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From the history of the trezvennichesky movement in the Tomsk diocese (the end the XIX beginning of the 20th centuries)

UDK 94:613.817 (571.16)


E.V. Karavayeva

Kuibyshev branch of Novosibirsk State Technical University



E.V. Karavaeva

Kuibyshev Branch of Novosibirsk State Technical University

The activity of clergy of the Tomsk diocese directed to fight against alcoholism at the end of XIX is characterized

>- beginning of the 20th centuries. Synod and diocesan decrees and orders contained detailed instructions for implementation of this activity. Since 1890 the parish clergy undertook an initiative of the organization of sobriety societies. The most active period of participation sacred and clergymen in the trezvennichesky movement began since 1909. By 1914 it captured all arrivals of the diocese. The sermon, carrying out extra liturgical readings with display of picture lamps, acceptance of vows of sobriety, distribution of antialcoholic literature were the main forms of work in this direction. In rural arrivals the clergy actively involved the local intellectuals in fight against alcoholism. The significant contribution to the leadership in activities of parish clergy for fight against alcoholism was made by bishops of the Tomsk diocese - Makari (Nevsky), Mefodiy (Gerasimov), Anatoly (Kamensk), the chairman of diocesan brotherhood of sobriety archpriest P. Komarov, etc. They were not only skillful organizers and masterminds of a sober way of life, but also showed a personal example of dedicated activity in this direction.

The activities of Clergy of Tomsk’s diocese directed at struggling with drunkenness at the end of XIX - the beginning of XX centuries was described. Decrees and orders of the Synod and diocese contained detailed instructions for carrying out these actions. The Parish Clergy were obliged to organize society of sobriety since 1890. The most active period where minor orders took part in antialcoholic movement began in 1909. In 1914 it captured all parishes of diocese. The basic forms of work were sermons, organizing antialcoholic readings with showing slide pictures, acceptance vow of sobriety, distributing antialcoholic literature. Clergy actively involved local intelligence in struggling with drunkenness in parishes in villages. Bishops of the Tomsk’s diocese, such as Makary (Nevsky), Mefody (Gerasimov), Anatoly (Kamensky) and minor order, who was the leader of Brotherhood of sobriety, P. Komarov and others contributed to the activity of clergy in their struggle with drunkenness. They were not only clever organizers and inspirers of sober way of life, but also they showed the example of self-denying activity in that movement.

Any national disaster, including war, could not do such harm to national health and wellbeing what inevitably bears alcoholism. Being engaged in studying a role of the Russian Orthodox Church (ROC) in development of sanitary and hygienic culture of the population of Western Siberia and, in particular, the Tomsk province of the end of XIX - the beginning of the 20th centuries, it is expedient to characterize the activity of clergy directed to fight against alcoholism.

Numerous researches are devoted to a problem of fight against spread of alcoholism in Russia. The first significant scientific work on a "drunk" question was written in the second half of the 19th century by I.G. Pryzhov [1]. Its work "The history of taverns in Russia", according to the modern Tomsk historian A.L. Afanasyev, despite separate shortcomings, - the first and so far the only detailed research on

the history of drinkable business and alcoholism in Russia since the end of the 10th century to the middle of the 60th years of the 19th century [2]. In the materials collected by I.G. Pryzhov there are data that the clergy long before the period investigated by us took active part in fight against this national illness.

At the end of XIX - the beginning of the 20th centuries monographs on the history of development of the trezvennichesky movement in Russia were published. Their value is that authors studied both the antialcoholic policy of the state, and activity of popechitelstvo about national sobriety and sobriety societies (secular and parish) [39]. It is possible to call this period in a historiography the period of accumulation of empirical material and the first experience of characteristic of the antialcoholic movement.

At the present stage, after more than semicentennial

go a break, at resumption of the researches characterizing the history of the trezvennichesky movement in Russia a number of works of the generalizing character - I.R. Takala [10], A .L was published. Afanasyev [11], A.G. of Bykova [12], etc. - the beginning of the 20th centuries, A.L. Afanasyev [13-15], V.V. Lebedev [16], O.V. Ushakova [17] articles and so forth are devoted to activity of the trezvennichesky movement organized by ROC in the territory of Siberia at the end of XIX. In their works the leading role of ROC in the organization of sobriety societies and quantitative prevalence of parish societies over provincial and district the trustee-stvami about national sobriety is noted.

