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Material and financial base of bodies of city self-departments in reform supporting time (on the example of the Ufa province).



l. R. Gabdrafikova

MATERIAL and FINANCIAL BAZ of BODIES of CITY SELF-DEPARTMENTS IN POST-REFORM TIME

(on the example of the Ufa province)

Work is presented by department of National history of the Bashkir state pedagogical university of M. Akmulla. The research supervisor - G.T. Obydennova

In article it is considered how bodies of city self-government in the first decades of reform of 1870 gradually strengthened the material and financial base: the quantity of the acquired city property increased, the rights of rent of farmstead and trade places were reconsidered, taxes on the auction and crafts, etc. were levied. The comparative analysis and systematization of expenses and income of the cities of the Ufa province is carried out.

The article touches upon the process of consolidation of city authorities’ material and financial resources in the first decades after the reform of 1870: amount of acquired city property was increasing, tenant rights for farms and trade places were being reconsidered, taxes on bidding and trade were being collected, etc. The author carries out a comparative analysis and systematization of spending and income of the cities of the Ufa province.

Bourgeois reforms of Alexander II introduced significant changes in municipal managing in the cities of the empire. City public banks were created, the capitals of the cities were multiplied, questions of land property were reconsidered. The question of material and financial base of bodies of city self-departments is represented to some of the zna-

chitelny because the available resources dictated the majority of undertakings and actions of municipal authorities of the cities. In the Ufa province besides the provincial center there were during this period five district cities where as well as in Ufa, in the 1870th the Gorodovy provision of 1870 is entered. Unlike territorial bodies the city municipalities were not

1 10

are spoiled by extensive land resources and serious property. Throughout all considered period (1870-1892) in the cities the industry poorly was developed.

The main financial documentation of the cities are paintings about income and expenses. On them it is possible to judge the real situation of the municipal public government, relationship with public authorities, priorities in city managing. Expenses and income not always strictly corresponded smete1.

The city earth served as a key indicator of independence of municipal units and gave them the special legal status. City lands leased or sold to citizens for building, if necessary and with payment by installments. Also the return operations when the city bought lands at individuals on the basis of the applications submitted to a justice took place. Besides, passed property and the earth as a result of failure to pay the corresponding taxes by owners into city property. Vygonny lands were in the basic in general use of citizens (pastures, the woods, a haymaking, arable lands, etc.), but certain sites were also leased under construction of industrial institutions, under building by housing, etc. The cities of the province had a land property in a miscellaneous sootnoshenii2. For example, Menzelinsk in 1884 had 9413 tithes of the earth, including 6898 tithes - arable. And in Zlatoust there was no vygonny earth at all. This city was the center of the mountain district, and all earth outside the city was under authority of the gornookruzh-ny administration. In 1878 the deputies petitioned for increase in city line at the expense of lands mountain vedomstva3. But it is ineffectual. Only in 1904 Zlatoust "was allocated with the earth" 4. At other district cities in the same 1884 the number of the vygonny earth it varyirirovatsya within 15002500 tithes. Obviously, city lands tended to growth. Considerable

the part of the city vygonny earth in Ufa was in possession of so-called soldier's society. Originally these lands were granted to the first military settlers of the city, in 1782 the earth turned into maintaining treasury. In 1857 the lands are allocated to retired soldiers of Ufa who formed separate society. By the end of the 1870th because retired military were ranked as other city estates, in soldier's society, large supplies of the free earth were formed. From now on vowels began to petition before the government for return of "soldier's lands" 5. Lands were returned only in 1897 6

The city earth for various reasons could be alienated in favor of the state. For example, in Ufa the part of lands was aloof in favor of local garrison for the device of the camp and a shooting range, in favor of retired soldat7 and also under building Samaro-Zlatoustovsky iron dorogi8.

The detaining growth of welfare of the cities, unauthorized capture city zemel9 was one of the most widespread phenomena. Often house owners lived illegally, without payment nalogov10. For fight against this phenomenon the special commissions were created, measures on stroitelstvu11 became tougher. At detection the illegal house owners redeemed unauthorized property from the city or the rent relations were established. Additional collectings from offenders were not provided. Also the lack of clumps - whose fortresses when purchase is recorded only private raspiskoy12 was considered as unauthorized capture.

