The Science Work
History
Site is for sale: mail@thesciencework.com
Category: History

The PRINCE E.E. UKHTOMSKY About STATE SYSTEM of RUSSIA during REVOLUTION of 1905-1907.



valery SUVOROV

The PRINCE E.E. UKHTOMSKY About STATE SYSTEM of RUSSIA during REVOLUTION of 1905-1907

The convinced supporter of autocracy prince E.E. Ukhtomsky under the influence of revolution of 1905-1907 and split of society for the sake of rescue of Russia was ready to recognize the liberal innovations on which laid special hopes. However due to the lack of results of activity of the State Duma Ukhtomsky refused support of the liberal course of the government.

Prince E.E. Ukhtomskiy, belonging to supporters of the autocracy, under the influence of the revolution of 1905-1907 and confrontation in the society was ready to recognize the liberal innovations in Russian political system, on which he placed his special hopes. However, he refused to support the liberal course of the government because of inefficiency of State Duma activity.

E. Ukhtomsky, conservatism, autocracy, revolution of 1905-1907; E. Ukhtomskiy, conservatism, autocracy, revolution of 1905-1907.

SUVOROV

Valery

Vladimirovich —

graduate student of department

history of the Fatherland

and cultures

Saratov

gosulirstvsnny

technical

university

caleriy_s@mbox.m

Due attention is not paid to political convictions of the famous publicist, thinker, ideologist of "vostochnichestvo" of the prince E.E. Ukhtomsky, there are also some divergences in their assessment for researchers. Traditionally Ukhtomsky is carried to konservatoram1 with the reservation that he was not a reactionary, but the supporter of law and order and toleration. The Soviet historian G.A. Leonov spoke even about liberal views of Ukhtomskogo2. The ambiguity of a political position of Ukhtomsky which found reflection mainly in its publishing was brightly shown also in days of the first revolution in Russia.

On the beliefs the prince Ukhtomsky belonged to consecutive supporters of the monarchy. Famous conservative V.P. Meshchersky in connection with transfer of "The St. Petersburg sheets" to Ukhtomsky wrote that "on political convictions between us no uniform dissidence even in trifles" 3 in recent years was found. According to Ukhtomsky, the autocracy saved Russia from pressure of Europe which "joking, it would be succeeded to dismember and master us as it managed it the western Slavs who rather tested a bitter fate" 4.

The position of the prince Ukhtomsky was more distinctly shown when he got up at the head of "The St. Petersburg sheets" and could defend the beliefs openly. So, stating a position of edition in the first issue of the newspaper in January, 1896, he wrote that Russia has to remain "is faithful to radical bases of the political and church system developed by all its thousand-year history". However during editorial activity of Ukhtomsky the edition of the newspaper several times stopped since, according to ranks -

1 A. Repnikov. Conservative concepts of reorganization of Russia. — M, 2007, page 46; Skhimmelpennink van der Oye D. Towards to the Rising sun: As imperial formation of myths led Russia to a war with Japan. — M, 2009, page 91.
2 Leonov G.A.E.E. Ukhtomsky. To history of the lamaistsky Hermitage collection//Buddhism and literary and art creativity of the people of Central Asia. — Novosibirsk, 1985, page 115.
3 V.P. Meshchersky. Diary. Monday, October 23//Citizen, October 24, 1895, No. 293, page 3.
4 E. Ukhtomsky Puteshestviye for the East of its Imperial Highness of the Sovereign Naslednik Tsesarevich. 1890 — 1891. — Leipzig, 1897, t. 3, Part 5, page 33.
138
2011 & 01

nicknames, the newspaper, defending the ideas of toleration and justice, passed into opposition.

Due to the events of Bloody Sunday which served as the beginning of revolution of 1905 — 1907, release of the "St. Petersburg sheets" published by Ukhtomsky as well as other official publications, it was suspended for a week. In the newspaper it was reported that "about events on January 9 and the next days we have an opportunity to print only government messages and official data". In number signed by the secretary of state

B.H. Kokovtsov and the St. Petersburg governor general D.F. Trepov official information on events which contained charge of organizers of a workers' protest and the critic of strikes was placed. Ukhtomsky called for performance of a patriotic debt and unity of the resisting forces: "On irreconcilable camps, the Russian, already so small intellectuals began to be divided into the layers captured by the most sad dissonance. Kind of to us to approach, to come to an agreement kind of?" 1

In the following number Ukhtomsky with bitterness wrote about the chaos which covered "the conceiving Russia" and preventing "to build further in inaccessible height a proud, great monument — Russia on which construction already dozens of generations of fathers and our grandfathers put all the forces, strain all the life, labor having by the own sweat and blood fastened the firm basis & lt;...> In it such fratricidal fight begins to boil, such wounds opened, such rage flares that heart of each Russian freezes for horror, eyes dry from tears, the otsepenenny thought looks for an exit from a lie and not building" 2.