Characterized activity of the Siberian sobriety societies and E.A. Degaltsev in the monograph about the public non-political organizations of Western Siberia (1861-1917). It drew a conclusion that these societies worked mainly in villages, and "peasants - the main estate and carriers of national traditions

>- escaped from dependence" [18] with insignificant participation of clergy. A.G. Bykova in the monograph "Alcoholism and Alcoholism in Russia in XIX — the Beginning of the 20th Centuries." analyzed the legal framework and forms of activity of public organizations - sobriety societies including church. As opposed to the approvals by E.A. Degal-tseva she points that "parish sobriety societies were the most numerous" [19], and "characteristic of each sobriety society was its aiming at mass character" [20]. However it is difficult to agree with A.G. Bykova's conclusion that the All-Russian congress of practical figures on fight against alcoholism (1912) "had no little noticeable resonance" [21]. Studying literature shows that there are disputable some questions, answers to which will be helped to be given more total characteristic to the trezvennichesky movement. Besides, despite keen interest of representatives of different humanitarian disciplines in activity of ROC, there are no special researches about participation of the Siberian rural parish clergy, in particular the Tomsk diocese, in the solution of this social problem at the end of XIX - the beginning of the 20th centuries. Meanwhile formation of sanitary and hygienic culture of peasants was possible only at a sober way of life of the last.

Work purpose: to characterize the activity of clergy of the Tomsk diocese directed to fight against alcoholism at the end of XIX - the beginning of the 20th centuries. As historical sources unpublished materials of the State archive of the Tomsk region are used: decrees, orders, instructions of the government, Synod and Tomsk bishops; reports of diocesan clergy on existence and activity of sobriety societies. Besides, Works of the All-Russian congress of practical figures on fight against alcoholism (taken place in Moscow on August 6-12, 1912), the report of the Altai Spiritual Mission (ASM) for 1910 and also reports diocesan and parish sobriety societies, published in the official magazine ROC Tomsk Diocesan Sheets (TDS) are demanded. In general on the TEV pages the special place was allocated to a subject of fight against alcoholism: for all years of release (from 1880 to 1918) 78 articles were published (from sati-

richesky stories, plays in one action, the author's songs printed with notes, verses, sayings to reports of sobriety societies of the Tomsk diocese and researches of the Russian and foreign scientists). The greatest number of publications TEV was necessary for 1908-1915 after updating of this question in the State Duma at the initiative of the Samara deputy M.D. Chelyshev. The majority of publications was submitted by diocesan priests: the chairman of diocesan sobriety society P. Komarov, N. Zavadovsky, I. Sokolov, A. Dimitriyev from the village Legostayevsky of the Barnaul County, A. Shevel-kov from the village of the Hlopunovsky Zmeinogorsky County, G. Nepomnyashchy from the village Lebedyansky of the Tomsk County, etc.

Consumption of alcoholic drinks was the traditional phenomenon in Russia tracing the roots back at the time of paganism. Unfortunately, this tradition to get drunk during holidays was not eradicated by the whole world also after adoption of Christianity. Though, according to I.G. Pryzhov, "there was time when the people whenever possible could do still and without vodka" [22], beer which consumption did not lead to emergence in Russia mass alcoholism was the main drinkable drink before emergence of taverns in the middle of the 16th century. To the middle of the 19th century under pressure of the farmers interested in sale of hard alcoholic drinks, production of beer was sharply reduced. According to the data provided by I.G. Pryzhov "in 1859 in Velikorossiya there were 248 breweries, in the western provinces, in Little Russia and Novorossiya - 1092; but in Siberia there was no plant" [23]. The traveler A. Kastren wrote on March 5, 1846 from Tomsk: "I carried out Maslenitsa in the village Silently - is new (The Tomsk district) where I was lodged in the top floor of ordinary tavern. Here, throughout all loose week, I neither in the afternoon, nor had no rest from shumlivy drunkards at night. Molchanovo - the small village, the neighboring country is poor and seldom populated with Samoyeds, but, despite the fact that, sale of wine is made in such huge sizes that the tavern in one day gained 1800 rub. Therefore itself can make a concept about alcoholism of Siberia" [24].

