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Creation and activity of Orders of public contempt at the end to the XVIII first half of the 19th centuries (on materials of the Yaroslavl and Kostroma provinces)



AKTUALNYE of the PROBLEM of NATIONAL HISTORY

UDC 94 (47.072)

CREATION AND ACTIVITY of ORDERS of PUBLIC PRIZRENIYA at the end of XVIII - the FIRST HALF of the 19th Centuries

Today in Russia the consistent focus is provided on social problems and improvement of quality of life of the population. The recent reforms of local management directed to improvement of management of regions in general and including the social sphere, only update this statement. Throughout the Russian history of the last centuries many attempts of similar transformations were made. In this regard experiment of the last quarter by XVIII - the first half of the 19th centuries can be especially model. In government of the empress Catherine II the reorganization of provinces which number was gradually brought to 50 was carried out. The foundation for it was laid by the act of "Establishment for management of provinces" (1775) 1 according to which in each provincial city, on -

(ON MATERIALS of the YAROSLAVL AND KOSTROMA PROVINCES)

Yaroslavl state university of P.G. Demidov

A.V. KUZMICHEV

e-mail: kuzav-@ mail.ru

Article is devoted to a question of creation and functioning of local authorities by the social sphere - to orders of public contempt in the last quarter of XVIII - the first half of the 19th centuries. On the basis of the used documents from archives of Kostroma and Yaroslavl the activity of the institutions of medico-social purpose entering into department of orders which creation began during Catherine II's reforms in the 1770th is considered. It is shown that the orders which existed till 1860th had the wide field of activity: from medical care for the poor population before financial transactions in banks and also quantitative and high-quality changes departmental to orders of institutions.

1 The Blagochestiveyshy Most autocratic Great monarchess empress Ekaterina the Second of establishment for management of provinces All-Russian the empire. M, 1775.

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a row with newly established Provincial board and State chamber, the Order of public contempt appeared. At the same time assessment of this state body in a domestic historiography is not always adequate to that role which it played lives of Russian regions.

The pre-revolutionary historiography studied first of all a financial component of activity of Orders of public contempt, paying insignificant attention to creation of this structure and subordinated to it uchrezhdeni-yam2. Historians of the Soviet period in general seldom paid attention to activity of Orders of public contempt. Nevertheless, you should not underestimate work of the Soviet scientists who brought the significant contribution to studying history of public administration in the Russian Empire. For example, in N.P. Erosh-kin's researches, A.D. Stepansky, etc. and also in local history works of P.G. Andreyev, V.I. Belyaeva, etc. was given a general characteristic of local authorities and activity of separate public institutions, including Orders public prizreniya3 was considered.

In Post-Soviet time the attitude to public contempt of the pre-revolutionary period was changed. Modern researchers actively develop the history of charity, study local government agencies, their structure and the main directions deyatelnosti4. The early complex studies of Orders of public contempt on regional urov-ne5 began to appear. However on materials of Upper Volga area of similar researches it was not carried out yet, and only separate aspects of activity of Orders of public contempt are disclosed in O.V. Sizova's theses, T.Yu. Ampleeva and others istorikov6.

Studying history of creation and activity of Orders of public contempt leans on a wide complex of historical sources. So, separate funds remained: "Kostroma Order of public contempt" (F. 156) in the State Archive of the Kostroma Region (SAKR) and "The Yaroslavl Order of public contempt" in the State archive of the Yaroslavl region (GAYaO. T. 83). A considerable part of documents of these funds is made by minutes and account books which give an idea of Orders of public contempt as of the financial institutions disposing of considerable money. In the 1860th it promoted transfer of a part of their functions to specialized credit institutions. The capitals lent Orders

