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About quantitative methods in historical researches

o quantitative methods in historical researches

V.K. Krivoruchenko (Moscow humanities university) *

The world science more half a century applies quantitative, mathematical methods in humanitarian researches. After the USA where they for the first time began to be applied, this new direction in the Soviet Union actively developed. In article the digression to the history of origin and development of quantitative methods in historical science becomes and importance of their use at the present stage is noted.

On Quantitative Methods in Historical Investigations

V. R. Krivoruchenko

(Moscow University for the Humanities)

The world science has been using quantitative, mathematical methods in humanitarian researches more than for half a century. After the USA — where scientists began to use them for the first time — this new trend began to develop actively in the soviet Union. in the article, there is an excursus into the history of origin and development of quantitative methods in the historical studies. The importance of their usage in the modern period is noted.

Quantitative methods came to obshchestvennogumanitarny sciences in scientific centers of the western countries. The USA the main centers of researches on "quantitative history" was organized in 1962. Interuniversity consortium on political researches in Ann Arbor, the Center of political sciences of Institute of social researches organizationally connected with the American historical association and the American association of political sciences. In 1965 in Sweden at department of history of the Upsalalsky university created research group, in Germany at the Cologne university — the center of historical and social researches on the basis of which the International commission on application of quantitative methods in the history was created.

In our country stood practically at the origins of application of quantitative methods in historical science, the corresponding member (1972), the academician (1987) of Academy of Sciences of the USSR, the academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences (1991), the Russian historian, honored professor of MSU, the expert in the field of the agrarian history and the history of economic development of Russia XIX — the beginning of the 20th century, a historiography and a source study was a founder of domestic kliometrichesky school Ivan Dmitrievich Kovalchenko (19231995). He was the chairman of the Commission on application of mathematical methods and the COMPUTER in historical researches at Office of history of Academy of Sciences of the USSR. In 1989 to the scientist the State award of the USSR is awarded.

For encouragement of scientists — authors of the scientific works which are important

* Vladimir Konstantinovich Krivoruchenko is a doctor of historical sciences, professor, professor of department of history of the Moscow humanities university. Ph.: (495) 374-68-87. Al. address:

for development of researches in the field of the Russian and world economic history, Scientific council of RAS on problems of the Russian and world economic history and Beloved Rossiya Publishing house award every two years an award of a name of the academician I.D. Kovalchenko.

Among the first mastered these methods scientific centers of Lomonosov Moscow State University, Institute of history of Academy of Sciences of the USSR, the Siberian office of Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Academy of Sciences of Estonia and the Tartu university, the Moscow state historical and archival institute (then Russian State Humanitarian University), the international conferences on questions of application of quantitative methods and the COMPUTER in historical researches were held, special periodicals began to appear. Research groups were in Moscow, St. Petersburg, Baku, Dnipropetrovsk, Minsk, Novosibirsk, Tomsk, Frunze. In 1971 at Institute of history of the USSR the Laboratory on application of mathematical methods and the COMPUTER in historical researches was open for Academy of Sciences of the USSR, at Office of history of Academy of Sciences of the USSR — the Commission on application of mathematical methods and COMPUTER in historical researches. The scientific direction which gained fame as "Application of quantitative methods in historical researches" and then quantitative history was consistently formed. Work in this direction was coordinated by the Commission on application of mathematical methods in historical researches at Office of history of Academy of Sciences of the USSR. Meetings of an all-Union seminar the "Quantitative methods in historical researches" organized by the Commission and Department of history of MSU on which the lecture course "Quantitative Methods in Historical Researches" was entered were regularly convened. The popularity of the new direction in the 1960-1970th years was followed by a large number of publications. Quantitative (quantitative) is-

thorium entered the different areas of a historical research united by the idea of interdisciplinarity, scientific character, transition to the exact, verified measurement of sources and to the subsequent (statistical) analysis. Within the seminars and conferences on quantitative history and historical computer science various methodological, methodical, technological and organizational problems were hotly discussed.

I.D. Kovalchenko achieved the publication of the first manual "Quantitative Methods in Historical Researches" and introduction of this discipline as a special course in the curriculum of department of a source study of Moscow State University. The course "Quantitative Methods in Historical Researches" is given on Department of history of MSU more than 30 years, "is an organic consequence of powerful break in the field of scientific methodology, sharp increase in requirements to the accuracy of humanitarian knowledge. First of all methods of mathematical statistics and also the philosophical principles of deduction and approaches synthesizing deduction and induction are the cornerstone of a subject".

