outstanding scientists are devoted to a problem of emergence and distribution of the major technological innovations; they describe historical process as process

Historical psychology and sociology of history 1/2011 47-73

development of new technologies by people - offer "technological interpretation of history".

In a general sense technological interpretation of history is diffuzionizm option, the theory of cultural circles - the historical and ethnological concept very popular in 1920th and 1930th is its cornerstone. The creator of this concept F. Grebner considered that the similar phenomena in the culture of various people are explained by origin of these phenomena from one center (Ogaeieg of 1911). Grebner's followers believe that the most important elements of human culture arise only once and only in one place as a result of great, fundamental opening. The opening allowing to expand an ecological niche of ethnic group are considered as fundamental. It can be opening in the field of production of food, for example the domestikation of plants allowing to increase population density in tens and hundreds of times. It can be the new weapon allowing to move apart dwelling borders at the expense of neighbors. Effect of opening such is that they give to the people pioneer decisive advantage before other people. Using these advantages, the people, "elected God", it begins to be settled from places of the dwelling, to take and develop new territories. From the center of a new civilization the wave of gains extends. Former inhabitants of the won territories either are exterminated, or forced out by newcomers, or submit to them and adopt their culture. The people which are before the front of approach, in turn, seek to adopt weapon of newcomers - there is a diffusion of fundamental elements of culture, they extend extensively, outlining a cultural circle, the field of distribution of any given fundamental opening.

Diamond gives an amazing example of fast distribution of an aggressive and diffusive wave. "One of tribes of New Zealand, a ngapukha, thanks to the European dealers in 1818 got muskets. The next 15 years New Zealand shook so-called "mushketny wars" during which yet the tribes which did not arm with new weapon or quickly mastered it, or were enslaved by tribes which already had it. As a result by 1833... all survived tribes were the tribes which learned to shoot" (Diamond 2009: 323).

The wave of loans caused by distribution of new weapon has difficult character and consists of a row social

the economic and cultural transformations following one after another in a certain sequence. At first weapon is borrowed actually, then - the military organization and military industry (or craft). These are necessary priority loans without which the state will not be able to resist to conquerors. Then the circle of loans extends, covering those areas of a social system which are connected with the military organization and military industry - up to full reorganization of a social system on a sample of victorious conquerors. These transformations can be referred to loans of the second turn. In certain cases the traditional social system is rather flexible and adapts to changes in the military sphere without full social reorganization therefore loans of the second turn are not certainly necessary. At last, transformations in the field of culture, life, clothes, customs, in word usage and language belong to loans of the third turn. They, certainly, are not necessary, and their motives usually have purely psychological character: conquerors and winners automatically are considered as true carriers "civilizations" and "cultures" and therefore they need allegedly to imitate in life. Among supporters of traditions there is an imitation foreigners and gentiles always causes rejection reaction - traditionalist reaction. Reaction of subjects is stronger, than the circle of loans more extends. Perenimaniye of alien traditions in the field of culture, life, clothes, language means acculturation, loss of national signs therefore these tretyeocheredny and optional loans cause especially fierce repulse. In these cases the traditionalist reaction can cause revolts and lead to rejection of many borrowed elements and partial restoration of traditional society.

Anyway, however, new social and cultural elements are not adopted in a clean, invariable look. Eventually there is a social synthesis of the traditional and borrowed institutes generating new culture and new society. In the annex to HUSh-H1H to centuries when process of diffusion consisted in a perenimaniye of the European culture, often speak about modernization. This term of wider plan is usually used mainly as a synonym of origin and distribution of an industrial civilization. Modernization is not always connected with diffusion (an example - England eras of an industrial revolution),

but in specific conditions of Russia of the 18th century the "diffusive" modernization took place therefore in A.B. Kamensky's works and

And. N. Medushevsky Petrovsky reforms are characterized at the same time as modernization and europeanization (Kamensk 1999: 155; Medushevsky 1993: 78).