2 A.A. Apushkin. Contempt of the insane in the Kostroma province. Kostroma, 1911; F.A. Bychkov. The description of celebration of 100-year anniversary of an Ekaterina's almshouse of the neighbor in Yaroslavl. Yaroslavl, 1886; I.I. Dityatin. Device and management of the cities of Russia. T. 1. SPb., 1875; Kostroma region. Anniversary collection. 1613-1913. Kostroma, 1913; V.I. Lestvitsyn. Opening of the Yaroslavl province in 1777 Yaroslavl, 1877; E.D. Maximov. Orders of public contempt in their past and the present / / the Labour help. 1901. No. 9, 10; A.A. Malinin. Contempt of the insane by the Yaroslavl provincial zemstvo. Yaroslavl, 1902; Starlings of L. Materials for the history of the city of Kostroma. Part 1. Kostroma, 1913; I.Ya. Syrtsov. The city of Kostroma in its past and the present. Kostroma, 1909; etc.
3 P.G. Andreyev. Yaroslavl rebels: From history of Patriotic war of 1812 Yaroslavl, 1960; V.I. Belyaev. Health care of Yaroslavl in the past and the present. Yaroslavl, 1961; N.P. Eroshkin. History of public institutions of pre-revolutionary Russia. M, 1983; A.D. Stepansky. History of public organizations of pre-revolutionary Russia. M, 1979: etc.
4 N.V. Dutov. The history of the Yaroslavl region in persons: Peter I, A.P. Melgunov. Yaroslavl, 2007; Kalinin of V.D. From the history of city self-government in Russia (XVII beginning of the 20th centuries) of M., 1994; V.M. Marasano-va. Local management in the Russian Empire (on materials of Upper Volga area). M, 2004; T.G. Fru-menkova. Educational houses and the beginning of secular charity and public contempt in Russia in Catherine II's reign//Charity in Russia. Historical and social and economic researches. SPb., 2003; Yaroslavl governors. 1777-1917. Istorikobiografichesky essays / V.M. Marasanova, G.P. Fedyuk. Yaroslavl, 1998; etc.
5 M.G. Kovalyova. Institutions of the order of public contempt of Russia in XIX - the beginning of the 19th centuries: on materials of the Voronezh and Kursk provinces: Yew.... edging. east. sciences. Belgorod, 2006.
6 T.Yu. Ampleeva. Yaroslavl namestnichestvo: administrative-territorial device and management: Yew.... edging. east. sciences. Yaroslavl, 1990; O.V. Sizova. The nobility of the Yaroslavl province at the end of XVIII - the first half of the 19th centuries: Yew.... edging. east. sciences. Yaroslavl, 1999; etc.

under percent and under a property mortgage. Among borrowers there could be representatives of the most various estates, beginning from the state peasants and finishing princes, at the same time the highest percent of borrowers was among commoners. The sums given by Orders also were various, but generally varied from several hundred rubles to tysyachi7.

Besides, in GAYaO documents of General-gubernator funds were studied (F. 72), "Yaroslavl provincial medical justice" (F. 86), "Council of the Yaroslavl Ekaterina's almshouse of the neighbor" (F. 550) 8. The analysis of documents of these funds allows to judge progress of the Yaroslavl province in rendering the medikosotsialny help to the population. So, for example, in Yaroslavl in 1786 one of the Russia's first provincial shelters - the Almshouse of the neighbor which field of activity included not only keeping of unfortunate orphan children of all estates, but also educational, educational and religious funktsii9 opened. In GAKO on the considered subject funds "Office of the Governor" are most informative (F. 133), "Kostroma vicegeral board" (F. 7), "Kostroma provincial board" (F. 134), "Kostroma provincial medical justice" (F. 204), "Kostroma city hospital" (F. 486), "Kostroma bogadelenny house" (F. 568), "Kostroma madhouse" (F. 579), etc.

In the funds involved in a research decrees of the Senate, the instruction of the Ministry of Justice and the Ministry of Internal Affairs, the order of provincial board, official lists of the serving Orders of public contempt, protocols and minutes, applications, official reports and a donosheniye, books of record of money, catalogs of medicines for treatment of patients, reports on expenditure of the sums, sheets about a state and capital flow, medico-topographical descriptions of provinces were postponed. Comparison of documents GAKO and GAYaO allows to study and compare creation of Orders and various subordinates of institutions by it in two neighboring provinces.

