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Civil patriotism spiritual and moral basis of military spirit, force and power of army and fleet of modern Russia

ryazanets of EL



Throughout many centuries Russia was not broken by the armed strength of overseas aggressors. Only after at the beginning of the 50th of the 20th century the crusade against our state in the form of "Cold War" was announced, Russia got beaten and nearly broke up to "specific principalities" of Vladimir Monomakh's times. As a result of the threat of destruction of the Russian ethnos and the Russian statehood which developed in the late nineties of the 20th century before the country there was a problem of active counteraction to the ideological aggression launched against our country by the leading powers of the modern world.

The state ideology of Russia which relied on traditional human and moral values at this historical moment lost the monopoly position. In the country there was a world outlook variety: freedom of opinions, beliefs, permissiveness in spiritual, economic and political life. Frank ignorance, inspirituality, immorality, violence and cynicism destroyed our history and culture, customs and customs. In minds of most of our citizens there was the real turmoil. The egoism and individualism, cosmopolitism absorbed civic consciousness and national identity, great power statehood and patriotism of our people more and more. In these conditions the need for the ideas uniting and consolidating different population groups was very sharply shown. One of such ideas at all times, all people had an idea of patriotism.

In the history of Russia there were many cases when the people rallied around the patriotic and national idea and won against the crisis phenomena, the internal and external enemy, tried to obtain positive decisions in social and economic reforms. Today Russia has no more important idea, value, than patriotism. The patriotism is an embodiment of love for the Homeland, participation of its history, to the nature, achievements, problems. The ideas of patriotism form a spiritual and moral basis of the personality, her civic stand and the needs for worthy and dedicated service to the Otechestva. A stalemate -

the riotizm is the base of public and state systems, a dukhovnonravstvenny basis of their viability and effective functioning. The patriotic idea in our country was always fed with heroics of the past, historical events and the facts, legends and legends. The idea of patriotism held a specific place not only in spiritual life of society at all times, but also in all major spheres of its activity: in ideology, policy, culture, economy, military science. At our people, owing to its formidable historical destiny, patriotic feelings special. In them - a source of diligence, heroism, belief and long-suffering, modesty, fidelity and devotion, responsibility, that is all that throughout many centuries is perceived as the national nature and soul of the Russian people.

The history of our Homeland demonstrates that at all times the state and patriotic idea was one of the major factors providing vitality of society. The etymological dictionary of Russian (originator M. Fasmer) notes that the first mention of patriotism in Russia meets at Peter I and this word from French is borrowed (rmgshv - the son Otechestva). This word in Old Russian monuments does not manage to find any equivalent; the phrase "love for the country" and the word "Homeland" was not used by Old Russian authors. During Peter I's activity the patriotism becomes above all values and virtues. Service Otechestva, diligence in public affairs were announced by the main virtue, an indispensable condition of submission of ranks, receiving awards and ranks is fixed in "Tables of ranks" as.

And still the Russian patriotism has deeper roots. Certificates on presence of such quality at people as patriotism, occurred in voyennoistorichesky documents and chronicles of the Russian state in the 9th century. The patriotism at that time had kind of personal character. Then the tradition of the Russian troops arose to bring a fidelity oath to the prince-defender and his fighting team. For combatants was considered as a shame to leave the field of battle, the prince considered shameful to send the army. The patriotism originally arose as natural strong feeling of the person, the tribe to reproduction some kind of, protection of the living space. Replacement and destruction of natural life of ethnic group caused protective reaction - patriotism. The tests which fell to lot of the Russian people, military power of his enemies, conquest of a considerable part of its territory by Tataro Mongols accelerated accumulation in the people

patriotic force and energy, awareness of need of national association. The personal patriotism connected to the idea of national unity and gradually gained national value.