Military revolution of the 17th century

In the context of the European history of the 17-18th centuries the concept of technological interpretation of history is closed with the well-known theory of "military revolution" of the 17th century. The theory of military revolution was created forty years ago by the famous English historian M. Roberts - he considered that changes in social and political life of Europe were generated by those fundamental opening in military science which were caused by activity of the Swedish king Gustav Adolphus (1611-1632) (Roberts 1967: 195). Creation of easy regimental guns which could be transported across the field of fight was the main achievement of the Swedish king. Emergence of new weapon caused changes in completing and the organization of troops, not numerous hired armies gathered for the period of war were succeeded by regular standing armies. As Roberts believed, military revolution turned all course of history of Europe. Emergence of regular armies meant need of reorganization of a financial system, need of increase in taxes that led to growth of bureaucracy and strengthening of the royalty - by the birth of the European absolutism (Ibid.: 195-216).

Fundamental military innovations of Gustav Adolphus caused a wave of the Swedish gains. In 1630 the Swedish troops landed in Germany, and a year later in fight at Breytenfelda the Swedish guns shot army of the emperor Ferdinand II. Swedes became owners of Central Europe, in twenty years of war 20 thousand cities and villages were burned and two thirds of the population of Germany died. The wave of gains extending across Europe caused a diffusion wave - the people which faced Swedes sought to adopt new weapon of conquerors as soon as possible. After defeat in 1656 near Riga the tsar Alexey Mikhaylovich started creation of the regular army consisting of regiments of "an overseas system"; this army was armed with regimental guns though the Russian guns were not such lungs as Swedish (Nefedov 2004: 44-52).

Since 17th century the large military innovations in Europe followed one by one: after emergence of easy guns there came the new stage of military revolution - appeared a musket with the silicon lock (fusion) and a bayonet. Emergence of new weapon caused change of military tactics and the military organization. To replace tactics of dense columns - "fights" in which musketeers were mixed with pikiner the linear tactics assuming refusal of use of pikiner and creation of musketeers to 4-6 lines came. The first (in 1684) the Austrian army refused use of pikiner; the Austrian infantry mastered fire fight at which lines stopped at a distance of fire and conducted alternate fire. The Swedish infantry kept pikiner in the first line, and after the first volley the Swedes rushed to rapid bayonet attack (Gunnar 1999: 167-168; Leonov, Ulyanov 1995: 9; Puzyrevsky 1889: 66).

The Austrians the first reaped the fruits of linear tactics: lead by Evgeny Savoysky, they in 1697 beat Turks in battle at Zenta and then in the union with British won in war for the Austrian inheritance. As a result of these victories Hungary, Belgium and a part of Italy was conquered, the territory of the Habsburg monarchy increased more than twice, and Evgeny Savoysky became the best-known commander of that time. Thus, new fundamental opening generated a wave of the Austrian gains and led to the birth of the huge empire of Gabsburgov.

In the north of Europe the first army which acquired linear tactics was Swedish. The Swedes who were still possessing the artillery, best in Europe, gained new military advantages over neighbors and with ease gained the victories similar to a victory near Narva. In front of Russia - already not for the first time - the threat to be defeated "mushketny wars" hung, and according to regularities about which Diamond writes the only exit consisted in fast copying at first of weapon and the military organization, and then the administrative device and absolutist orders of Sweden.

Peter I's phenomenon: the Dutch sailor on the Russian throne

Around Peter the Great's reforms three centuries are conducted brisk disputes. Some historians (for example, S.M. Solovyov) recognize them as a cardinal revolution, "revolution", others

(P.N. Milyukov) refuse to call them reforms because "the hozyaynichanye does not represent anything similar to reform day by day" (Milyukov 1905: 123). The complexity of perception of Peter's time is that in Peter's transformations there was a lot of external, and such actions as compulsory shaving of beards and cutting of sleeves of caftans, made a bigger impression, than creation of new army and fleet on society. Being defined in the basis by deep historical processes, Peter's transformations at the same time represent an example of operation of the mechanism of diffusion which eventually works through a personal contact of specific people and therefore somewhat depends on a combination of casual events. (More detailed description of the mechanism of diffusion can be found in work of [2007] as E.V. Alekseeva.) Action of random and personal factors explains that circumstance that in acts of the tsar there was a lot of psychological and irrational; they not always corresponded to a traditional image of "tsar converter".