The order of public contempt was provincial public institution. Prisons, schools (city and rural), at home for mad and also orphan, work (workers) and smiritelny houses, hospital, hospitals, almshouses were under authority of the order. All this speaks about broad orientation of work of the Order which was designed to help not only representatives of nobility, but also citizens, orphans and even to the state peasants.

The Yaroslavl province was founded in February, 1777, and next year the Yaroslavl Order of public contempt created several new institutions. On March 16, 1778 men's and women's almshouses for 30 men and 20 women respectively opened. It was succeeded to establish that the chief supervisor lieutenant Andrey Nevlen managed almshouses. To dependents the grant, for example, to men - at first on 30 kopeks, and then - on 3810 was given here. Creation of new almshouses in Yaroslavl was an example of the state care of disabled and socially vulnerable people. It was not the only similar example. So, on December 10, 1778. The order opened the smiritelny house for people of both sexes. Dependents of this establishment received small benefits and were often used for the state works, for example, spun yarn.

In this case an integrated approach to a problem of the poor population was observed: on the one hand, the state cared for it, but, on the other hand, ope-

7 GAKO. T. 156. Op. 1. 1. L. 4-16, 220. L. the 5-209th, 1200. L. 8-23, 1197. L. 6-10, 1134. L. 2; GAYaO. T. 83. Op. 1. 21. L. 2-7, 22. L. 1-10, 242. L. 1-4, 730. L. 6-7ob.; Op. 3. 26. L. 1-3ob, 27. L. 1; etc.
8 GAYaO. T. 72. Op. 1. 8-9, 28, 32, 107, 731, 775, 1200, 1205; T. 72 Op. 2. 23, 54, 174, 1591, 1723, 1967; T. 86. Op. 1. 2, 28-29, 110; T. 550. Op. 1. 36; T. 550. Op. 2. 42.
9 F.A. Bychkov. The description of celebration of 100-year anniversary of the Ekaterina's almshouse of the neighbor in Yaroslavl. Yaroslavl, 1886. Page 3-4; I.A. Tikhomirov. Yaroslavl Volga region. Yaroslavl, 1909. Page 64-65.
10 GAYaO. T. 83. Op. 1. 14. L. 1.; 27. L. 3.

Series History. Political science. Economy. Computer science. 2010. No. 7 (78). Release 14

kayemy were provided with easy work, than had to compensate expenses on the maintenance at least partially. As a result for several years in the Yaroslavl province the network of institutions of medico-social orientation, various on activities, among which were also the house for mentally ill people led by the supervisor Gavrila Frenyov (it is open on December 23, 1779) and free hospital (it is open on November 24, 1780) 11 was created.

Opening of work (workers) houses became one more action of Orders of public contempt. In Yaroslavl the creation of this establishment began with A.P. Melgunov's proposal to the Order of public contempt according to the order of the Senate of May 18, 1781 "about sending unsteady on the cities from villages and the cities of inhabitants for the application of alms in work for factories and working houses" 12. The result did not keep itself waiting long, and on June 14, 1781 in Yaroslavl the work-house appeared. In different places of the city, people from this institution with circles for the application of alms were placed and also the broker who got out of "local nationality" and watched the money dues is defined. The grant, but it, with reservations was given contained in a work-house, it is possible to call also a salary as all of them performed a certain work. In 1789 the size of a grant was for men - 90 kopeks, for women - 60 kopeks. Thus, this institution was one of the first correctional facilities founded on the labor principle. The persons who were not wishing to improve and work could be placed in the prison lock.