During the period investigated by us from this defect the people could not keep not only on holidays, weddings and a commemoration [25], but also wordly descents usually came to an end with a wine party. So, decent Feodor Yershov of the 19th district of the Barnaul County in 1890 reported in Recreation center that "to fine custom wine, to take wine at reception of new settlers, when giving sentences on opening of pubs exists everywhere, and on the house wine from a descent is carried away only when immediately on a descent, behind a large number, it is not possible to drink it" [26]. In the official report of the decent 17th district of the Barnaul County of A. Zavadovsky of May 4, 1890 it is written down that "public descents are convoked by rural heads mainly in Sunday and holidays, and the place and time of a descent happens absolutely variously: the descent and to a liturgy is convoked early in the morning, both during a liturgy, and in afternoon, social activists gather for these descents and at rural heads, and at pubs where public affairs where the court and punishment terminating quite often here is created are solved

>, on the place, the general wine party into the account guilty" [27].

It should be noted that alcoholism was most of all widespread in resettlement villages and villages, mass revelry happened on so-called "congress-nykh" holidays. And suffered from alcoholism on holidays the poorest peasants who, without having the means, took money from rich fellows villager under summer works in two or three times are cheaper than the most summer work [28]. It cannot be told about villages of conservatives where "wine drinking was in the moderate sizes, and the people infected with spirit of split avoided to drink tavern wine" [29]. For example, in the report of decent Biysk and Kuznetsk districts for 1890 it was reported that in arrivals Kytmansky, Losikhinsky and Ozero-Titovsky trade in wine it was not made at all - it were just those "infected with spirit of split" of the village [30].

In villages where Old Believers did not live, even in the absence of official trade in alcoholic beverages alcoholism and revelry were also widespread. Besides universal illegal trade, local merchants found ways to stupefy the people and other means. So, in the report of ADM for 1910 it is described that in Ulala medical spice, so-called "Kinder balm" was on sale. The basis of this spice was formed by alcohol. Ulala's inhabitants with pleasure took this poison, parted with hot water and got drunk to madness. According to the statement of the ulalinsky doctor, the drink received thus was especially harmful to a human body, and meanwhile none of the authorities wanted to pay attention to this trade [31]. It is important to tell that for illegal trade the self-made low-quality wine and vodka products made in insanitary conditions everywhere developed. The fact of universal insanitary conditions is confirmed by researches of the living conditions of accommodation of country people recognized by authors extremely unsatisfactory, especially at immigrants [32, 33].

In the studied materials there are numerous certificates on spread of children's alcoholism. For example, the priest from the village of Lebedyansky and. Pickaxes of the Tomsk County Georgy of Nepomnyashchy wrote the following in the status report on arrival: "At us to meet the frequent phenomenon drunk not only adult, but also six - and seven-year-old children. I witnessed as the six-year-old boy, approaching a cross during my manner on houses on December 6 (on a patronal feast day), from intoxication was unsteady and fell; or several juvenile girls (from 8 to 12 years) made a pooling of funds and, having bought beer, went to the forest to meet St. Trinity. Meanwhile, parents on it look as at a thing ordinary" [34].

Aggravation of a problem of spread of alcoholism at the end of XIX - the beginning of the 20th centuries is demonstrated by attempts to solve it at the level of the government. The III State Duma from where its discussion was transferred to the State Council paid attention to this question, and shortly it became a subject of publicistic polemic in the press [35]. Bill III of the State Duma of measures of fight against alcoholism was adopted in the second reading on November 16, 1911. In sending to members of the Duma of applications on the approval of the project prinya-

whether participation and rural parish sobriety societies of the Tomsk diocese [36]. Participants of the antialcoholic movement expressed opinion that a question of alcoholism - "the most modern question raised by the life" [37]. The alcohol consumption growth partly imposed by violently state wine monopoly is confirmed also by statistics of that time. For example, in Russia, trade in alcoholic drinks quickly increased, without leaving demand pent-up. If in 1902 private wine institutions was 36,921, then in their 1907 there were already 70,372 [38].