Formation of the identity of Pyotr proceeded in unusual conditions. He was torn away by will of a case from the palace Kremlin environment, nobody cared for its education, and coupling of strange circumstances led to the fact that not the Moscow priests and clerks, and the Dutch sailors and carpenters - Timmerman and Brant became his tutors. These people made of the Russian tsar of the sailor and the carpenter; young Peter adopted at them passionate love for the sea and carpenter's business, he borrowed demotic Dutch manners, the Dutch clothes and passion for tobacco (Vodarsky 1993: 63). At the same time it was deprived of what was considered as necessary qualities of the Russian tsar: devotion, orthodox education, respect for church and national traditions; up to twenty two years Peter was not engaged in public affairs at all, spending time behind construction of yachts and in military funs. It had new friends and tutors - officers from the German settlement, among them there is a colonel Lefort who accustomed Peter to unlimited binge and reduced it with the mistress Anna Mons and also the general Gordon to whom Peter was obliged by love for artillery and for fireworks. When Peter was 25 years old, the tsar admitted to the princess Hanover Sofia that his real passion are navigation and fireworks. & lt; If he received the best education, it would be the excellent person", - the princess Sofia noted (Theological 1946: 117-118).

At all accident of circumstances of youth of Peter it is necessary to recognize that in impact which had on the tsar by his environment force of technical superiority of Europe affected. Behind hobby for artillery there were maneuvers in Kozhukhov on which Gordon showed to the tsar new linear tactics in combination with use of "regimental guns". In love for construction of the ships the influence of other fundamental opening of the West was shown - then, in the 17th century, creation of the perfect ocean sailing ships, fleyt, laid the foundation of trade superiority of Holland and England. However young Peter did not separate the main thing from minor details - and short Dutch trousers for it were the same symbol of superiority of Europe as the ocean ship.

The Dutch clothes of Peter, his constant communication with foreigners, neglect official and religious ceremonies - all this caused grumble and indignation in the people. The patriarch Jehoiakim convinced the tsar of the will to avoid communication with ereti-kami-Protestants, to refuse overseas clothes and customs. When after Jehoiakim's death contrary to the tsar the Holy cathedral chose as the new patriarch Adriana, Peter created the "vsepyaneyshy cathedral" which elected "prince-dad" and began by an obscene image to parody church processions. Modern historians bewildered note that intoxicated existence of the "vsepyaney-shy cathedral" created when to the tsar there were eighteen, continued until the end of Peter's reign - and the mature person who became already the emperor indulged in rough buffoonery as though it was the same unrestrained youth (Theological 1946: 181, 199).

About to what degree Peter neglected the Moscow traditions, tells his behavior after the Azov campaign: in a triumphal procession Peter in clothes of the Dutch sailor walked after the luxury Leforta carriage - it caused grumble in crowd and was regarded as humiliation of royal advantage.

A trip to Europe

After capture of Azov the tsar decided to build the big fleet on the Sea of Azov and sent 50 noblemen abroad to study seafaring. In the spring of 1697 with the same purpose in the structure of embassy went abroad - to Saardam where the well-known Dutch shipyards were located, - and Peter. He was so keen on the dreams that, having driven up to Rein, left embassy, employed small

the boat was also started up down the river to shipyards, even without having stopped in the Dutch capital. The tsar got a job the carpenter on shipyard, but incognito soon was revealed him, and he had to move on shipyard in Amsterdam, and then - to England where it built the ships in Deptford. The behavior of the Russian tsar seemed to much strange: it was obvious that he is engaged not in royal business. "He is created by the nature rather to become the ship carpenter, than the great governor, - the bishop Burnett wrote down after the meeting with Peter. - Mastering this craft also was its main occupation while it was here" (tsit. on: Massie 1996, t. I: 339).