Outstanding literary works of Ancient Russia "Tale of Igor's Campaign" and "A word about the law and grace" are imbued with love for the earth [2; 3]. Association on a patriotic basis sharply increased power of the Russian state, strengthened the patriotic idea and strongly connected it to statehood. Who was considered the patriot by our far ancestors? It "the Russian son" of annalistic legends, "the otchiznik serving by strongly vigilant pro-thinking" during an era of the Moscow kingdom, "dobrokhotyashchiya Otechestva" during formation of the Russian Empire, "sons Otechestva" - the address to defenders of Russia Alexander I, "saviors Otechestva" - M.I. Kutuzov's term.

From 17th century the formation of the national idea as factor of unity of state-national space begins, and Orthodoxy became spiritual filling. The Russian Orthodox Church always played an important role in formation at the people of patriotic feelings and consciousness, fidelity to duty and honor, readiness to battle for the people, for the Fatherland. Orthodoxy reflected such pronounced lines of national character as tolerance, kind lyubiye, good nature, mercy. The orthodox church promoted association of various religions under a banner of the Russian patriotism. In the first Russian military "The charter of the military, gun and another matters concerning to military science" 1647 it was said that each military person has to be brought to God kissing - to take the oath to the sovereign. The violator of the oath was proclaimed the perjurer and the apostate as, kissing a cross, it took in witnesses of the fidelity and devotion of the God.

From 18th century there was an updating of the state idea, the religious mentality was succeeded by the new, secular principles, main of which - "service Otechestva and to the relatives". The formula "Orthodoxy, Autocracy, Nationality" reflected the Russian national idea of that time. In the 19th century the patriotic idea was expressed by the words "For Vera, the Tsar and Fatherland". The contribution to development of the theory of patriotism was made by the Russian thinkers of the end of XIX - the beginning of the 20th centuries P.A. Florensky, I.A. Ilyin, V.S. Solovyov, N.A. Berdyaev, V.V. Rozanov. Especially brightly force of patriotism was shown in war of 1941-1945. "Get up, the country huge, get up on mortal fight" - such words were pronounced in many languages of the people of the USSR. "For the Homeland", "For Leningrad", "For Stalingrad", "For

Sevastopol" - with such exclamations there were to the attack soldiers and sailors of the Soviet Army and Fleet.

Patriotism - one of the most important components of the national ideas uniting the most various people on a spiritual basis. The being of these ideas in different countries was and remains various. In some countries - it is freedom and independence, in others - belief in a people bogoizbrannost, in the third - welfare and security of each citizen of the country and so forth. At the level of public consciousness the patriotism is meant as the national and state idea of unity and originality of these people which is formed on the basis of traditions, customs, history and the culture of each specific nation. At the level of individual consciousness the patriotism is expressed in love for the Homeland, pride of the country, aspiration to bring benefit to the people. Thus, the patriotism represents one of components of structure of public consciousness in which the attitude of the personality towards the Otechestva, to the people is reflected. For the state the patriotism acts as a part of ideology, for society - a part of a way of life, for the personality - meaning of life.

The patriotism is not the movement against something, and the movement for those values which society and the person has. It, first of all, a condition of spirit and soul of people, their social activity in society. Semantic filling of patriotism depends on concrete historical living conditions of society, its classes, policy, the power, the dominating groups, political parties, the purposes and tasks facing them. Under certain historical conditions there is their clarification, updating and manifestation for the benefit of everything Otechestva. The relation of the person to the Homeland is similar to the attitude of the son or daughter towards the parents. Those who have many disinterested cases for the benefit of the people are called sons and daughters Otechestva. Those who are unaffected by the Homeland and the people are called citizens of the country.

The person is the main carrier of patriotic feelings, the owner of patriotic consciousness, outlook, the system of the ideas and principles. Only in individual consciousness of the person all levels of patriotism from almost physical feeling of belonging to the home ground before acceptance of ideals Otechestva as personal are presented. One of backbone factors of manifestation of patriotism by the specific person is the factor of the small homeland - the sensual and emotional relation to the concrete territory, to the people living on it. This factor is characterized close personal

communications with all what at the level of genetic memory arises in the person in the course of formation of human feelings, a sensual condition of related collective, culture of behavior in society. Therefore the phenomenon of the small homeland, love for it, aspiration to its protection in the deep bases lean on those roots which connect the modern person with processes of emergence of intelligent life on Earth. "To have the homeland, - I.A. Ilyin wrote, - means to love it, but not that love which knows about worthlessness of the subject and therefore, without believing in the correctness and in himself, is ashamed also of himself and it; the patriotism can live and will live only in that soul for which there is on the earth something sacred: which live experience (can be, quite "irrational") tested the objective and unconditional advantage of this sacred - and learned it in shrines of the people" [5, page 224].

