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Carpatho-Russian and Ukrainian questions on the eve of World War I



sergy SULYaK

CARPATHO-RUSSIAN AND UKRAINIAN QUESTIONS ON THE EVE OF WORLD WAR I of VOYNY1

About the loud ugrorussky process which attracted attention the whole world I was still not able to write words. I will tell frankly: it was a shame... It is a shame to me and to watch painfully process details, as it is heavy to the person standing on the coast to see drowning to which be not able to help. Sense of shame amplified consciousness that a part of fault for this misfortune and, maybe, an overwhelming part, falls on us, Russia...

M.O. Menshikov (1859-1918). Terms approach.

22 February, 1914//Letters to the Russian nation. M, 2005. Page 436.

Here to what shame we dodrematsya: in Kiev, on a bosom of "mother of the cities of Russians", shouts sounded: "Down with Russia!". In Kiev where the people Russian hosted a baptism and from where, together with Novgorod, our statehood went, there was a snake treason which criminal meanness there is no limit. There is, however, something even more shocking and unscrupulous, than this mean revolt, - indulgence sentimental from different sides to it.

M.O. Menshikov. To grave-diggers of Russia.

27 February, 1914//Letters to the Russian nation. M, 2005. Page 442.

On the eve of World War I, at the beginning of 1914 there were events which can be considered in the light of collision of two projects: the creations of the big Russian nation and Ukrainian excluding the all-Russian identity. On the one hand - the second Mara-morosh-Sigetsky and Lvovsky processes, search in the editorial offices of the Chernivtsi newspaper "Russkaya Pravda" and arrest of her publisher and editor (Austria-Hungary), with another - actions, proveden1. A part of this material was sounded at the international academic and research conference "Carpathian Russia and Russian Civilization" (St. Petersburg, June 18, 2009).

"Priklrpltsklya Russia And RUSSKLYA TSIVILIZATION" conference 97

ny in Russia to the 100 anniversary since the birth of T.G. Shevchenko [25.02 (9.03).1814, the village of Morintsy, nowadays Zvenigorod district of the Cherkassk region - 26.02 (10.03).1861, St. Petersburg] whose anniversary was used for anti-government protests.

Before war the Austro-Hungarian authorities took measures for liquidation of the Carpatho-Russian movement in Galichina, Bukovina and Ugrian Russia which had the all-Russian character. Charge of Russinians of high treason and espionage in favor of Russia became the most effective remedy.

The second Maramorosh-Sigetsky (Marmarosh-Sigetsky) process took place from December 29, 1913 to March 3, 1914 in Maramorosh-Sigete (Romanian to Siget Marmatsiyey today). It was the first mass political process in Austria-Hungary. In the beginning 189 people were brought to court, later the number decreased to 94 people, members of the orthodox communities of villages Great Onions (near Mukachev) and Iza (Hustsky district). The prosecutor accused peasants of instigation against the Magyar people, Greco-catholic religion, Greco-catholic clergy, Hungarian zakonodatelstva1. Peasants were judged for transition to Orthodoxy in spite of the fact that the constitution of Hungary provided religious freedom, Orthodoxy was the dominating religion in the neighboring Duchy of Bukovina, and the "seditious" newspaper "Russkaya Pravda" legally appeared in Chernivtsi.

The Russian press, in particular, the Moscow daily liberal newspaper "Russkoye Slovo" issued by I.D. Sytin, and the St. Petersburg weekly newspaper "Rech", the central body of party of cadets edited by I.V. Gessen and P.N. Milyukov watched the process course, describing every day court session.

On January 2, 1914 one of the main accused A. Ka-balyuk was interrogated. "The prison policeman into the hall enters Alexey Kabalyuk. On it a long black frock coat. He smiles and answers a question of the presiding judge that it the Orthodox Christian, has no property now that he is the orthodox missionary and for distribution of the forbidden church books already served sentence.

Kabalyuk served in the army the lower rank in the 6th artillery regiment. Kabalyuk knows what he is accused of, but does not feel like the guilty person. He is guilty only that he extended orthodox belief. He excited nobody against uniatsky belief and priests. He did not extend "The Russian truth". He wants to become the monk because returned from military service the patient. He got acquainted with orthodox belief through Vorobchuk who supplied it with books from which he made sure that orthodox religion only just.