Though the young tsar looked at the world eyes of the sailor and carpenter - or, maybe, thanks to it, - Amsterdam and London made great impression on it. From now on the dream as far as possible to turn Russia into Holland lodged in Peter's soul, and the main thing is to construct the Amsterdam, the city of the ships, canals and multy-storey stone buildings. During Peter's stay in Amsterdam the role of the hospitable owner was played by the burgomaster and one of directors of the East Indian company Nicholas Vitsen. Vitsen is the famous scientist-geographer who visited Russia and created the map of Northern Asia and it is obvious that his academic interest was fed with aspiration of the company to search of the new markets. In 1690 Vitsen sent to the tsar the card and the book about "Northern and East Tataria" and suggested to organize joint trade with Persia and India on the Caspian trade way. Probably, under the influence of Vitsen the tsar like the idea of long trade voyages and inclusions of Russia in world trade. Vitsen made for Peter the "cultural program" providing conversations with merchants, visit of port, manufactories, workshops, the museums and laboratories of outstanding scientists. Peter some time studied anatomy and surgery at professor Ryuysh and studied drawing at famous Shkhonebek. In England Peter thoroughly mastered drawing and elements of mathematics and mechanics, necessary for the ship builder. All this significantly broadened Peter's horizons, and it returned from a trip with big knowledge base (Belov 1966: 69, 72; Massie 1996, t. I: 296-298, 300-302, 366-367).

Peter studied also humanitarian aspects of the European life. He visited the British parliament, got acquainted with the leader of Quakers William Penn and some time accurately attended church meetings of Quakers in Deptford. About how the deep impression was made on the tsar by these meetings, svi-

detelstvut what later, in 1716, he told to Menshikov: everyone who will manage to follow the doctrine of Quakers will find happiness (Massie 1996, t. I: 341).

Streletsky revolt

When Peter was in Vienna, messengers from Russia delivered him news of a streletsky revolt. In the fall of 1697 four regiments of the Moscow Sagittariuses protecting Azov received the order to go to the Polish border. Sagittariuses were dissatisfied: did not pay them a salary and did not give winter quarters - even besides other reasons of it was enough to hate the German officers ordering them. Meanwhile demonstrative friendship of Peter with "Germans" caused grumble for a long time: "The heretic Frantsko Lefort and German Monsova confused the young tsar". On June 6, 1698 Sagittariuses lifted a revolt; leaders shouted: "To go to Moscow! To ruin the German settlement and to beat Germans for the fact that from them Orthodoxy stagnated, to beat boyars... and not to let and kill the sovereign to Moscow for the fact that it developed with Germans!" (tsit. on: Nightingales 1991: 545).

Obviously, it was manifestation of traditionalist reaction to demonstrative friendship of the tsar with Germans, on wearing overseas clothes and blasphemous wine parties in the German settlement. This was not about opposition to reforms - Peter's behavior, unreasonable from the rational point of view, provoked a revolt even prior to reforms. Cruel suppression of a revolt and indicative executions more than one thousand Sagittariuses demonstrated that the tsar is not inclined to listen to an opposition voice that he intends "to civilize" Russia by the most severe methods.

The first reforms

However the transformations begun by Peter upon return home first had emotional and superficial character. Decrees on shaving of beards and prohibition were issued to wear the Russian clothes, about postponement of celebration of New year for January 1. Reforms such belong to loans of the third turn and follow usually in a final phase of transformations after the main loans concerning the equipment and the public relations are carried out. At the same time they are most painfully perceived by society because symbolize themselves refusal of the main vital traditions. In 1766 in a similar situation in Spain the ban of carrying a sombrero caused

the big popular uprising, and the indignant crowds nearly stormed the royal palace. Peter's decree also caused a revolt, but not at once, - in 1705 against "the German dress" the revolt in Astrakhan broke out.

"The return order" of transformations when loans of the third turn (not so obligatory) are ahead of primary, was a consequence of inability to separate minor from the main thing, a consequence of youthful maximalism of Peter which left the mark on all process of transformations.

Priority reform of army began in a year after Peter's return when the major A. Veyde who arrived from Austria prepared new army regulations under the name "Short Ordinary Doctrine". To fall of this year 27 regiments armed with fusions with bayonets and trained in linear tactics in its Austrian shooting option were created from recruits (Bloodless 1958: 22-23; Nightingales 1991: 27). The Saxon general Lang gene seeing the Russian army to Narva found it excellent on structure: people everything were tall, young, regularly obmundirovanny and trained in firing it is so good that did not concede to the German regiments (tsit. on: Princelings of 1990: 68). Thus, the priority of loan of fundamental military and technical achievements was solved quickly enough, and for this purpose it was not necessary to be at war with Swedes. The solution of this task was facilitated by the fact that military reform was begun at the tsar Alexey Mikhaylovich, methods of completing of "regiments of an overseas system" were already tested, and to Peter was to buy enough new muskets and to train recruits in new linear tactics.