Seeking to provide itself with qualified personnel, the government went to a number of the measures aimed at the development of training of children and teenagers. The important direction in activity of local administration was education development for what in the cities elementary schools were created. Graduates of these schools could arrive on public service. In particular, on April 16, 1778 in Yaroslavl the school at which 50 children of "parents of a different rank" studied opened. Here trained in Russian to read and write, to a catechism, to draw, "arifmetit" also geometry. Since 1784 the pupils began to be trained by rules of the Moscow school. Besides, the board where lived 15 chelovek13 was created. Guests received food and clothes from the Order of public contempt. This educational institution played an important role in familiarizing of children of commoners with public service.

Subsequently many of the institutions obeying the Orders of public contempt increased in number and got high-quality changes. So was, for example, in a case with the Yaroslavl city hospital which initially did not have even divisions into offices for men and women and being engaged in treatment practically of all diseases: from flu and smallpox before surgeries. Over time for hospital built the new building, men and women contained already separately from each other. By 1860th there were here special rooms where there were seriously ill patients.

Gradually Orders of public contempt began to get functions, new, earlier not characteristic of them. Except expansion of network of subordinated institutions (hospitals, work, smiritelny houses, etc.). Orders began to be engaged in training. For this purpose at provincial hospitals from 1830th medical assistant's schools where accepted all, except serf and state peasants opened (though in exceptional cases the state peasants after all were allowed to be taken). Besides, at Orders of public contempt schools of office attendants where accepted orphan children of public servants were created.

11 GAYaO. T. 83. Op. 1. 23. L. 8; Op. 2. 1. L. 3-4.
12 GAYaO. T. 72. Op. 1. 775. L. 1-2.
13 GAYaO. T. 83. Op. 2. 1. L. 3-4.

In the device of Orders of public contempt practically all population groups, except for peasants were presented. It can be seen on the example of the Kostroma Order of public contempt. According to archival documents of the 1830th - the 1860th it was succeeded to establish 20 people serving in this establishment. Among them various estates, namely, from a ministry - 8 people (40%) as, for example, I.E. Ipokrensky, the priest's son studying in Lukhovsky spiritual school of the Kostroma province, subsequently, from the Kostroma territorial court where served as the copyist of the 2nd category, was transferred to the Kostroma Order of public contempt were presented. From noblemen - 4 persons (20%), including N.P. Larionov who was at the beginning of the 1830th the inspector of the Kostroma city hospital; from petty bourgeoises - 4 people (20%), from military - 2 people (10%), for example, N.P. Ivanov, the inspector of the Kostroma hospital and school of children of office attendants at the beginning of the 1850th, from merchants - 2 people (10%), and among them there is a merchant of the 3rd guild S.I. Semyonov, the assessor of the Kostroma Order at the beginning of the 1850th godov14.

During existence of Orders of public contempt their activity extended so that need of transfer of a part of their functions to new public authorities appeared. Complication of tasks and growth of the device of Orders of public contempt resulted in its slowness and non-execution of the direct duties and, first of all, to shortcomings of the organization of medical and social assistance to the poor population. Reforms of the 1860th accelerated this process. In general, creation and activity of Orders of public contempt became the initial stage of formation of a system of public administration by the social sphere in Russia.

CREATION AND ACTIVITY OF PUBLIC CHARITY ORDERS IN THE END OF XVIII - FIRST HALF OF XIX CENTURIES (ON MATERIALS OF THE YAROSLAVL AND KOSTROMA PROVINCES)

A.V. KUZMICHEV

Yaroslavl State University n.a. P.G. Demidov

The article is devoted to the question of creation and functioning of local authorities in the social sphere in regard to public charity orders in last quarter of XVIII - first half XIX centuries. On the basis of the documents from archives of Kostroma and Yaroslavl the author considers activity of establishments of medico-social purpose from the department of orders which creation had begun during Catherine II reforms in 1770s. It is shown that orders which existed until 1860s had a wide range of activities: from medical aid to the deprived population to financial operations in banks.

14 GAKO. T. 156. Op. 1. 738. L. 1-8, 324. L. 806-906., 732. L. 17a-42a, 734. L. 306-4, 739. L. 1-7; T. 134. B/Sh. 3275. L. 1-4; T. 204. Op. 1. 639. L. 3, 24.
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