I.D. Kovalchenko (Lomonosov Moscow State University), V.A. Ustinov (Siberian office of Academy of Sciences of the USSR), Yu.Yu. Kakhk (Academy of Sciences of the Estonian SSR) possess a merit in the statement of mathematical, quantitative methods of a historical research, in creation of large scientific and training centers of a kliometrika in our country, in support of scientists, to generally young growth which accepted and developed theoretical and applied questions of use of quantitative methods and electronic computers in historical science.

I.D. Kovalchenko so defined value of mathematical methods for historical researches: "Mathematical methods and the COMPUTER allow to deepen significantly historical researches, to make

their more evidential. Disclosure of a quantitative measure of qualitatively substantial definiteness of the natural and public world is the highest level of scientific research" (Koval-chenko, 1995).

The significant breakthrough in development of historical researches with application of mathematico-statistical methods and the COMPUTER was made in the 70th years, and next decade in a kliometrika various methodical methods and means were used, research tasks which could not be solved by traditional methods, including in studying social and economic history were carried out.

Enormous progress in development of applied mathematics and computer facilities affected its application in all fields of science including historical. It is quite explainable that in use of quantitative methods natural sciences, as for social science took priority, still it was necessary to realize and prove an opportunity and need of their use. In many respects it was explained by complexity and multidimensionality of the phenomena of public life, identification not only quantitative measurement of the studied phenomena, but also the essence of their quality. At the same time quantitative methods expand understanding and knowledge of the phenomena of public life, introduce an objectivity factor, create base for identification of trends, and not only one-factorial, but also multiple-factor mutually crossed, create base for establishment of regularity. Scientists raised questions of opportunities and limits of application of quantitative methods, their place in historical science. Development of these questions continued and subsequently.

We will take the most widespread phenomenon of public life — elections of bodies of the representative authority. For deep generalizations various data on candidates, electorate, parties and social movements, character predvybor-are necessary

ache propagandas. Except officially established data knowledge of public opinion, and again multidimensional is necessary — about the candidate, political party, their authoritativeness, effectiveness of activity, a moral position, religion and many other things. And all data set as use only separate of them can lead to manipulation of public opinion is necessary. The lack of these data leads to defeat in the same elective campaign — at all popularity, political and scientific literacy of leaders the Union of Right Forces and Yabloko will of the people were left without deputy mandates and actually descended from political arena. The same fate comprehended a significant amount of the politicians of national scale who appeared in Post-Soviet Russia. In what here the true reason? The cumulative opinion of individuals will not give definite answer, but multidimensional quantitative indices can slightly open a curtain.

Already on this phenomenon of public life the combination of need for mathematical methods of both direct requirements of public practice, and the science studying it is visible. And all social and political life consists of the similar phenomena. Expansion and continuous deepening of researches in the public humanities generates the need for the quantitative analysis, its expansion and improvement.

As an example it should be noted I.D. Kovalchenko's appeal to a question of value of Stolypin agrarian reform which in scientific literature and in estimates of politicians was contradictory and, the most important, incomplete. The social and political campaign "Name Russia" (historical choice of 2008) also revealed its ambiguous interpretation up to the recommendation of use in modern Russia. V.O. Klyuchevsky paid attention to what minds "look for both historical justification to these interests and practical instructions

on means to achievement of this purpose" (Klyuchevsky, 1902). In studying this important historical phenomenon of I.D. Kovalchenko, using quantitative, mathematical methods, opened deep contradictions in agrarian development (Kovalchenko). In particular, he wrote: "It is represented that owing to the specified gaps in scientific studying reform and as a result of superficial approach to its lighting by nonspecialists in a mass press and the interpretation of "a Stolypin way" nearly as model of agrarian development which has to be allegedly considered became widespread now and it is even reproduced in modern reorganization of the agrarian relations in the Soviet village. Tactical falsification of an important historical event takes place not only ignoring of historical approach and established facts, but also that found reflection in a speech of the current prime minister of the Russian government I.S. Silayev at the Extraordinary congress of People's Deputies of RSFSR (November, 1990. — V.K.)" (Koval-chenko: electronic resource). The scientist revealed a ratio of two ways of bourgeois agrarian evolution, showed the place and a role in agricultural production and the agrarian relations of landowner and country economy as bases of these ways, considered the concrete changes which happened during Stolypin agrarian reform in economy and the social relations in the village which show also positive shifts in the agrarian sector and the reform crash reasons, some of its aspects at admissible alternative options are predicted, contradictions of agrarian development which inevitably conducted to the October revolution are presented in a generalized view. At the same time the concrete and actual basis of a research were first of all the data of agricultural statistics collected by the Central statistical committee and which are contained in various publications and archival funds, processing and which analysis prove-

dena along with traditional and mathematico-statistical methods.