Addressing the causes of tragic events, the prince wrote about ultranationalism, about revaluation of the forces and idealization of a situation, lack of any doubt in "the negative and mournful sides" which "are concealed by our daily reality". As a result, "in an incense sweet dreams and paradoxical judgments the vital truth sank and evaporated completely for those to whom to see

1 Official department//S. - the St. Petersburg sheets, 15 on Jan. (28), 1905, No. 7.
2 E. Ukhtomsky Voskresenye, on January 16//

C. - St. Petersburg sheets, 16 on Jan. (29), 1905, No. 8, page 1.

it is necessary". Ukhtomsky called for association again: "for common Russian sense which we always at the difficult historical moments were strong and of fairly were proud it is time for appeals to sound to association and sobering up".

Ukhtomsky flayed also concerning passivity of the highest clergy. On January 9 there was no Russian clergy with a cross in hands whereas its presence, according to Ukhtomsky, would help to avoid the victims. On remarks of the secretary Metropolitan of St. Petersburg and Ladoga P. Tikhomirov who opposed this charge in the newspaper rather abrupt reply was placed: "Not the bureaucrats subordinated to the Synod chief prosecutor, and torches of the highest truth, a vicarial debt and a feat, successors of svyatitelny service of old Russia insistently we are eager to see at the head of our rebellious public life: to their voice many could listen, from clean sources the infected streams" 3 would not flow.

Ukhtomsky took "black" days of revolution, opposition in society and the crash of a former order hard therefore the manifesto on October 17, 1905 which though dispersed according to the contents from views of the prince was met by it with hope for a pacification and development of Russia. Ukhtomsky supported the manifesto in the liberal spirit: "The manifesto on October 17th gained by the Russian society, & lt;...> represents a significant step forward. On real base of it of enormous importance of the historical act the moderate and progressive elements can and have to build a hramina of the recreated Russia. There are enough victims and unnecessary fight!" The prince these days rendered to S.Yu. Witte appointed the chairman of the board of ministers, the first in the history of Russia, support in the press: "Who during these difficult moments will believe in a mission

S.Yu. Witte who around his name will rally the efforts to maintenance of an order — that will be a true fighter for rescue of Russia from anarchy and chaos".

Also with hope for unity of society and revival of Russia Ukhtomsky

3 Sad misunderstanding//S. - the St. Petersburg sheets, on Jan. 20 (on Feb. 2) 1905, No. 12.

met the beginning of work of the State Duma: "On prudence and a step of elements of opposition depends that the country did not fall into chaos of anarchy and repressions that the sun dobra and the truths ascended, at last, over the suffered much country" 1. "Temporary elects of the earth" had to "light up creative council our immense state an infirmity, uvrachevat our heavy, incalculable internal illnesses on opportunity force". The Supreme power, in real and symbolical value, had to remain with the monarch.

However Ukhtomsky's expectations were not fated to come true. Deputies were "the robbers only due to a misunderstanding invested by a high rank of deputies", and "the defamed and decaying Russia is attracted with hands of her own sons murderers to new torments and death..." 2. It characterized the leader of cadets P.N. Milyukov as "the chief leader of conspirators, revolution soul, a spotty hyena". Ukhtomsky heartily welcomed dissolution of the Duma of the second convocation and change of provision on elections of June 3, 1907. On pages of "The St. Petersburg sheets" repeatedly there were accusatory articles about activity of the State Duma: ""The best people" of the first and second appeal were either demons destroyers, or pygmies,

1 E. Ukhtomsky Chetverg, on April 27. Face to face//S. - the St. Petersburg sheets, on Apr. 27 (on May 10) 1906, No. 92.
2 An inevitable outcome//S. - the St. Petersburg sheets, 2 on June (15), 1907, No. 121.

of which the population which sent them for creativity to the Duma equally has to be ashamed" 3.

Revolutionary events in Russia and also the crash of "vostochnichesky" ideals and hopes for the statement of Russia in the east promoted Ukhtomsky's hobby for Old Russian history. Ukhtomsky wrote the emperor in May, 1907 in the letter that "horrors of a distemper and the crash old" induce it to address to "our majestic" stories, "which Russian intelligentsia to erudite historians inclusive" 4 rebelliously renounces.

Thus, the prince Ukhtomsky remained the convinced supporter and the defender of the monarchy and Orthodoxy, seeing in them bases of the Russian statehood though under the influence of revolutionary events and split of society he for the sake of rescue of Russia and a restoration of unity in society was ready to recognize the liberal innovations in state system. At the same time importance of the monarchy for it remained invariable. Ukhtomsky on political convictions can be carried to the supporters of the "educated" conservatism thinking not of fixing of traditions, and of development of the country and necessary changes in her life. In this regard Ukhtomsky's views often approached the liberal ideas.

3 The curtain fell//S. - the St. Petersburg sheets, 5 on June (18), 1907, No. 123.
4 GARF, t. 601, op. 1, 1370, l. 76-76 (about).
Jason Martinez
Other scientific works: