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Activities of City Councils of the Penza province for providing the population with food

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UDC 947.081.12

activities of City Councils of the Penza province for providing the population with food

A.V. Borisov

Penza state pedagogical university of V.G. Belinsky

department of French

This article is devoted to a social field of activity of City Councils of the Penza province of the end of the 19th century. Providing the population of the cities with food was one of the major tasks facing city public managements. In article the measures taken by the city authorities together with provincial administration for the solution of this social problem are considered.

According to the Policeman Polozheny of 1870 on rodsky to the head to accept F.E. Shvetsova with a request

City Councils the solution of a number of questions of a social order was assigned. It is care of health care and moral shape of citizens, fight against beggary, the structure of the markets and markets, care of development of local trade and the industry and also taking measures to providing national food. Fight against hunger held a specific place in activity of City Councils of the Penza province as the welfare of urban population in many respects depended on efficiency of the measures taken by them. Crop failures and increase in prices for bread were rather frequent phenomenon for the majority of provinces of the European Russia at the end of the 19th century. But City Councils became all necessary for stabilization of the situation developing in the grain market.

In 1880 in the Penza province the bread price strongly grew that complicated position of most of urban population. Bread skupatsya by dealers from the neighboring provinces. Its high price was inaccessible for a poor part of citizens. Therefore the governor A.A. Tatishchev addressed the Penza go-

urgent measures and to facilitate life of the poorest population groups. The mayor willingly responded to the proposal of the governor, having provided personally from himself in temporary use to the city the capital in 10 thousand rubles for purchase of flour at the cheapest price. The acquired flour intended only for poor people and was on sale on 5 and even 10% below its purchase value. The governor Tatishchev in return strengthened the fund formed by F.E. Shvetsov accession of one more thousand rubles to it. So, in the provincial city the issue of reduction of price of the major product was resolved [1]. The mayor F.E. Shvetsov for donation of the considerable sum on food to the poorest residents of Penza received the Highest gratitude of the emperor Alexander II [2].

The proposal of the governor was approved also by the heads of the district cities. The Krasnoslobodsky City Council allocated 3 thousand rubles from the funds for purchase of bread, and occupied 9 thousand city public bank [3]. Similar measures were taken


in the Lower Lomov, Moksha, the Ancient settlement and Kerensk. Vowels of Chembarsky City Council bought flour for the sum of 2 thousand rubles and sold it to poor citizens from 20% a discount. Thus, the urgent need of providing the population of the cities with bread was solved in close interaction of the governor, mayors and public managements.

The similar situation repeated in several years. In 1891 17 provinces of the European Russia owing to a crop failure almost completely were left without bread. The crop failure of bread caused increase in the prices of vital supplies that very complicated a situation with food in the province [4].

City public managements had to resolve an issue on providing the population with food together with provincial administration again. The governor A.A. Goryaynov suggested mayors to convene immediately special sessions of thoughts and to develop measures of assistance to the poorest population groups. Many City Councils at the solution of this problem once again faced the shortage of money. For the majority of the cities of the province 1891 was very heavy financially. For example, in city income of Penza the big shortage appeared, the quantity of shortages increased, and expenses increased for the considerable sum. Under such circumstances costs of providing national food, without any extraordinary grants, became impossible [5]. The governor had to draw the attention of public managements to the spare sums belonging to petty-bourgeois and shop societies. Their size was from 663 rubles in Kerensk up to 14424 rubles in the provincial city. As a result, district thoughts managed to achieve permission of the Minister of Internal Affairs to implementation of loans from the capitals of local class institutions and in time to help poor citizens. In the southern provinces, bread which was on sale both on procuring, and at the reduced price of [6] was purchased. Besides, all city managements of the Penza province used the reduced the price tariff for transportation by rail of the bread bought for poor citizens.

The most difficult situation with providing the population with food developed in the provincial city. Extremely deplorable condition of the Penza grain market drove the poorest part of city dwellers into a corner. The prices of rye flour to the middle of June, 1891 rose to the unknown sizes - 1 ruble 30 kopeks for pood that forced to starve the fifth part of the population of the city [7]. Need of urgent measures was obvious. At the initiative of the governor the City Council founded executive food committee which part 9 vowels were, and the former mayor Ivan Efimovich Groshev is elected its chairman. Members of the committee at once started preparation of stocks of bread, having bought about 10 thousand

poods of flour [8]. For sale to her poor families at the cheap price the City Council opened a public bench.

However this measure was obviously insufficient. The number of persons in need in food remained considerable. Therefore at the beginning of September the thought authorized the mayor N.T. Evstifeev to go to Rostov-on-Don and to buy there 100 thousand poods of grain bread [9]. The justice made lists of the most needing citizens who could buy bread at the reduced price of 1 ruble 16 kopeks for pood. Such grant to food as a result was rendered to 11724 residents of Penza [10].

N.T. Evstifeev's trip was successful. Local merchants were kind to distress of the Penza region and 990 poods of grain bread to the Penza mayor for free distribution to poor population groups offered.

Besides supply of citizens with flour, the City Council founded two more types of the help to persons in need in food, having arranged public bakery and the public dining room. The bakery daily baked up to 150 poods of bread, and in the public dining room more than 152 thousand dinners were free of charge served. Substantial assistance of the city dining room was provided by the Moscow committee on collecting donations in favor of starving, sent to its order one thousand rubles [11]. The help was rendered also from committee of the British-American church in the form of three cars of corn [12].