According to I.D. Kovalchenko, almost any change in process can be measured, expressed quantitatively; a question in search of methods of formalization and quantitative assessment. The quantitative analysis represents identification and structuring a system of numerical characteristics which by means of mathematical processing create base for representation of a quantitative measure of the corresponding quality of the studied phenomenon. The quantitative analysis allows to establish an absolute and relative measure of the considered lines and properties of objects and phenomena and to reveal degree or force of their manifestation.

To study by means of quantitative methods of socio-political practice on space of the former Soviet Union show interest the western services. In 1996-1997 the research laboratory of computer technologies of historical researches (NILE KomTehID) the Dnipropetrovsk state university performed works on the NATO Fellowships Programme "Political Image of the Candidate in the Supreme Council of Ukraine from the Dnipropetrovsk Region in the First Elections in the conditions of Independent Ukraine" project. During implementation of the project the databank "KanDep" was created, the multidimensional statistical analysis of information entered into it is carried out, the digitized versions of propaganda posters according to which the analysis of behavior of electorate of Dnepropetrovshchina was carried out are collected. To the same time the employees NILE KomTehID carried out works on the INTAS-93-1182 project "Technology, skills and means for historians of the former Soviet Union" (Technology, skills and resources for historians in the FSU) in which besides DGU the Azerbaijani (Baku) and Belarusian universities took part three Russian (Moscow, St. Petersburg, Altai). On department of history

The Yaroslavl state pedagogical university of K.D. Ushin-sky which was connected to the Internet center at the Yaroslavl state university of P. Demidov created with financial support of Institute of open society and Fund of J. Soros researches on a grant of the European Union and the TEMPUS program were conducted. As a result of carrying out the international History project which was a part of the TEMPUS program of the European Union in YaGPU the Project History server is created. In Kyrgyzstan the History and Computer association works.

Thus, it is possible to tell about the expedient appeal to mathematical methods owing to a condition of science and practice, requirements of further deepening of researches. The modern repeatedly towering requirements to historical science, especially at a dissertation stage, turn use of mathematical methods of a research into need.

Mathematical methods are used in dissertation works. For example, in a 07.00.09 — the historiography, a source study and methods of historical researches are protected the doctoral dissertation of V.V. Podgayetsky "Social structure of the population of the cities of Ukraine in days of the New Economic Policy (experience of the multidimensional statistical analysis of materials of censuses of 1923 and 1926)", the master's thesis of Yu.A. Svyatts "Social and economic typology of country farms of Ukraine in days of the New Economic Policy (mass sources and methods of their research)". In the Moscow humanities university the master's thesis of S.M. Nikitenko "Scientific and social and political activity of V.I. Vernadsky during 1905-1917" in a 07.00.02 — national history is prepared for protection. By means of quantitative and mathematical methods various parties of activity of the scientist — research activity, scientific and organizing ra-are investigated

the boat, socio-political activity, extent of impact of objective factors of historical development of the country on research and scientific and organizing activity of the scientist, influence of his social and political views of an activity degree ratio in various spheres of its interests, interconditionality of nauchnopraktichesky, scientific-theoretical and scientific and organizing work and mentality of the scientist, his social and political activity. A research objective is identification of earlier unknown facts from his life and activity, the analysis of data on emergence and development of a number of the new directions of science at which origins it stood disclosure of interrelations between research, scientific and organizing and social and political activity of the scientist.

But such works of unit. Viewing abstracts of theses on the websites of VAK and the universities on national and general history and even on political science shows that mathematical methods are not mentioned in the list of methods of scientific research. At the same time these papers, as well as historical science in general, speak about significant expansion of historical sources, the possibility of their transportation from abroad appeared, archival security classifications and many other are removed. Data that "for three quarters of the 20th century the mankind saved up much more scientific knowledge, than for all previous history were provided in literature, and in many fields of science within 12-15 years the volume of scientific knowledge will double". It is unlikely it is lawful concerning historical science, but the general trend moves in this direction.