Thus, it is possible to draw a conclusion that the patriotism of the Russian people is expressed in fundamental ethical, ethnopsychological standards, philosophical, religious and ethical representations, in features of language, character, customs, mentality, in the principles of behavior in life, in the relations to protection of independence of the Homeland. It is natural state ideology of the Russian nation, and features of its manifestation consist in the positive relation of the Russian people to such concepts as great power statehood, conciliarity, Orthodoxy, firmness and courage, heroism, pride and advantage, constructive labor. Such relation generated social and moral responsibility of most of people for the fate of the country and gave them unprecedented forces for overcoming heavy adversities. History of ours Otechestva is full examples when the country appeared on the edge of an abyss, the people found forces to revival and prosperity. A spiritual core of indestructibility of the Russian people was and is state patriotism.

Two thirds of the existence Russia waged wars for the independence. Such situation could not but influence formation of the special relation of the Russian people to military service. In the national epos, in songs, bylinas, fairy tales force, bravery, courage and courage of defenders of the Homeland were sung. Customs, traditions, ceremonies which promoted formation of the fearless soldier - the defender of the home ground, to creation of invincible Russian fighting teams, regiments of a national militia, the guerrilla, military units of regular army and the fleet passed from father to son. Military traditions of Ancient Russia laid the foundation of military valor

Great Russia. The patriotism got by a deep spiritual and moral basis of love for the homeland was a core of these traditions.

Peter I was one of the first statesmen of Russia who reflected ideals of fight against enemies of the Homeland in decrees, laws, manuals, army regulations - "For belief, the tsar, honor and advantage". From 1700 to 1725 on its initiative about 3 thousand acts which affected all spheres of life of Russia were adopted, promoted increase in its power and greatness. Infinitely devoted to the interests of Russia, Peter I all the life devoted to service Otechestva. As a result of its reforms in Russia the new system of public administration, regular army and the fleet was created, there was the state patriotic ideology. In a basis of patriotic education of the people the idea of devotion, deeply national for Russia, and fidelity to the Otechestva was put. At the same time care of defenders of the fatherland and their moral shape was put in the forefront. Huge work on patriotic education of army and the fleet was conducted. In the decrees Peter I paid attention that the state interests are above all, put himself in the subordinated position to these interests and demanded to serve itself as to the first worker of the people. "God, the tsar and the homeland", "Do as I" - such mottoes were at the tsar-reformer of Russia.

The history of postpetrovsky Russia is full examples of the nice victories over enemies gained by the Russian army and the fleet. Strengthening and development of the fighting and patriotic traditions inherent in the Russian people and the armed defenders of the Otechestva were pledge of these victories, the belief in the forces and correctness put at the most critical moments in life of our state. Development of fighting and patriotic traditions was connected, first of all, with activity of the state heads and outstanding commanders and naval commanders of the time. A.V. Suvorov, P.A. Rumyantsev, F.F. Ushakov, S.K. Greyg, G.A. Potemkin made an invaluable contribution to formation and introduction to everyday life of progressive military traditions, consolidation of military glory of Russia. The relay of great causes for the benefit of the Homeland was continued by M.I. Kutuzov, P.I. Bagration, N.N. Rayevsky, A.P. Yermolov, P.S. Nakhimov, V.A. Kornilov. The feats made by the Russian soldiers at protection of the Homeland were a bright example of courage and heroism of the Russian people, an example of firmness and patriotism, shown by talented military leaders and the ordinary, hot Patriots of Russia. The new heroic page in the history of a military doble-

st of the Russian troops were entered by officers and privates of the Russian army and fleet during the Russo-Japanese war.