Public dining rooms opened not only in the provincial city. According to the proposal of the governor they worked also in the district cities. So, on the 2nd dining rooms were available in Moksha, the Ancient settlement and the Lower Lomov, 3 dining rooms were open in Krasnoslobodsk and on one in Insar and Narovchat [13].

By town councils it was done everything possible for improvement of the situation of the poorest citizens. Often thoughts resorted to private philanthropists. Private charity promoted full providing citizens with food: individuals allowed the city interest-free loans, at own expense opened public dining rooms, provided free lunches. In provincial and the district cities the charitable committees, ladies' circles helping the poorest families in the form of clothes, hot food, the organization of public works in favor of starving worked. In general, the charitable institutions of the Penza province which began the activity in very limited scales successfully executed the duty assigned to them. Joint efforts of the governor, city self-government and charitable institutions succeeded to cope with the national disaster which comprehended the Penza province.

Summing up the result, we will note that city public managements paid sufficient attention to the questions connected with the solution of city social problems. Were for this purpose created special to -

missions, necessary funds were allocated. Interaction of provincial administration and city self-government in the social sphere resulted in positive results.

list of references

1. Penza provincial sheets. No. 208. 1880. September 28.
2. State Archive of the Penza Region (SAPR). T. 5. Op. 1. 5591. L. 11.
3. GAPO. T. 5. Op. 1. 5591. L. 16 about.
4. GAPO. T. 99. Op. 1. 1. L. 2.
5. GAPO. T. 108. Op. 1. 679. L. 298.
6. The review of the Penza province for 1891. Penza, Provincial printing house, 1892. Page 30-31.
7. GAPO. T. 108. Op. 1. D. 676. L. 215 about.
8. GAPO. T. 108. Op. 1. D. 676. L. 260 about.
9. GAPO. T. 108. Op. 1. D. 679. L. 289 about.
10. The review of the Penza province for 1891. Penza, Provincial printing house, 1892. Page 45.
11. GAPO. T. 99. Op. 1. 2. L. 2.
12. GAPO. T. 108. Op. 1. 679. L. 133-134.
13. GAPO. T. 5. Op. 1. 6497. L. 99.

UDC: 947.0846

a historiography of the cooperative movement in the USSR in the 1930th years


Penza state pedagogical university of V.G. Belinsky Department of the contemporary history of Russia and study of local lore

In article an attempt of the analysis of some moments of a historiography of the cooperative movement in the Soviet Union in the 1930th years with attraction of the most original author's concepts of its development and modernization is made.

Altered in severe conditions of the 1930th years in various degree on one and all groups

the Soviet cooperation, development and functioning of its various forms, relationship with power structures do not cease to attract interest not only domestic, but also foreign scientists. Their scientific works devoted to the fate of cooperation in our country in pre-war decade can conditionally be subdivided into two big thematic blocks. The first of them is made by the works considering cooperative construction in the USSR in the general context where in a waterway of social and economic policy the transformation of any given cooperative organizations reveals. The researches mentioning a perspective of studying separate forms of cooperation enter the second block (for example, trade, military cooperatives, etc.).

Many of authors pay attention to withdrawal pains of a cooperative system from the beginning of the first five-years period, seeing in it the key moment which led to its deformation. In particular, transition to continuous collectivization in the monograph was mentioned by Kim Chan Jin, noting that at once after declaration of this course the Resolution NKZ USSR "About reorganization of a system of agricultural cooperation" of February 1, 1931 followed, ordered "to liquidate the Union of the Unions by March 1 and within March to carry out liquidation of the allied, republican, regional and regional unions. At the same time also the local network of cooperation was curtailed. Solutions of NKZ USSR were confirmed with the resolution of the Soviet government of March 11, 1931" [8. Page 219]. The Italian author Giuseppe Boffa also sees direct impact on cooperation of "year of a great change" and the events which followed after it as "collectivization waves which developed during the twenties" [2. Page 370] that was quite natural, the policy of the accelerated industrialization pursued by the Soviet power was reflected

the population, having changed habitual tenor of life, and often not to the best. "Revolution from above" mentioned even a four-million group of handicraftsmen, having subjected it to some kind of collectivization "in the sense that their simplest cooperatives were broken by attempt to unite them in production artels by methods which not too differed from methods of creation of collective farms" [2. Page 373].

However, according to Boff, "cooperation development including in its simplest forms, still it was not dumped from the account at all. Considerable hopes were laid on so-called contracting - the system of the contracts signed by the public purchasing authorities with rural cooperatives" [2. Page 348]. But the basic principles of cooperation during this period, certainly, were trampled that concerned also the sphere of trade. For example, the September resolution of 1935 differentiated coverages between the state and cooperative trade "in such a way that the first was called to act in the cities, and the second - in rural areas". In fact the last "had more nationalized character" and was second-grade [2. Page 479-480]. However, from the middle of the 1930th years in the USSR especially notable is a priority of the state over all public institutes. The constitution of 1936 approved existence in the country of two types of socialist property: state and collective-farm and cooperative, and the second of them long time was considered as the dependent subordinate from the first [2. Page 489].

Boffa truly caught what also the domestic historians who are also seeing inequality of two main forms of ownership pay attention to. So, L.E. Fayn points to harmful influence of administrative measures which "slowed down use of advantages of cooperative type of the enterprises and koo-

Robert Ambrose Horace
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