He wanted to become Lord's attendant. He discussed an issue of a trip to Athos with Vorobchuk. He got acquainted with Alexey Gerovsky in 1905 in Yasin where he for the first time saw it in church together with the son of the priest Bachinsky. Gerovsky told Kabalyuk that he is an Orthodox Christian. In turn Kabalyuk reported that he wishes to take the vows. Gerovsky promised it to supply with the information as to reach it. Owing to Gerovsky's letter it left two months later to Chernivtsi, and from there to Kiev where stayed two weeks, visiting monasteries and buying books. In Kiev he was robbed and came back to Hungary. Having returned to Hungary, he in the dwelling suited a house of worship to be prepared for monastic life.

>. In Hungary Kabalyuk only specified in conversations with various persons that the orthodox belief is purer than uniatsky. Kabalyuk stayed on Athos 4 months, there was tonsured in monks then he returned home. Subsequently it again went to Athos, and went through Chernivtsi where visited Gerovsky. Gerovsky wrote the letter to the holmsky bishop who requested data on Kabalyuk's life. After that he was imposed in deacons. He received vestments and utensils from the Athos monastery.

The presiding judge asks whether the Athos monks depend on the Russian patriarch in Constantinople? Kabalyuk answers that in Constantinople there is the Greek patriarch. From Athos Kabalyuk returned to Hungary through Bucharest and Chernivtsi. Upon return he made church services in Mukachev and Gichko where he consecrated houses of worship.

Kabalyuk received money from Athos. Through the prior of the Yablochinsky monastery of the Seraph he received 50 rub and from gr. Bobrinsky - 200 rub. The count came to the monastery for fasting and transferred it money personally.

When Kabalyuk returned to Hungary, he visited the karlovitsky patriarch and the priest Motin in Mishkolta. The last said that misunderstanding in Iza will be settled. Subsequently it was sent by the district chief from From where made baptisms and other church occasional offices.

He got permission from the mishkoltsky priest Motin for commission of occasional offices. Permission it was confirmed by the chief of the district. After eviction Kabalyuk went to America where he consisted at the bishop Platon. He returned to Austria, having read in newspapers about the executed arrests" 2.

7 January "interrogation of defendants from Iza continues. The accused Nany Pashulka ten years ago accused of promotion of Orthodoxy says that he knows nothing of any threats to which as if uniats from Orthodox Christians were exposed, and,

similarly, about made as if statements that the Russian tsar will win the earth of ugrorus.

The accused Pyotr Simuling says that he willingly would pass into Orthodoxy, but it is accompanied by big difficulties. He is convinced of the truth of orthodox belief and in case it is violently forced to return to an uniatstvo, then he will make it only for the sake of appearance. The accused Vasily Prokop says that he accepted Orthodoxy because the law provides all and everyone freedom of religion.

All accused Iza's inhabitants complain of the cruel address with them from gendarmes who tortured them even in a lobby at the investigator.

Interrogation of defendants from community of Liptichi begins. The defendant Stefan Vakaro does not plead guilty. He confesses that took part in the measures directed in order that orthodox ugrorusa were admitted to some orthodox church in Hungary. For this purpose he visited the Romanian metropolitan in Nadsebe - not and when the last refused, it sent Chisdey and Husdak to the Serbian patriarch to Karlovtsakh. The patriarch sent the books containing prayers for the Hungarian king. Ugrorussa, - Stefan Vakaro said further, - wished to return to religion of the ancestors. He read & #34; Belief and церковь" and & #34; Russian правду" but resolutely protests against the words attributed to it that the Russian tsar will come. He is the Hungarian nobleman and it is ready to go on a kolesovaniye if he told similar words.

Ivan Feyzak says that the people were dissatisfied with promotion of combination of calendars and the fact that uniatsky priests pulled out leaves from church books. The fisher Gaburets expresses in the same sense.

All deny charges that they as if wore uniatsky church and praised the Russian and also spoke about future dominion of the Russian tsar" 3.