Introduction of quantitative, mathematical methods into historical research laboratory was initiated by representatives of historical science for more exact and the main thing of comprehensive identification of the trends and regularities of development, modification studied is-

the torichesky phenomena and processes, for fuller and versatile use of earlier unclaimed, insufficiently studied mass historical sources, for new, expanded interpretation of the data which are contained in them.

At the same time the Soviet founder of use of quantitative, mathematical methods in a historical research I.D. Kovalchenko warned that application of mathematical methods in itself by historians does not guarantee success, "this application has to be correct and skillful, and not only in the general teoretikometodologichesky aspect, but also in respect of the solution of a number of the special methodological and methodical problems which are directly connected with mathematical methods of a research (Kovalchenko, 1987) that "application of quantitative methods in itself and the COMPUTER does not provide automatic increase in intrinsic and substantial, qualitative level of historical researches. For this purpose high professionalism in its teoretiko-methodological, istochniko-vedcheski-historiographic and substantial and historical aspects is still necessary. Quite often forget about it, unfortunately, addressing new methods".

There is an unscientific idea that qualitative and quantitative analyses are alternative methods of a research. The blank qualitative, descriptive or quantitative analysis does not exist. The descriptive and quantitative analysis, on the one hand, and qualitative, with another, in scientific research are indissolubly interconnected, in other words, the speech can go or about the intrinsic and descriptive, or intrinsic and quantitative analysis. Only at establishment of quantitative expression of the corresponding quality it is possible will provide depth of the studied phenomenon (Quantitative, 1984). Important result of descriptive methods in their concreteness and figurativeness, and quantitative — in depth and accuracy of conclusions and generalizations.

Quantitative history, or a kliometrika, introduces in a research arsenal of the historian mathematico-statistical methods of the analysis of historical sources, mathematical modeling of the social phenomena and processes with use of electronic computer facilities.

The quantitative analysis is necessary when studying the economic, demographic, social, political, cultural and other systems having diverse properties, being in the movement, change which are imposed at each other. These methods are effective also at a research of the individual phenomena, at study them is system, in interrelation.

Modern scientific historical research is insolvent without attraction of the increasing volume new actual (including quantitative) data, and from here and all of new methods of their identification, processing and analysis that demands the appeal to quantitative and mathematical methods. If we recognize information explosion in science, then, therefore, the accelerated movement in the field of systematization, storages and uses of the saved-up knowledge and the facts, their scientific processing and introduction to a scientific turn is necessary. Here without mathematical methods, computer modeling and processing not to manage.

We will logically pass to novelty of historical researches. The question — is lawful what new is in a concrete research? The answer to it is obligatory for theses of the first and second levels, master's theses. Let's tell, already the school student gains knowledge of the October revolution, but various aspects of this historical phenomenon continue to be investigated; somehow I noticed that within two years three doctor's works on this historical phenomenon are protected. It is possible only at accumulation of new knowledge, evidential reconsideration of the known conclusions. It is characteristic that in the name of this phenomenon the word "revolution" is restricted by the word "revolution",

and in contents light tone are replaced with black. All complexity is in that, as at one interpretation and at another there is an element of truth.

Actually any more there are no significant historical phenomena and processes which are not affected in scientific works. But, on the one hand, it does not mean total absence of the phenomena and processes, the deserving attention the historian, aspects which are not studied; and with another, in process of accumulation of knowledge (on the same October revolution) such parties of the most historical phenomenon which deserve a further research are found. But new studying already allegedly studied phenomenon, being sated and operating with the accumulated knowledge, it has to be enriched with new concrete historical data.

Viewing the studied phenomenon by means of quantitative methods at simultaneous increase in informative return of the sources which are earlier introduced for scientific use can give these new data and, of course, at expansion of an istochnikovy basis of a research due to introduction to a scientific turn earlier not used or restrictedly the attracted sources, especially primary sources of the concrete phenomenon.

All this raises in the agenda a question of improvement of methods of identification, critical evaluation, processing and the analysis of actual data, including mathematical methods. And inherent not only historical science, but also another adjacent (and not only) to sciences. History, political science, sociology — independent sciences. Also the criticism is lawful, we will tell theses when the research is conducted not on the announced scientific specialty. But the full-fledged historical research cannot do without these specified sciences, moreover — without attraction of their tools and methods of a research. For example, only on advantage to a historical research if his author carries out independent or in collective sociological is-

following for expansion of the conclusions, communications of story with the present.