Unlike dioceses of the European Russia where fight against alcoholism became more active from the middle of the 19th century, in the Tomsk diocese this activity was not priority. The clergy in deaneries "said the lectures from church department the most part of katekhizatorsky contents and in rare instances spoke about harm of alcoholism" [39].

Enhanced action sacred and clergymen of the Tomsk diocese in fight against alcoholism began after adoption of the decree of the Synod of August 10, 1889 about assistance to the government in fight against alcoholism and, as a result, orders of TDK of February 21, May 18, 1890, on October 19, 1892 TDK ordered to diocesan clergy: "1) to abstain from alcoholic drinks and private life to set a kind example to the parishioners; 2) to strengthen preaching of the word God's and to neopustitelno conduct extra liturgical interviews in temples, schools, and in winter evenings - on houses of parishioners, and on these interviews it is possible to carry out a thought of harm of alcoholism more often; 3) to decline parishioners to opening of sobriety societies whenever possible in all villages and villages; 4) to establish at churches and schools of library which to supply with books and brochures about harm of alcoholism, and cheap of them to get for the purse sums or donations and to distribute to the people; to recommend to clergy from those brochures which are available in the Tomsk bookstore of Mikhaylov and Makushin, the following: "Sin and madness of alcoholism", "Speech against alcoholism", etc.; 5) to care for perhaps bigger opening of church popechitelstvo, and to elect them members people sober, moral, being held in respect in the environment of the societies which by force of the word and own example could influence the people indulging in alcoholism; 6) to declare parish guardianship and to sobriety societies that they were granted the right (Article 45 of the law of May 11, 1885) to announce to excise supervision the wrong trade in alcoholic drinks; 7) all measures to try about eradication of wine parties on patronal feast days, at family celebrations and on public descents; to appeal in case of need to local authorities to pay strict attention to that volost and rural the administration had due observation of prevention of wine parties on wordly descents and that descents during the church services on holidays were not convoked, with involvement of guilty persons to legal accountability" [40].

It should be noted that some forms of work ordered to clergy at these orders in the territory of the Tomsk diocese did not practice. Societies

the sobriety did not exist. This fact is confirmed by information which is contained in the official reports decent provided in TDK by March, 1890 [41]. Popechitelstvo at churches of the Tomsk diocese by 1890 was only seven (in deaneries No. 15, 17, 21 of the Barnaul County - 4 and in deanery No. 24 of the Biysk County - 3). But also this insignificant quantity of popechitelstvo never had the right "to declare to whom it follows, about the wrong trade in alcoholic drinks" [42]. They were engaged in the solution of the questions connected with improvement of churches, parish houses and cemeteries.

At the end of XIX - the beginning of the 20th centuries creation of sobriety societies in the Tomsk diocese became one of priority types of activity on fight against alcoholism as they became an organizational kernel of antialcoholic promotion, uniting the parish population for this purpose.

A main objective of sobriety societies was "preventive" work - a warning of the population of harm of alcoholism, counteraction to its development. By definition of the Synod, parish sobriety societies in fight against alcoholism had to solve the following problems: 1) to extend in arrival of knowledge by the structure of libraries, reading rooms, sunday schools, readings; 2) to popularize art by means of creation of church choirs, circles of music and painting; 3) to assist emergence in arrivals of cheap parish tea and table, potrebitelny benches, ssudosberegatelny associations [43].

Since March, 1890 in the Tomsk diocese sobriety societies begin to be created. The first society was founded by the priest of Church of the Intercession of page. Malo-Peschans-kogo the Mariinsky county in which 150 peasants registered and all of them accepted a sobriety vow. The parish priest M. Koronatov and the psalm reader Elensky headed society [44]. At the same time in parish of the Nikolaev church of page of Dubrovinsky Oyashinskoy the volost of the Tomsk County at insistance of the local priest I. Lavrov also founded sobriety society. At its opening 17 people accepted a vow "perfect abstention from consumption of intoxicated drinks, even beer, obyazuyas to dispose to it and other fellows" [45], and by June their number doubled. In the village of Srostenskom of the Biysk County in the spring of 1891 the sobriety society was open at the initiative of the parson of Proroko-Ilyinsky church V. Pokrovsky [46]. Subsequently this initiative was supported by clergy of the diocese.