8 January Vasily Chisdey, the Orthodox Christian is interrogated. "The defendant does not plead guilty. He said that he passed into Orthodoxy because of combination of calendars. The defendant knows that the Serbian patriarch Ushak said that the people should not accept the integrated calendars. He read the brochure & #34; Where to look for the truth? & #34; but did not extend it.

the Defendant Vasily Feysak says that he is the Hungarian Orthodox Christian. He does not plead guilty. He became the Orthodox Christian because ecclesiastics expelled from churches of the people claiming that the Holy Spirit proceeds only from God father...

Alexander Lipchey shows that he became the Orthodox Christian because of combination of calendars.

Stepan Lipchey, the Orthodox Christian, does not plead guilty. He passed into Orthodoxy also because of combination of calendars.

Alexander Zekan recognizes that he distributed the brochure & #34; Where to look for правду".

The court passes to interrogation of defendants from Great Onions. Dmitry Ratinets from Great Onions does not plead guilty too. It became the Orthodox Christian as the priest, having refused to consecrate prayer books, intended to burn them. He took part in the measures taken to give to Orthodox Christians of Great Onions of the priest" 4.

10 January ". Ivan Stebyak says that he passed into Orthodoxy because it is ancient religion. He denies that he read aloud & #34; Russian правду" in church. Defendants Isidor and Mikhail Rossokha said that they were dissatisfied with combination of calendars and their violent transfer in the Catholic national union. Both complain of ill treatment of gendarmes. The accused Mikhail Kovac speaks in the same sense. The accused Georgy Nezdbay-lo, the Orthodox Christian, does not plead guilty" 5.

On January 15 "announcement of the confiscated literature ended then some of defendants submitted the requirement that books returned to them as there is nothing reprehensible in them. Defenders ask to enter in the protocol that a name reigning almost in all prayer books is deleted. Among the confiscated books there are a lot of breviaries and psalters in Serbian received in quite legal way - from karlovitsky patriarchy.

As a curious incident can be celebrated that when article from the magazine & #34 was announced; Belief and церковь" about papal sins, the sworn translator of court uniatsky clergyman Medvetsky asked for permission to be removed as to it & #34 from the chairman; it is inappropriate to listen to similar ересь"" 6.

On January 17 "a .svidetel Iosif Philipp from Belovo said that he did not hear that Kabalyuk blamed uniatsky church.

The witness Franz Fiodor Turani says that with assistance of Gerov-sky Babinets brought him to Yablochin. There in the monastery he saw four boys from From. Boys learned to read and write in the monastery in Russian.

The chairman asks the witness on details of monastic life, on whether prayers for the tsar and the reigning house were made. The witness says that in the monastery for the tsar prayed. The prior of the monastery Seraph said that the purpose of their training is distribution of Orthodoxy in Hungary.

The count Bobrinsky several times came to the monastery, spoke to boys that they diligently studied and, having returned home, extended Orthodoxy. Bobrinsky did not say that the Russian tsar will win the earth of ugroruss. Bobrinsky did not speak hostilely against Austria-Hungary.

The witness Mikhail Vladimir, the rural teacher from Sellesh-Erge-she, says that in an uniatsky church service words & #34 meet; Orthodox Christians христиане". The people still consider itself the Orthodox Christian" 7.

23 January "interrogation of the count V.A. Bobrinsky began after 9 o'clock in the morning. In the conference hall of a bench for journalists and public are crowded. At a meeting there are a local governor Niyegr, the chief prosecutor Igiarto and the representative of the Hungarian Ministry of Justice.

>. Bobrinsky asks for a permission to speak at first Russian, and then in French to express the thought more clearly for understanding of defendants. The prosecutor Illesh suggests to make interrogation exclusively in French. The presiding judge resolves a question according to desire of the prosecutor and explains to the witness that he has the right not to answer questions if answers to them can entail for it judicial criminal prosecution. The count Bobrinsky says that there are no such questions.