Therefore further development of social sciences demands integration of scientific knowledge; more precisely — a reasonable combination of differentiation and integration. It is clear one — differentiation and specialization of scientific research without their integrated, generalized study and use will not provide deep knowledge of objective reality as it includes organic unity of various parties of the studied phenomenon. In this case the historical science "absorbs" achievements of other sciences, leans on them in the conclusions.

Here are necessary the corrected approach to understanding of a research on a joint of sciences and researches with use of scientific methods of a research of other sciences and improvement of training of historians from the student to professor, the organization of coordination of researches at the level of the interested scientific industries and specialties. If objectivity of integration of science, it is possible to consider, it is obvious, then its realization is held down by a subjective factor, especially officials in science. Officials not from science, namely standing on science top. Too it is possible to see objectivity in it — these officials have the traditional education, scientific ideas created often in the conditions of general marksiststko-Lenin methodology. But life demands active actions of a modern sample — whether the inability testifies to it not only administrative governors, but also scientific institutes to prevent a world financial and economic crisis, especially to leave it, using scientific approaches.

Established practices of the studying history differentiated in problem, spatial and temporary aspects have to be supported with integration of sciences for the benefit of historical researches. Excessive specialization of historical researches leads to the fact that them can

to carry out narrow specialists in any given problems, there are difficulties of their data in synthesis of scientific work as the research of the same phenomena is conducted in relation to regions or time spans of history and is separated by certain historians. Differences in statement of research tasks, in methods of selection, processing and the analysis of concrete historical material, representation and generalization of results of a research are obvious, and as a result with a large number of research works on studying the concrete phenomenon it is impossible to make the generalizing characteristics.

Process of integration of historical researches was perceived during the final period of existence of the Soviet system, and then again political and economic situation which developed in the country led them to dissociation, individualization. Less the collective generalizing works of monographic type began to prepare, quite often highly specialized approach prevails differentiated, and, maybe, collections on separate aspects of historical development still make the way, but also there are more and more separate materials. Of course, in such conditions there is no competition of scientific works on saturation as istochnikovy material including according to the appeal to quantitative methods of a historical research.

Today it is much created works on history of various sciences, candidate examination in history and philosophy of science is entered. These works are reflection, on the one hand, of process of differentiation of scientific knowledge, and with another — its integration. Characteristics of scientific specialties "history of pedagogics and education" (13.00.01, a pedagogical branch of science), "History of science and technology" (07.00.10), etc. are that, for example. Received "registration" in social science ethnohistorical, historical and sociological, historical and psychological researches which authors are not historians, but experts

in these areas which receive academic degrees on pedagogical, technical, sociological science. Obshchestvovedchesky researches on history of literature, economies, a political thought, etc. are conducted

The historical science in essence is complex and integrated. Importance in all this is in transfer of scientific knowledge from one field of science in another, in use of the conceptual and categorial device and methods of some areas of knowledge by others, in synthesis of knowledge of various areas of public life and, of course, in mutual use of the concrete material received by means of a quantitative method in the appeal to formalization as which highest expression just and serves the matematization of scientific research in various fields of knowledge. It is clear, here privilege behind system approach, behind methods of the structural and functional analysis.

In use of mathematical methods in historical science the defining value has selection of questions and material which can undergo mathematical processing and add a descriptive research of history. Here the objective relation, prevention of oppositions of equally scientific methods of a historical research is necessary. For memories hot discussions concerning application of quantitative methods in historical researches, oppositions descriptive (it was called "qualitative") and the quantitative analysis. These discussions to blue in the face became history which showed their insolvency. The qualitative, that is intrinsic and informative, and quantitative analysis do not resist, mutually do not exclude, and, on the contrary, supplement each other, "work" for comprehensive illumination of history and knowledge of the studied phenomenon. Both methods substantial on the purpose and result — in one case substantial and descriptive, narrative, in another — substantial and quantitative.

Quantitative indices characterize the phenomenon and therefore they are substantial.