At assessment of fighting during the I World war the important place was taken by a research of moral spirit of troops. Examples of patriotism, personal courage on fronts of this war were shown, first of all, by the Russian officers. The idea of this war "For belief, the tsar and the Fatherland" was close to heart of everyone to the soldier and the sailor of the Russian army and the fleet. Many parts, and soldiers, Cossacks caused a stir in military valor and bravery in this war, sailors entered bright pages of personal feats in the history of fighting glory of Russia.

The Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945 was not just military collision of two powers. It was war of two ideologies, two public systems, two outlooks. In this war there was a question of life or death of our state. Traditions of heroic last our people became a symbol of inflexible fighting spirit in fight against fascist aggressors. The noble liberating purposes of war were supported by all Soviet people completely. The whole country stood up for the independence in uniform patriotic feeling. National traditions of the heroic last Russian people found reflection in names of a number of the military operations. The Oryol operation of 1943 was called Kutuzov, the Belarusian operation of 1944 - Bagration, the Smolensk operation of 1943 received the name "Suvorov". In the years of war awards A were founded. Nevsky, M. Kutuzov, A. Suvorov, F. Ushakov, P. Nakhimov, Glory award as successor of the St George's Cross. Gospolitizdat, Voyenizdat in the years of war massively published series of brochures "Heroes of Patriotic War of 1812", "Great Fighters for the Russian Land", "Great People of the Russian People", "Ingenious People of the Russian Nation", etc.

At the heart of the shown patriotism and courage of the Soviet people in days of the Great Patriotic War the ideological conviction, love for the Homeland, devotion to the political system, sacrifice lay. Reflecting on greatness of our Victory, the great commander G.K. Zhukov wrote: "About what fascist troops stumbled, having taken the first step in the territory of our country? What first of all prevented them to move ahead habitual rates? It is possible to tell firmly - mainly mass heroism of our troops, their fierce resistance, persistence, the greatest patriotism of army and the people" [4, page 135]. To all people who hotly love the Homeland for the sake of protection of the people are ready for the victims and deprivations best of all approach V.G. Bie's words -

Lensk: "What is patriotism and patriots, everyone knows. But not everyone knows that patriots are divided into two categories. Some receive a name of the patriot for the merits from society and stories as Minin and Pozharsky, Susanin and others received it... Others proclaim themselves patriots because others are spoken about love and jealousy of all domestic louder" [1, page 374].

Patriotic education of the military personnel on military rituals and traditions of the Russian army and fleet is the most important activity of bodies of the state and military managements. How patriotic education is put, the power of the state, its force and power, moral spirit of the nation, military consciousness and military spirit of Armed Forces of modern Russia depends.

Political changes which happened in Russia various reforms in economic, social, cultural, military spheres of activity cause the necessity of revision and specification of all system of patriotic education of our citizens which was defined by the state program "Patriotic education of citizens of the Russian Federation for 2006 - 2010". Ideological work on military-patriotic education of the military personnel of army and the fleet, has to be based on the basis of that policy of the state which it pursues to the sphere spiritual education of citizens of Russia where one of the main tasks is education of civil patriotism. In the state program on patriotic education of citizens of Russia it has to be specified that the purpose of military-patriotic education of soldiers of army and fleet of modern Russia is formation of qualities of the grazh-danina-patriotic at them - the reliable defender of the fatherland, the high professional, true to the military duty and ready to protect the interests of Russia.

1. V.G. Belinsky. Literary and journal notes//V.G. Belinsky of Half-N of SOBR.soch.: in the 8th TM, 1955. T.6.
2. Bylinas / under the editorship of V.I. Checherov. M, 1957.
3. Military stories of Ancient Russia / under the editorship of V.P. Andreyeva-Peretts. M, 1949.
4. G.K. bugs. Memoirs and reflections. M.: NPA publishing house, 1968. T.2.
5. I.A. Ilyin. Way to evidence. M.: Republic, 1993.
Herbert Thomas
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