Strange battle near Narva

Peter's decision to begin war with Sweden is among the same maximal decisions, as the ban of the Russian clothes. It was cast by impressions of a trip to the West: the tsar could not wait "to open" a window to Europe, "a leg firm to become by the sea", to construct the "New Amsterdam" and to get the fleet. In fact Russia had "a window to Europe" long ago; Arkhangelsk which even after construction of St. Petersburg long time remained the main Russian port was this window. From the military point of view the attack on Sweden was an example of irrational thinking: in Russia there was no quality iron for production of muskets, and Sweden was the only supplier of iron.

Copper for easy regimental guns in Russia was also not, and it was brought from Sweden too (Hmyrov 1865: 601; Strumilin 1954: 209).

After battle near Narva Peter said that recruits were badly trained: he needed to explain defeat somehow. But the true reason of defeat consisted, apparently, in another. After decrees on a bradobritiya and prohibition of national clothes the Russian soldiers had good reasons not to love the German officers. Officers felt uncertainly, many of them did not manage to accustom to new conditions yet: it is worth remembering that the duke de Croa was appointed the commander a day before the beginning of battle, he did not know the officers and did not know Russian (Massie 1996, t. I: 74).

Neither Peter, nor the Russian command expected that the Swedish king will dare to attack four times more numerous army which is in the strengthened camp. However the battle played on November 20, 1700 still surprises military historians. Once Swedes climbed up an earth mound, shouts sounded: "Germans changed!" - and the Russian soldiers began to beat the officers. "Let the devil fights with such soldiers!" - de Croa exclaimed and together with other German officers hurried to give up in captivity (Solovyov 1993a: 600-601). Apparently, it was the only case in military history when the commander looked for in captivity of rescue from the soldiers. In essence, what occurred near Narva was continuation of a streletsky revolt, manifestation of traditionalist reaction to Peter's reforms - this revolt took place during battle with Swedes and ensured them a victory over repeatedly strongest opponent.

Thus, the amazing victory of Swedes was a consequence of "the return order" of Petrovsky reforms. After fight Karl XII's confidants advised the king to intrude in Russia, to support Sofya's adherents and to use discontent of the Sagittariuses and common people opposing to introduction of the "German" customs (In the same place: 602; Bgukhe1 1861: 91-98, 105). Karl XII was well informed on the deep conflict which split the Russian society, but did not seize the opened opportunities.

Near Narva Russia faced the army, the first the seized new weapon, army which victories were identified with the wave of gains generated by fundamental opening until recently. The originality of a situation, however, was that

at that time the wave did not threaten Russia - the Swedish aggression went to Germany and Poland where in respect of spoils of war the war promised big prospects. Russia would probably become subject to further gains, but Peter managed to borrow new weapon before its country underwent blow of a wave, and moreover, itself attacked a potential aggressor. However "the strange victory" near Narva created a deceptive impression about inability of "the Russian barbarians" to borrow their achievements proud owners of new weapon.

Restoration of army

Anyway, Russia received a respite, and Peter could start restoration of army. After the Narva defeat it became clear that Russia was not prepared for war at all - there were neither guns, nor guns, nor swords, nor cloth for a soldier's form. Even saddles, tents and boots had to be bought at first abroad (Zakharov 1996: 239). Near Narva the most part of artillery - 177 guns and mortars was lost, and Peter decided on an act which many considered sacrilege, - he ordered to remove from churches of a bell and to pour them in guns. "For God's sake, hurry up with artilleriyeyu as it is possible: yak time death", - Peter wrote "the supervisor of artillery" Andrey Viniu-s; in reply Vinius suggested to remove a copper roof from the Kremlin palaces. Melting of bells gave 90 thousand poods of copper - it was very large amount of metal: England which was in the lead in the middle of the XVIII century in copper smelting produced about 230 thousand poods a year. From bell copper in 1701 on the Moscow gun yard 243 regimental guns were cast - and the problem with artillery was partly solved (Hmyrov 1865: 615-616, 622; Nightingales 1993a: 604).