From the moment of creation of the first societies their organizers used a sobriety vow as one of the most effective methods of fight against alcoholism, and it yielded positive results. For example, in TEV for 1905 enthusiastic article about activity of brotherhood of sobriety in the village of Zavyalovo of the Barnaul County in which cases of change of the social status of the peasants vowing sobriety were described was published: "Father! To mine term leaves. Appeal to the conscience you it again to pledge", - the woman bows. "Look, before hungry, naked sat, and now rebyatenka are dressed, all sytekhonk, every day - tea with sugar, bought a korovushka, a horse. To look at Ljubo: silent became, spravny, tender,

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exactly once again was born...". Zemno bows the woman, with tears: "Thanks to you" [47].

To constrain a sobriety vow, accepted it sometimes appointed to themselves as a deterrent, "penalty" - various penalties for its violation. For example, in a sobriety society sentence Proro-co-Ilyinskoy of church of village of the Srostensky Zmeinogorsky County (fig. 1.) of the April 19, 1892 signed by 92 members the following measures were written down: "First, collecting three rubles in favor of parish church, secondly, guilty persons have to incur the public penance imposed by the confessor". Besides, "that the brotherhood was stronger", his members appealed to the bishop Makari (Nevsky) to be their patron and according to the report of the pricht on violation of a vow to impose a penance [48].

In reports on activity of diocesan sobriety societies the main reasons promoting acceptance by the population of a vow of sobriety were reported. Parishioners voluntarily refused alcohol intake as owing to problems with health (chronic diseases, injuries in alcohol intoxication, emergence of symptoms of delirium tremens and so forth), and because of absolute impoverishment [49].

As with the assistance of priests in holding anti-epidemic actions in the province, the organization of charitable institutions, and at fight against alcoholism, successful results of this activity depended on a personal initiative of the clergy. The most active participation of priests of the Tomsk diocese in the trezvennichesky movement began since 1909 after the edition the Synod of the decree of the June 12 calling diocesan and parish clergy for the strengthened fight against national alcoholism. Before, according to one of organizers of the movement for a sober way of life in the Tomsk diocese priest P. Komarov, the clergy "played a role in fight against alcoholism more negative, than positive because whether the clergy in villages (and protodeaconry) in the cities so drinks that it became the parable in yazytsekh" [50]. In response to the decree of the Synod of 1909 in TEV the circular decree of the archbishop Tomsk and Altai Makari was printed (Nevsky

go) in which it was said that "each parish priest, each school teacher and all spiritual educational institutions, brotherhoods and guardianship. fulfill the duty of fight against the general national evil assigned to them" [51].

In TEV in 1912 the summary table of church sobriety societies with the indication of the county and deanery, time of opening, number of members at the time of opening and at the time of the publication of article, types of activity was published. To the decree of the Synod of 1909 in the territory of the Tomsk diocese only 17 sobriety societies were open, and by their 1912 already were 53, but in them only 3088 people, i.e. 1.6% of the total number of inhabitants in arrivals consisted [52, 53]. The scanty percent of members of societies is explained by the fact that in Siberia the fight against alcoholism by establishment of the organizations of sobriety met hostility everywhere. "It is necessary to tell, - the priest Mr. Nepomnyashchikh from the village Lebedyansky of the Tomsk County wrote in 1913, - what mockeries and sneers are transferred by our young "Sobriety society" - do not bring, My God!" [54]. The greatest number of sobriety societies in the diocese was founded from 1911 to 1914. By 1912 as it is stated above, them was 53, by 1913 - 102, by the end of 1914 - 127 [55].

Charters were the most widespread type of registration of the legal rights of sobriety societies at the end of XIX - the beginning of the 20th centuries (for the first time officially the charter of sobriety society in Russia was approved in 1874). Besides authorized parish sobriety societies the societies founded on the basis of the oral or written contract worked. So, in the Tomsk diocese in 1912 12 of 53 parish sobriety societies had no charter and acted on the basis of oral agreement [56].