The count Bobrinsky answers questions of the presiding judge that he is 46 years old that it is a member of the State Duma, the land owner, the father of five children, had no interests, common with defendants, neither moral, nor material. It belongs to party of the Russian nationalists and consists the chairman of Galitsko-russkogo of the union. The union has activity only in Russia, but not in Galicia, Bukovina and Hungary. The Galits-co-russky the union has no offices in Galitsky Russia. The union did not render financial support in Galicia, Bukovina and Hungary. The witness takes an active part in activity of St. Petersburg Galitsko-russkogo of the union on behalf of which he repeatedly addressed with appeals in favor of galitsky Russians. Galitsko-russky the union represents not the political union but only literary and cultural, directed against the movement of an ukrainstvo and a polonization. Galitsko-russkomu to the union is forbidden to politicize. The purpose of the Union consists in acquaintance of the Russian public with living conditions of Russians in Galicia. In 1908 the witness visited Galicia and Bukovina. He is familiar with Markov, Kurilovich, Dudykevich, Bendachuk, Gerovsky, the priest Bogatyrts, the rector of the university in Chernivtsi Kossa-kom, the judge Mogilnitsky in Sereta and the metropolitan Chernivtsi. It there (to Bukovina) went openly and quite legally to make sure whether local Russians are able to resist Ukrainian and

to the Polish trends. Charges of instigation against Austria - false. At a meeting in Sereta the witness told that he with pleasure sees that Russians remain faithful to the states and nevertheless make the uniform Russian people.

>. time of further interrogation Bobrinsky says that he knows of existence of the Lviv People's house and Kach-kovsky's union. However between them and Galitsko-russkim society in St. Petersburg there is no communication. The St. Petersburg society is not rendered monetary by a vspomoshchestvovniya to the Lviv institutions. The people's house is very rich and possesses great library. The witness knows that the law allows establishment of the Russian schools in Galicia. However the authorities do not wish to allow such schools. The St. Petersburg society in any communication with these schools does not consist. Sends them only works by the Russian classics, but not works by modern writers. Society publishes brochures on cultural and ethnographic questions. But they never went to schools as are not intended for school students".

Also the count Bobrinsky showed that society was not engaged in the organization of a pilgrimage from Galicia and Hungary, and only petitioned for decrease in a travel payment for them. Catholic pilgrims used the same privileges. He annually several times visited Yablochin, talked to boys from Hungary on religious subjects. Knows Serafim and Kabalyuk. He gave the last 200 rubles when Kabalyuk was going to go to Athos or America. Where exactly, the witness definitely does not remember. Subsequently Kabalyuk said that he is going to return home to support the brothers in faith who are exposed to religious prosecutions. Gerovskiye did not receive money. The witness did not correspond with Kabalyuk. The witness did not send the brochure to Hungary. Bobrinsky did not write the brochure in it & #34; you live in Rossii" but & #34; on the Russian земле" what is absolutely loyal. The witness never spoke about distribution of the great Russian idea in Hungary. The Russian newspapers, and it is equal and the Polish are expressed much more sharply, than & #34; Russian правда". Money for the edition of the newspaper & #34; Russian правда" the witness did not give. The count Bobrinsky during interrogation answered that & #34; the orthodox movement (Ugrian Russia) began in America. In Kiev there is no patriarch. The head of orthodox church in Russia Jesus Christ is honored. The sovereign to the emperor in church affairs possesses the smaller power, than appropriated to the Austrian emperor in Austria-Hungary. In the books the witness criticized only the authorities, but not монархов". Bobrinsky said that he is a monarchist and would never begin to excite the people against his monarch. In Russia all religions are free" 8.

25 January "witnesses from Iza, the gendarme sergeant Ivan Shcher-ban and the rural smith Ivan Zelenyak show that in Izakh the Orthodox Christians terrorized uniats, threatened them and offended uniatsky clergy. Kemen, Sabo, Simuling were leaders of the movement.

Zelenyak says that Orthodox Christians boycotted him as it did not pass into Orthodoxy. The witness Shcherban shows that Orthodox Christians treated with vodka, with the purpose to induce to transition to Orthodoxy.

The young man Mikhail Machka says that on the first interrogation ranks of boundary guards and the gendarmes beat him before consciousness loss. He is ready to confirm it under the oath.

The representative of charge and the presiding judge protect gendarmes.

Machka says that nobody seduced him. He voluntarily went to Russia, to Yablochin, wishing to become the ecclesiastic. He went to Russia through Chernovitsy where visited Gerovsky and with his help made a trip to Russia.