Descriptive and quantitative methods are used in unity, but, in certain cases, each of them can be dominating. It is logical that in a historical research the descriptive, qualitative analysis by means of which the internal essence of the phenomena reveals prevails, it is based on wide scientific information, on presentational istochnikovy base, on concrete data on the studied phenomena which in turn are not just stated, and are exposed to scientific processing and the analysis as in descriptive, or narrative, and in a quantitative form. Prospect of a historical research — in profound use of descriptive characteristics of the historical phenomena. Many phenomena of public life can be reflected only in a natural language form, habitual, patrimonial for them. It allows to disprove opinion on a possibility of existence of so-called "mathematical history" once again. As dream, there can be neither requirement, nor an opportunity the historical phenomena is universal to measure and present quantitatively.

At the same time, fixing signs and properties of the considered phenomena, the descriptive analysis does not show their measure that is specifically revealed, on the contrary, by quantitative methods. When the historical research has to estimate scales, specific weight and the level of development of the studied phenomena, degree of their similarity and distinction, descriptive methods of the analysis allow rough and uncertain estimates ("more — less", "it is strong — poorly", "it is essential — insignificantly") which do not give the chance to reveal a quantitative measure of the considered qualities, and from here uncertainty, not substantiality of the conclusions, conclusions. At the same time long practice developed at historians satisfaction with the used research methods, unwillingness

to fill up "laboratory" with methods of other sciences, including quantitative, mathematical.

Quantitative methods allow to reveal set of the factors defining development of the studied phenomenon which represents a complex combination of various systems that demands identification of intrasystem and intersystem interrelations and it is the main task of historical researches. Already on this base the representation of regularities, driving forces, the general and special in historical development is carried out, and it can be reached application of mathematical methods. Historical researches are intended to reveal major factors of emergence and development of the phenomena and to estimate their impacts on it. If the intrinsic and informative analysis and descriptive methods allow to define these factors, then it is possible to compare their role and specific weight only by mathematical methods.

The need for application of quantitative and mathematical methods arises not only when studying the phenomena of public life in its global representation, but also when studying the phenomena individual, first of all results of activity of individuals. Individual events are widespread in political and especially in spiritual spheres. Here quantitative methods allow the researcher to reveal an essence and evolution of views, to compare positions of different figures. Mathematical methods can be useful at assessment of decisions and policy, at identification of a possibility of alternative positions.

It is quite explainable that mathematical methods are widely applied in economic history which the American historiography is called as "econometric history".

But use of quantitative and mathematical methods is possible only in case measurement by them of signs of the studied phenomena and receiving to - is possible

lichestvenny indicators. At the same time, naturally, their application is the second tier of the used methods when on the basis of traditional historical sources the idea of the studied phenomenon when the intrinsic and informative analysis discloses its qualitative definiteness is created.

At the same time the efficiency of quantitative methods does not do them by universal remedy of historical researches, they cannot replace descriptive methods, are limited to specifics of an object of historical knowledge. Mathematical methods in historical researches have the sphere of effective application.

The researcher from Kazakhstan S. Jacqui-sheva fairly notes that "the source study criticism is formed as for isto-rika-kliometrista, and the traditional historian according to canons of a "classical" source study, but the most important that unites also that and others, is carrying out qualitatively informative analysis and disclosure of internal essence of the phenomena and processes of historical development, finally, increment of knowledge of the past" (Zhakisheva: electronic resource).

Result of application of mathematical, quantitative methods in a historical research is receiving powerful layers of the hidden information which allowed to come to observations of fundamental character. Possibilities of application of quantitative methods are unlimited at their combination to traditional approaches.

It is known that the muse of history in Ancient Greek mythology of Clio is represented with a papyrus scroll or a case for rolls. Admirers of historical computer science began to represent it leaning on mathematical integral and the computer.

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Kovalchenko, And. (1971) Land lease by the former landowner peasants in the early eighties 19th century. From history of economic and public life of country and landowner economy in agricultural production of capitalist Russia//Problem of social and economic history of Russia. M

Kovalchenko, And. (1971) the Ratio of country and landowner economy in agricultural production of capitalist Russia//Problem of social and economic history of Russia. M

Kovalchenko, And. (1987) Methods of a historical research. M.: Science.

Kovalchenko, And. (1995) Teoretiko-metodologichesky problems of historical researches. Notes and reflections about new approaches//Modern and contemporary history. No. 1.

Kovalchenko, I.D. Stolypin agrarian reform (myths and reality)//Scepticism. URL: (date of the address: 25.05.2009)


Geraldine Jones
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