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The STATE PRACTICE of INVOLVEMENT of ETHNIC MINORITIES TO the ALL-RUSSIAN DUTIES (on the example of military service of Kalmyks at the XVIII beginning of the 20th centuries)



nikolay PODPRYaTOV

The STATE PRACTICE of INVOLVEMENT of ETHNIC MINORITIES TO the ALL-RUSSIAN DUTIES (on the example of military service of Kalmyks in XVIII - the beginning of the 20th centuries)

In article the problems of involvement of Kalmyks of the Russian Empire to voluntary military service on the bases similar to service of Cossacks are considered.

This article examines participation of Kalmyk volunteers in army of the Russian empire on the same basis as service of Cossacks.

Kalmyk cavalry, Cossack army, horse regiments, compulsory military service, fighting, military service; Kalmyk cavalry, Cossacks army, cavalry regiment, conscription, military operations, military service.

olitichesk the power sought for assimilation of the small people among members of the party Great Russia. The general installation of the Russian emperors was invariable — to keep unity of Russia, to provide, whenever possible, its ethnic uniformity, or, at least, to achieve that all people of the state worked not for destruction and crushing of the country, and for its consolidation.

At such approach the army was thought and was purely Russian military institute, the power conductor of the great Russian idea. As a matter of fact, till 1874 the Russian army that also was since separate inonatsionalny parts were called only for the period of war and were the auxiliary tool for the main Russian formations, or were though constant, but small and actually smithies of national administrative shots for non-russian regions, but with the pro-Russian mentality and values served.

Final transition to Peter I's times to regular army did not mean refusal of Russian government of use of irregular military formations in fighting. Many people of the state did not refuse nomadic cattle breeding yet. Their vagrant way of life did not allow neither to consider the military contingents, nor to attract them to service in armed forces. Kalmyks were one of such people in the XVII—XX centuries. During the Azov campaign of army of Peter I under the leadership of the boyar A. Shane in 1696 also the Kalmyk horsemen numbering Z Ltd companies of people were used. As this measure was single, and the reward to Kalmyks was unique: families of horsemen received dresses, cloth and sables, soldiers received from 4 to 8 rubles, on Z circles of wine, on a mug to honey, on 2 glasses of beer. Besides, the treasury paid one and a half rubles road, on Z rubles for the caftan and 2 rubles for a cap which were available for Kalmyks. And after successful completion of the campaign Pyotr ordered to buy oxen, rams, cows for these Kalmyks for the sum of 15OO rubley1.

Subsequently Pyotr I actively used the Kalmyk cavalry of the khan Ayuki in suppression of peasants uprisings in the state and disorders among Bashkirs. So, in 17Z6 g in Astrakhan took Kalmyks on suppression of a revolt in Bashkirii2.

1 RGADA, t. 119, op. 1696, 2, l. 4; Z, l. 1, Z, 4, 9; op. 1697, 8, l. 1, 5, 4Z.
2 In the same place, t. 819, op. 1, 2, l. 1.

Nikolay Vyacheslavovich PODPRYATOV — to. and. N, associate professor; associate professor of the general national history of Perm State University of podpryatov@psu.ru

In 1700 the Chuguyevsky army from the Don and yaitsky Cossacks was founded. At the same time this army included baptized Kalmyks and Tatars. In 1749 the team of chuguyevsky Kalmyks and Cossacks received the name of the Chuguyevsky Cossack regiment with the dress code and banners. Soon the regiment receives the name of the ESA-terinoslavsky Cossack regiment. In 1788 on the basis of this regiment the attempt to deploy Corps of the advanced guards of ESA-terinoslavsky regular Cossacks as a part of four crews was made. And in each crew there had to be 5 hundred Cossacks and 2 hundred Kalmyks. But the next year refused this invention, and instead of the case only two six-centesimal regiments — Chuguyevsky and Konvoynyy1 were created.

In the 18th century there was the Stavropol Kalmyk army. The history of education of this army began at the time of Peter I who personally christened the khan of the Astrakhan Kalmyk horde and named it Peter. In 1737 the khan died, and for his wife, the princess Anna Tayshina and its Kalmyks the special fortress — Stavropol (present Togliatti) was constructed. Anna Ioannovna appointed to look after these Kalmyks V.N. of Tatishcheva2.

In 1745 the Orenburg governor Ne-plyuev established rules of management of the Stavropol Kalmyks. The internal order in army was kept traditional, national. All army was divided at first into five, and then into ten companies with an obligatory dress on service in 300 people a year. In 1756. To the Stavropol Kalmyk army it was given out one regimental and 10 company banners. The banner and company badges of the Stavropol Kalmyks were similar Orenburg Cossack with only that difference that in the center of a banner the drawing not of Orenburg, and Stavropol with the corresponding signature was located. In 1760 were ranked as the Stavropol Cossack army 1765 people of the zyungarsky baptized Kalmyks who got out of Kyrgyz-kaysatsky captivity (Kazakh). Three additional companies of Kalmyks were created from the last.

However even resettlement from lower reaches of Volga went hard: at once sbezha-

1 A.V. Viskovatov. The historical description of clothes and arms of the Russian troops made on the Highest command. — SPb., 1899, Part 3, p. 9; Part 4, p. 38, 39.
2 RGADA, t. 819, op. 1, 1, l. 1.

whether 532 tilt carts also remained, i.e. managed to catch them, 287 chelovek3. on April 1O, 1767 the major Fedotyev reported to the Orenburg governor on escape of 24 people — Kalmyks out of Sorochinsk. But they could be caught and returned to the ulusy4.