Peter not only removed bells from churches. In January, 1701 the monastery and church ancestral lands was taken under management of the state which took away all income, leaving to monks the only contents on 10 (and then on 5) rubles a year. Though this reform officially was based on financial reasons, in fact it gave to the state only about 100 thousand rubles a year - less than 4% of all income. In sekulyarizatsionny reform Protestant moods of the tsar and his hostility towards orthodox church were shown. Hatred of the tsar to monks was such is that to them writing-materials forbade to have;

in case of failure to pay "nachetny" money of the power ordered to beat archimandrites on a pravezha (Milyukov 1905: 114, 118; Bulygin 1977: 74-77, 103). It was manifestation of the same maximalism when minor transformations come to the forefront and generate negative reaction to reforms.

Increase of traditionalist reaction, hatred to the tsar from church and broad masses of the orthodox population was result of such policy. In 1707 the Nizhny Novgorod metropolitan Isaiah in response to the next requirement of money burst in an angry tirade: "As other bishops want, and I for the will die, but I will not give... And so you vanish as worms, Swedes beat you, and all for our tears and for yours of a lie..." (Solovyov 1993a: 323). In the people rumors that the tsar "changed" that it not Russian, but the German, or even that the tsar - "Antichrist" who set in before doomsday went.

In terms of the technological concept the defeat from the conquerors possessing new weapon ("blow of an aggressive wave") would have to generate an urgent perenimaniye of their military technology. Such perenimaniye really took place: Peter urgently began to retrain the army from Austrian on the Swedish option of linear tactics, the priority was given to bayonet attack now, and returned pikiner to army. In fact Peter did not need to change something because military reform was undertaken beforehand, before war. Further it turned out that the Austrian option of linear tactics is more effective, and in the 1730th years the Russian army returned to "the shooting lines" (Gunnar 1999: 169; Leonov, Ulyanov 1995: 28-29).

Peter's actions in the field of the military organization had bigger value. For new army the numerous officer corps were required. Peter believed that noblemen - but to become the officer have to be officers of new army generally, the nobleman had to get at first a necessary education at "tsifirny schools", and then as the soldier to undergo military training in household troops. Changes in military equipment caused basic changes in position of the nobility. The former semiliterate riders knights from time to time called on war turned into more or less educated infantry officers obliged to stay constantly to a regiment. The guard became the corporation expressing the interests of the nobility and capable to put the military pressure upon the power.

Creation of military industry was other important consequence of the Narva defeat - it was the necessary stage in the course of loans which is directly connected with a perenimaniye of military equipment. The foundation of military industry was laid even during Alexey Mikhaylovich's reforms, but Peter much more increased its power, having constructed steel works in the Urals and small-arms factory in Tula.

The main reform of Peter, his "response" to "blow of a wave" consisted in sharp increase in taxes. The emergency taxes established by the tsar usually are not considered by historians in respect of reforms, but they brought taxation to that level which was fixed by introduction of a subear tax subsequently; therefore in principle it is possible to say that podatny reform was carried out right after defeat near Narva. Mobilization of resources is natural reaction to military threat in any society, but Peter managed to turn this mobilization level into constant, having provided thereby means for the maintenance of regular army. After Petrovsky reforms the taxes of the local peasants making most of the population were in five-six times more, than at Pyotr's predecessor tsar Fedor (Nefedov 2005: 142).

"Knows that among the lowest classes there are population... hostility towards Pyotr's identity and his activity was widespread extremely, - N.P. Pavlov-Silvansky wrote (1897: 1). - Complained most of all that... "ruined peasants with their houses, pobrat husbands in recruits, and orphaned wives and children"". Sharp growth of taxes and duties led to mass flight of peasants to the southern areas, to Don, to Ukraine, to Siberia. Ran in bulk, "a mnogolyudstvo, the person according to Stu and more" (Zaozerskaya 1958: 160). The government took drastic measures to stop this flight, the passport system was introduced and the chain of cordons along borders is created (Troitsk 1966: 118). In 1707 the operation on return fluent from Don was undertaken - as a result the country revolt broke out there, and in the summer of 1708 Peter I's troops had to battle on two fronts: against the Swedes who intruded in the country and against own peasants. In this situation Peter ordered to chasteners the most cruel measures: "... to cut people, and manufacturers on wheels and stakes... because this saryn except zhes-sharpen it cannot be appeased" (tsit. on: Anisimov 1989: 140).

Anyway, having mobilized resources of the country and having sharply increased taxes, the tsar could create huge, more than 100 thousand - ny field army. Karl XII did not believe that the huge Russian army seized a secret of new weapon - it self-confidently sent the troops in bayonet attack near Poltava, and on the most part of the front the Swedish lines did not manage to reach the opponent: they were swept away by a case-shot of regimental guns (Englund 1995: 167).

Construction of St. Petersburg

Mobilization of forces unprecedented until then resulted in success; the powerful regular army was created - and the main rational task of Petrovsky reforms was solved. It would seem, it is possible to lower taxes and to give simplification to the people, - but the tsar argued differently. Time of irrational decisions began. Peter considered that though war did not end yet, came it is time to be engaged in construction of St. Petersburg.

From the economic point of view this construction was absurd: in the tsar's hands there were already Riga, Revel, Narva so Russia has quite enough ports with ready infrastructure. "Without having either Riga, or Revel yet, it could put on coast of Neva the merchant city for import and export of goods, - N.M. Karamzin wrote, - but to approve a thought stay of sovereigns there was, is and will be harmful. How many people died how many millions and works are used for reduction in action of this intention? It is possible to tell that St. Petersburg is founded on tears and corpses" (Karamzin 1991: 35).

Says about the full, "zazerkalny" absurdity of occurring already that first Peter intended to build the new capital not in the mouth of Neva, and on Kotlin Island. The project of construction of "New Amsterdam" - the stone city lined by a grid of channels was made; people had to move on this city not in carriages, and in gondolas, as in Amsterdam. "The ardent monarch with the excited imagination, having seen Europe, wanted to do Russia - to Gollandiyey", - Karamzin wrote (In the same place: 36-37). The decree of January 16, 1712 recommended to move to Kotlin Island one thousand noble families (all highest nobility), one thousand merchant and one thousand craft families (Luppov 1957: 25-26).

Thus, the tsar intended to leave unloved him Moskovia, to create on the island in the sea "New Holland" and to move there the Russian nobility (who is already changed clothes by it for Dutch

clothes). Only emergence in the island of the Swedish fleet kept the tsar from realization of this plan: the danger that all Russian aristocracy will be at once captivated by Swedes was too obvious. Then the tsar decided to construct "New Amsterdam" on Vasilyevsky Island in the mouth of Neva. In 1716 tens of thousands of builders started implementation of the project Trezini and Loeb bosom: two main channels crossed with other channels had to cut through the island it is less. At each house the courtyard, a garden and pier for the master's boat gondola was provided. In the center of this huge water chessboard the tsar was going to build the new palace with an extensive regular garden (Massie 1996, t. III: 46).

The project in itself was not deprived of grace, but it was carried out during the war which took away all forces and means from the people. In 1710-1717 on construction of St. Petersburg annually demanded on one worker from 10-15 the yards, on average in 35 thousand people a year. Dependent workers went to St. Petersburg from all areas - even from Siberia, spending for the road till several months (Bulygin 1977: 142; Luppov 1957: 80). The French consul de la Vee demonstrates that two thirds of these people perished on the St. Petersburg swamps (Luppov 1957: 94). The field marshal Münnich wrote that in Northern war "from the enemy so many people are not beaten... how many died at the structure of the St. Petersburg fortress and Ladoga Canal" (tsit. on: Nightingales 1993v: 432).

Hatred to Peter was felt not only in the national environment, it was shown also in other estates. Business of the tsarevitch Alexey showed that dissatisfied were adjoined by wide circles of the old Moscow nobility, vklyuchavsh?

Walter Klein
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