All sobriety societies existing in the diocese from the moment of their education led readings, discussions, arranged reading rooms and libraries with selection of magazines and books concerning national sobriety. For carrying out readings and the device antialcoholic bibliotechek premises of parish and ministerial schools, and in some arrivals - and houses of parishioners were used [57]. By the established tradition readings with "foggy pictures" [the transparent picture, drawn or reproduced in the photographic way on a glass plate for which display the lamp projective (magic) - the optical device serving for rejection (design) on white was used, the plane (screen) of the enlarged image which is well reflecting or passing light / Brockhaus and Efron's Encyclopaedic dictionary surely were carried out to the opening day of sobriety societies. SPb., 1902. T.XXXVI. Page 221], and subsequently this day coped annually as a local parish holiday.

The "live" word of belief was one of significant levers on "the dark mass" of villagers in antialcoholic activity. The house conversation was the most effective form. The word of a sermon pronounced by the priest with participation to the interlocutor gave more fair ideas of pernicious consequences of alcoholism for health. But private conversations on houses demand a lot of time and physical forces. Uchity-

Wai distances in arrivals of the Tomsk diocese, it is possible to assume that the parish clergy practically had no possibility of a private sermon. Sermons on harm of alcoholism were most distributed in temples during a liturgy and on extra liturgical readings. As the management by preparation for sermons and readings served written out for church libraries, almost all the editions existing for that time on an alcoholic question from edition of Troitsk leaves and Aleksand - ro - the Nevsky sobriety society in St. Petersburg: "Rest of the Christian", "Sober life", "Sober shoots", "The messenger of sobriety" and the most popular - "Lectures to sobriety", four releases made by the priest M. Smirnov.

On readings the priests, prichta and teachers read reports and stories, available to perception of the "uneducated" population, teachers with pupils put sketches, read verses, church choirs with pupils surely sang edgings from the Contribution, some with a harmonium: "What you drink, the man", "You will be vain, the person", etc. Not only the church clergy, the teacher of schools, pupils, but, whenever possible, and medical personnel actively were involved in carrying out readings. For example, in the report of ADM for 1910 it was reported that on favoring of the prior of Ulalinsky church every Sunday teachers and teachers of both ulalinsky schools participated in extra liturgical conversations, and in "lately and the wife of the local district doctor Doskali-ts, having medical education" [58].

the Greatest popularity as among urban population, and villagers, the readings which are carried out with display of "foggy pictures" used

>. From the report of parish sobriety society of the village Lebedyansky of the Tomsk County for 1913: "After readings began to be carried out with a magic lamp, listeners there was great variety, were not located even in school" [59]. Despite active visit by parishioners of Sunday readings (mainly, for viewing light pictures), they reluctantly registered in sobriety societies. The priest of the Barnaul County I. Sokolov, extending experience of the organization of sobriety societies among diocesan clergy, wrote to TEV: "Long it is necessary to convince everyone. Usually their excuses following: "Yes I and so drink a little", "I already will refrain how I will want", "And why in other arrivals there is no it?"" [60]. Refusing to enter sobriety society, referred to the fact that "it is necessary to spend on drink the maid" (i.e. to marry the daughter), "the soldier will return soon" from service, term "the son in recruits comes to hand over" [61].

Nevertheless, the church sermon and extra liturgical readings which are especially carried out long time had indisputable influence on the choice by parishioners of a healthy (sober) way of life. For example, in the village of Hlopunovskom of the Zmeinogorsky County pricht with the assistance of teachers of local parish school, after adoption by the Synod of the decree of 1909 on fight against alcoholism, during the three-year period talked to parishioners about harm of alcohol, arranging at school day and evening readings with "foggy pictures". During posts on each church service by it it was read on -

the doctrine about harm of alcoholism. And if in 1909 the persons interested to enter sobriety society were not, then educational work promoted making decision by 50 parishioners on the introduction in sobriety society which was formed on January 1, 1913 [62]. And in the village of Kargalinskom of the Bogorodsk volost of the Tomsk County thanks to a constant sermon from an ambon and to private interviews in 1910

rural society signed a sentence that "secret sale of wine in the village was not and if such sale appears, then from guilty persons to take a penalty of 15 rubles for needs of church and for assistance to the poorest families" [63].

(To be continued) Arrived 02.03-2010

Gregory Carter
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