In 177O of g Ubasha's khan decided to take away the citizens from Volga on the historical homeland — to China. Tilt carts of nomads acted and moved towards Yaik. Behind them the pursuit which did not yield, however, positive result was organized. Kalmyks almost freely went to the Kazakh steppes. After these events the number of the Stavropol Kalmyks began to decrease quickly, and to 183O to g on Middle Volga only 3.6 thousand persons lived. In 18O3 of g to the Stavropol baptized Kalmyks the emperor enjoined to complete only one thousand regiment. In 1842 this army was liquidated, having joined structure Orenburg kazachestva5.

Before the beginning of Patriotic war of 1812 from Kalmyks of the Astrakhan, Saratov, Caucasian provinces and Donskoy's army are created in addition to existing two horse Kalmyk regiments containing everyone to 5OO of fighters. In total during Napoleon's invasion in 1812 as a part of the Russian army three of them — two pedestrian were at war 1O of the Kalmyk regiments (including two Stavropol Kalmyk polka6), and and one horse — entered in 1814 Paris. The second horse regiment of the Astrakhan Kalmyk volunteers made on war under a yellow banner the image of the patron of soldiers (on national mythology) — Danachi Teng-ry7.

After war when national formations were not necessary, they were dismissed.

The Kalmyks living in the territory of the area of army of Donskoy, mainly in the Salsk district were transferred to the Cossacks and were called to the Don Cossack shelves in accordance with general practice. A part of Kalmyks graduated from the Novocherkassk Cossack military college and received ofi-

3 In the same place, t. 819, op. 1, 2, l. 2, 3, 4.
4 In the same place, t. 822, op. 1, 3, l. 1, 2, 5.
5 GARF, t. 5761, op. 1, 21, l. 213.
6 History of the Cossacks of Asian Russia. T.1. — Yekaterinburg: OURO RAHN, 1995, p. 48.
7 GARF, t. 148, op. 7, 19, l. 6; A.I. A.I. Banners of irregular parts of the Russian army in Patriotic war of 1812//the Military and historical magazine, No. 11, 1991, p. 66; Rolarz, W. Russia and Her Colonies. - N.Y., 1952, river 83.

tsersky ranks. During the first Russian revolution nakazny the ataman of army of Donskoy sent the Kalmyk hundreds for suppression of the worrying workers in the Donetsk district.

However the most part of the Kalmyk people was not involved by

in serving of a compulsory military service. About 150 thousand Astrakhan and Stavropol Kalmyks did not bear military service. In 1890 the Defense Ministry suggested to attract Kalmyks on military service in the ranks of the Astrakhan Cossack army. But then it it was not made because of difficulty of the organization of management to steppes and providing Kalmyks with the earth, and, mainly, because then Kalmyks absolutely would suppress the number the Astrakhan Cossacks whom there were only 37 thousand people 1

Situation in the Kalmyk steppe gradually changed at the end of XIX — the beginning of the 20th centuries. By the beginning of World War I as ethnographers noted, Kalmyks actually passed to settled lifestyle. The tilt cart though was in each Kalmyk family, but was in the yard of the constant house and was used as summer zhilyyo2.

In 1917 the Kalmyks, as well as other people of Russia, generally those that did not serve in the army looked for the way in freedom which gushed suddenly. During this period the tendency to closer contact with the Cossacks, the aspiration to receive the status similar to position of Cossacks in the empire is shown. The Cossack status was considered as a way of protection of the land interests and also a certain independence in the device of local life.

On June 6 — 7 in Astrakhan there takes place the congress of delegates of the Kalmyk people at which D. Tundutov and N. Ochirov suggested to transfer all Kalmyk population to the Cossacks. The congress supported the Cossacks in

1 RGIA, t. 1276, op. 11, 904, l. 1-4.
2 Archive of the state museum of ethnography, t. 1, op. 2, 410, l. 4.

the principle, but did not make on this matter any concrete decisions.

At the 2nd congress in Astrakhan on July 24-25 Kalmyks made the decision to join the Don Cossacks and to start formation of the army. On July 28, 1917 in Novocherkassk the meeting of council of the Union of the Cossack troops which considered a question of acceptance kal-mykov-derbetov on the Wednesday took place. To collums such commonwealth was not in wonder since hundreds of years were a part of area of army of Donskoy 13 Kalmyk villages, the population with a total number up to 35 thousand souls which had all rights of the Cossacks and bearing on an equal basis with others all duties and duties. And in September of the same year the big circle of the Astrakhan army made the decision on inclusion in the list of Kalmyks. A part of delegates of a circle was against such decision, motivating the position with a superiority in strength of Kalmyks over Russians. But the issue was resolved positively, having submitted it for approval in a small legislative circle. There also the project according to which prerogatives of election of the general ataman remained behind a radical (Russian-speaking) part of the Cossacks was transferred. The Kalmyk part of army on the circle elected only the assistant to the Astrakhan ataman.

Thus, the national parts created from representatives of these people usually were formed on a sample Cossack, with similar regulations on service, and submitted to the corresponding Cossacks. The tsarism made use of experience of cohabitation of Cossacks and ethnic minorities, traditions and household features of life of these ethnic groups were considered.

At the same time, having passed a stage of necessary adaptation to life in the conditions of the Russian state, non-russian nationalities admitted for full citizens and began to perform a conscription in accordance with general practice in regular parts of army.

Aubrey Lloyd
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