It stayed in Yablochin 2.5 years. Saw Bobrinsky, Vorobchu, Gerovsky and Kabalyuk there, got acquainted with the Russian history and a church service. In the monastery he said prayers for the tsar. Bobrinsky said that boys from Hungary have to study diligently and by the time of an appeal to return home. Having learned that in Hungary 18-year-old young men are called, the witness came back. He was advised by it and the prior of the monastery Seraph. The witness willingly would come back to the monastery and took sacred orders. Nevertheless, he is devoted to the fatherland.

>. Nikolay Samosh says that Iza's inhabitants wished to get the orthodox priest in Hungary, but it was not authorized to them. The witness shows that he was beaten by gendarmes so strongly that it was sick within a month and has to therefore to make the return transition to an uniatstvo.

The witness Yury Sabo shows that uniats offended Orthodox Christians owing to what contentions were an everyday occurrence.

The Uniatsky priest from Lipche Emil Stefan shows that prayer books with prayers for the tsar are and now in many churches. He pulled out these prayers from books. The witness tries to prove that the movement to Orthodoxy was the movement not religious, but political. Also says that the movement it did not stop. In community is available some persons who remained faithful to an uniatstvo".

The majority of the Budapest newspapers base the judgements of ugrorussky process on trust to Dulishkovich's testimonies and mistrust to indications gr. Bobrinsky whom the court did not wish to allow to the oath. However some newspapers express other opinion. "Zeit" writes: "Bobrinsky's interrogation proved actually only that against the rusofilsky movement there's nothing to be done through courts and paragraphs about high treason and also that this process is unsuccessful and harmful to the Hungarian state. If the opinion of the prosecutor that the rusofilsky movement is opposite to the criminal law, was right, then gr. Bobrinsky immediately after interrogation has to be arrested, than the inspired press loudly threatened it. Left, however, differently exactly as with Spalaykovich, been to give evidences on the Vienna process of the Serbo-Croatian coalition. "Zeit" does not attach to Dulishkovich's testimonies significance and says: & #34; Europe stopped working long ago by means of agents, provokers what, obviously, the Hungarian government does not know. Year of birth. Bobrinsky used a judicial tribune for world advertizing of the ideas and proved to ugrorus-sky peasants that his actions are not criminal because differently he, probably, would be arrested as it was threatened. Its activity is only one of types of the movement from Rome, with rusofilsky coloring. Transition to Orthodoxy is not forbidden, as well as assimilation of Russian close to ugrorussky наречию"" 9.

13 February "the defender Dr. Konstantin Hagi (Serbian) in the detailed speech, criticizing the accuser's arguments, specifies that the falsehood of testimonies of Dulishkovich is obvious, testimonies of other witnesses cannot form the basis for a sentence as witnesses refused them. Attempt of ugroruss to return to their former religion not crime, and their right. Brochure & #34; Where to look for the truth? & #34; contains only the historical truth of rather uniatsky religion. In conclusion of Hagi proves insolvency of statements of the prosecutor concerning a cross and church books" 10.

It should be noted that process was constructed on testimonies of provokers. Among them the leading role was played by the inspector of boundary police Arnold Dulishkovich. Its activity extended to the Hungarian areas inhabited by Russinians. It collected materials in Budapest, Vienna, Lviv, St. Petersburg. It got to Russia thanks to the recommendation of A. Gerovsky with whom ingratiated. A. Dulish-kovich was supported mainly by ugrorussky uniatsky clergy. Andrey Manoy-lo inciting the people to performances against a madyarization and Catholic clergy was other agent provoker of police. A role was played also by the official translator Darvats who incorrectly translated into Hungarian of the testimony of peasants who then registered in the protocol. It is interesting that all Slavs of Austria-Hungary supported defendants. The greatest sympathy was shown by Czechs. Besides constant publications in the press, in Prague on January 11 there took place the national meeting in which Czech deputies of parliament and the galitsko-Russian deputy D. Markov participated. On January 27 in Vienna in the hall of Czech "People's house" the all-Slavic meeting of a protest against maramoroshsky process took place. The second such meeting took place in Vienna on February 3. Ukrainians of Vienna did not take part in these actions. At the same time ukrainofilsky editions accused of everything Russian "інспіраторів" and galitsky and Bukovina agents of Russian "_rredenta" 11.

During process the prosecutor dropped the charges against many defendants, sentenced 32 persons to imprisonment and monetary penalties, 23 were released. The chief defendant celibate priest Alexy (Kabalyuk) was sentenced to 4 years and 6 months of imprisonment and a penalty in 100 kron12.

It should be noted that the shpionomaniya in Austria-Hungary which peak fell on 1914 began earlier. Arrests on Bukovina began in 1909, in 1910 the Chernivtsi police opened 6 cases and 14 people are arrested. On January 6, 1914 a search at Gerovsky and edition of "The Russian truth" was executed. Alexey (founder of the newspaper), Georgy and Ksenia Gerovskiye, their mother Alexia (daughter A. Dob-ryanskogo) and the editor I. Tsurkanovich were arrested. Every other day the last three were released. Brothers Gerovsky were accused of the ideological management in transition to Orthodoxy accused of Maramorosh-Sigetsky process, contacts with V. Bobrinsky, carrying out the anti-Austrian propaganda and of receiving on it money from Russia. After Gerovsky' arrest the Carpatho-Russian movement on Bukovina stood, the Russkaya Pravda newspaper ceased to appear. On May 25 (on June 7), 1914 brothers by means of the supervisor managed to run from prison and three together to cross the avstro-Russian border through Novoselitsa (Bessarabia) 13.

Transition to Orthodoxy of Carpatho-Russian villages in Lemkovshchina, in Sokalshchi - not and Kolomyyshchina (Galichina) caused repressions from the Austro-Hungarian authorities too. On March 17, 1911 two orthodox priests - Ignatiy Gudima and Maxim Sandovich and also Semyon Yuryevich Bendasyuk and the law student Vasily Andreevich Coldra were arrested. They were kept in prison by two and a half years, without bringing charges. Before the war over them in Lviv the process which made a noise to the whole Europe about "high treason" and "espionage" began.

7 March "there is an interrogation of defense witnesses. This interrogation concerns, mainly, activity burs - educational hostels. Testimonies of the cashier of Russian Rada are most interesting to today. Together with protection he emphasized that the rusofilsky party did not extend Orthodoxy, but even tried not to allow its distribution not to shatter force and not to cause against them

prosecution of the authorities. Witnesses speak Russian, however with considerable impurity of the low-Russian words and expressions" 14.

8 March "arrival to Lviv of members of the Duma caused a big sensation. Deputies kissed each other in the courtroom with defendants".

In Galichina the hunting for spies continues. In Peremyshla "somebody is arrested Kish, the native of Vienna. Kish played Peremyshle in orchestra, and gendarmes arrested him directly on a musical platform in cafe, having caused that confusion of public. In Fords other Austrian citizen, Nakonechny serving earlier as the police officer is arrested. At Nakonechny the material which is allegedly catching him" 15 is found.

March 11. "The center of today's meeting is the report of the director of the Lviv police which could be entitled so: & #34; About development of the Russian irredentism by means of official and semi-official Rossii". Protection often interrupts statement of this report with remarks which become especially sharp when extraction from one report Kiev & #34 are given in the report; Рады"16.

14 March "a nail of a meeting was reading upon the demand of the prosecutor of the letter of regional school council in which council explains the reasons of closing of several burs.

& #34; In these bursa, - it is said in the letter, - forced to learn Russian instead of native Ukrainian. Heads burs wrote out teachers from Russia, carried on with their help political propaganda in advantage of Rossii".

>. to the letter of school council the appeal found at the pupil of Bursa Mikhalchuk condemned for attempt at the director of a gymnasium. & #34 is enclosed; And now, - the prosecutor emphasized, - by hearsay, the pupil Zhytomyr семинарии". Also the appeal to soldiers Russinians with an appeal & #34 is read; to destroy shvab and to come over to the side славян".

The main prosecution witness against Coldra, somebody is interrogated by Qi shek. He is not sworn in as the person who is already condemned for a false testimony under the oath. This patent perjurer shows that Coldra at demonstration of dissolving views, giving explanations, as if said: & #34; Russinians have to go with Rossiey".

>. the Vienna secret police the Shtukart visited Krakow and Lviv and had meetings with local chiefs of secret police. Now the Shtukart is in Chernovitsakh, executing, allegedly, an assignment to obrevizovat supervision of emigration. In fact a purpose of visit Shtukarta - to organize in a big way fight against espionage and capture of spies. Not only railway, but also post officials are already involved in matter of investigation and supervision in Galicia, and actually in Galicia the strengthened protection" 17 is entered.

26 March "at breathless attention of all hall Boychuk's interrogation is made. Boychuk is a watchman at the bridge on Cheremoshe. Only he also saw one how defendants Gudima and Sandovich allegedly measured the bridge. At cross-examination all unsubstantiality of charges of a shpionstvo is visible. Each question plunges the witness into a helpless state. It is felt that he was intimidated. Where the truth in its confused, changeable indications, it is impossible to establish. The witness complains as if Gudima's supporters threatened him with death, saying: & #34; Here the Moscow army, then gendarmes to you not помогут" will come;. The witness also explains with these threats change of the indications on the second interrogation.

& #34; Now, - he says, - I say only one sacred правду".

He tells how he saw Gudima with other priest measuring the bridge at a moonlight. However on a question, Gudima, what of two priests, Boychuk points to Sandovich. In the hall the movement. Protection fills up the witness with questions of details. The most part of these questions the helpless answer raises at the witness: & #34; I do not remember. I do not know. & #34;

The chairman is nervous, changing usual liberalism, eliminates a number of questions, heatedly argues with the representative of protection, threatens to clean the hall" 18.

After all, despite pressure from the judge, defendants were acquitted by jurors. Bendasyuk and Coldra after justification went to Russia.

1 March in St. Petersburg in the Noble hall the meeting concerning persecutions on the Russian Orthodox Christians in Ugrian Russia took place. year of birth. Bobrinsky declared a meeting nonparty, asked all to keep quietly, not to do any shouts not to give to enemies a reason to interpret these shouts in the bad party, and told about the trip to Maramorosh-Siget. When gr. Bobrinsky entered the courtroom, defendants were delighted: they thought that they will be immediately released. But sadly were mistaken. The presiding judge treated defendants sharply, and shouted at defenders. A picture, on Bobrinsky's words, in Russia the unknown. Among defenders in court two were from the Hungarian social democrats. Year of birth. It was strange to Bobrinsky to see the village - protecting the right of Russians for freedom of religion and language. In Russia he did not observe it among a progressive and socialist part of the Russian society.

The Hungarian court showed big ignorance in the Russian life. Year of birth. The court asked Bobrinsky about the Kiev patriarch - & #34; this complete ignorance of the Russian географии". Paragraph 19 of the Austro-Hungarian constitution providing to all people which are a part of the empire, total freedom of belief and language remains a dead letter. Such declarations have no value if the governments do not wish to execute them.

>. to opinion of the speaker, processes maramoroshsky and Lviv will awaken the Russian national consciousness. Sorted all incongruities of the Lviv process and came to a conclusion that in both processes not galitsky Russinians, and we, Russians have legal proceedings.

G. Nikanorov spoke about the Russian flabbiness. Both processes - the answer to our political weakness in east question during the last slavyano-Turkish war. Russians are broken from the outside and from within, but quickly grow.

The priest Mitrotsky presented both processes of galitsky Russians as fight of Rome against Orthodoxy. Examples of improbable cruelties over Orthodox Christians in Galicia, cruelties because of the religious and race hatred were given. And even if a half of what was told by speakers fairly, it is impossible to listen without indignation about it. It was painful and sick that such horrors are created in Europe today.

>. picture lamps. The hall was almost full. Students shouted: "Down with Austria". Sang the Russian anthem. And during the speech of the priest Mitrotsky the memory of tortured was honored with rising" 19.

In turn liberal "Speech" defined the position to these events: "Needless to say that only figures & #34 can put the similar ultimatum of Austria-Hungary; русско-галиц-кого" societies, the Russian society in true meaning is not going to be at war with Austria because of ugroruss" 20.

Maramorosh-Sigetsky and Lviv courts were widely lit with the Russian and world press. This circumstance, as well as active support from Slavs of Austria-Hungary (except ukrainofil) and a number of deputies of the Russian State Duma, promoted that organizers of these political processes did not achieve desirable results - discredit of the Carpatho-Russian movement and intimidation of local community. On the contrary, processes showed that, despite a centuries-old madyarization and a polonization, the Carpatho-Russian population of Ugrian Russia, Galichina and Bukovina continues to realize the belonging to the uniform Russian world.

during processes against Russinians of Austria-Hungary, at the beginning of 1914 the Ukrainian public was going to celebrate the 100 anniversary since the birth of T.G. Shevchenko in Russia. The left and liberal newspapers begin to light more widely preparation and holding anniversary of the poet, reducing information volume about Maramorosh-Sigetsky and

Lviv processes. Also at the suggestion of a number of deputies of the IV State Duma the question of the ban of holding celebrations of T.G. Shevchenko was brought up.

11 January, 1914 the meeting of the Kiev club of the Russian nationalists (the organizer and the chairman the native of the Poltava province A.I. Savenko) in connection with the forthcoming centenary celebration since the birth of Shevchenko adopted the resolution in which it was specified that "the camp & #34; мазепинцев" will celebrate Shevchenko as the political figure and the enemy of indivisible Russia". Further the resolution underlines that on shevchenkovsky celebrations growth of the idea of the Ukrainian separatism will be shown. Therefore the meeting urges to express a protest against giving to celebrations in honor of Shevchenko of political character.

The meeting of nationalists sent the telegram to the chairman of the board of ministers, Ministers of Internal Affairs, national education and foreign affairs on an occasion of process of ugroruss. In passing nationalists reported that in the Southern Russia furious promotion of the idea of the Ukrainian separatism is conducted. "Mazepintsa, supported avstro - Polish galitsiyskim diet, - nationalists say, - try to obtain rejection of Little Russia and its inclusion in structure of Austria-Hungary on the federal beginnings as autonomous unit". The telegram specifies that "the leader of mazepinets, professor Grushevsky, consists in the Russian citizenship and often lives in Kiev, freely directing mazepinets" 21.

KKRN suggested to honor memory of the poet with the edition through joint efforts of the educational district, provincial and district zemstvoes of a collection of his works for distribution to school students. And to publish books in former, as at the time of the poet, writing. On February 5, 1914 the Minister of Internal Affairs directed the circular in which recommended to governors to avoid the official nature of celebrations on places. The group of deputies of the Duma made inquiry concerning the ban. On February 11 the Duma made the decision on its urgent rassmotrenii22.

On February 19 at the 40th meeting of the II session of the State Duma there were performances on an occasion of request for prohibition of a celebration of Shevchenko though the circular only recommended not to betray to celebrations official character.

The deputy from the Duma labor group V.I. Dzyu-binsky acted as the first. His demagogical speech came down to unfounded charges of "descendants of landlords of reaction" who, according to him, cannot forgive to the Ukrainian kobza player his fight against the serfdom and a serfdom. Figures of the Union of Mikhail Arkhangel consider by the main sin of "the Ukrainian father Taras" that he was Ukrayna's singer. His second sin consider democratism. The deputy called slander Purishkevich's statement that as if the Ukrainian editions breathe rage and indignation against Russia. "Prohibition of a celebration of Shevchenko caused discontent among broad masses of the Ukrainian population". In conclusion Dzyubinsky said that the Duma labor group "considers the autonomy of Ukraine, as well as other areas, guarantee of cultural and free social development".

P.N. Milyukov began the speech with criticism of addresses of the Kiev nationalists and articles of the member of the Duma Mr. Savenko who as P. Milyukov believed, prefers to keep silent in the Duma and does not want to battle in open. He cites the text of the appeal of club of the Kiev nationalists. In it it to be said: "The club considers a duty to inform your excellency about the following: in the territory of all Southern Russia the concealed promotion of the ideas of the Ukrainian separatism is conducted. Numerous propagandists, as for

Michael Green
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