In the first decades after city reform of 1870 the bodies of city self-government gradually strengthened the material and financial base: the quantity of the acquired city property increased, the rights of rent of farmstead and trade places were reconsidered. Played a serious role in strengthening of material resources of city self-government

state support. It serves as the evidence that the state was interested in normal development of municipal bodies. Besides constant trade places and other city imu-shchestvo, in formation of city budgets an important role was played by seasonal fairs. They passed in each city several times. Various taxes on the auction and crafts, estimated collecting on immovable imushchestvo were one more source of income of the cities. Among them were both obligatory, and optional. Estimated collecting from immovable imushchestvo was not big, but not all cities used this source of income. In 1873 the Ministries of Internal Affairs paid attention that "City Councils at limitation of the means excited petitions for establishment of the new collecting which is not provided by the Policeman situation meanwhile more than once did not establish at themselves one of the most radical city taxes" - estimated collecting from immovable imushchestv13. So in Sterlitamak till 1878 was not estimated sbora14. In Ufa in 1875 the new system of assessment was developed owing to what collecting from immovable imushchestvo increased a little. The amount of a property tax remained prezhnim15. The state buildings occupied with government agencies could not be subject to taxation; buildings of charitable and educational institutions if they are occupied with institutions, the property of persons of a ministry which is not bringing dokhoda16. For example, in Ufa in 1884 from 2921 real estates it was assessed with taxes 2451 zdaniye17. Besides, not all house owners regularly paid estimated collecting therefore shortages were an everyday occurrence.

A special type of municipal property were city public banks. They were inseparably linked with municipal economy. Banks functioned "under observation and responsibility of City Council" that was expressed first of all in election administrative

the device, annual verification of financial documentation and also urgent (once a month) and sudden audits of cash. From

10 up to 20% of net profit of bank it was deducted in the reserve capital, other funds were allocated for city needs (maintenance of schools, improvement, etc.). City public banks were in all cities, except Zlatoust. This fact very much upset inhabitants, in the city usury prospered. Their rates reached 120% that led to utter ruin of persons in need gorozhan18. Large damage to municipal economy and trade was bankruptcy of city bank in Sterlitamak in 1885 because of the mayor I.G. Nikerov who, using the high official position, took the large credits, without caring

about their timely return banku19. This phenomenon was not an exceptional case - in the 60-70th of the 19th century more than 50 city banks were closed in the country.

Despite above-mentioned sources of income and the property of the cities, the opinion about extremely poor city byudzhetakh20 was approved. Income and expenses of the provincial city and the district centers considerably differed from each other. But in general it is traced following tenden - a tion: despite the developed opinion on the fact that city budgets were scarce only two cities - Belebey and Zlatoust - fell short of the necessary balance (tab. 1). For example, as note vowels of Strelitamaksky City Council in 1882, in ten years of existence of public management "all appointed expenses were covered by income so that

The table 1 Average Quantity of Income and expenses from 1870 to 1892

City Income, rub Expenses, rub

Ufa 84,646-65 80,102-66

Sterlitamak 22,582-19 18,442 - 22

Belebey 10,371-41 12,615-44

Menzelinsk 44,571-50 38,811 - 78

Birsk 20,521-52 19,879-35

Silver-tongued orator 12,546-73 13,087-66

the deficiency was not to one of last years" 21.

the Contrast between income and expenses of the cities becomes more smoothed and clear at a ratio of average of income and expenses with the number of the population of the city (tab. 2). In all cities there was approximately identical ratio: in Ufa, Sterlitamak, Belebey, Birsk it was the share of one citizen expenses from 2.6 to 4 rubles. Menzelinsk - the city known all around for the fairs was the most safe financially. More poor economic development was gained by Zlatoust. As it was already noted, the city was deprived of one of the most important sources of income - the city earth. Scanty city budget was not joined to ever-increasing quantity of the population in any way.

Table 2

Income and expenses of the cities on one person

City Income, rub Expenses, rub

Ufa 3.12 3

Sterlitamak 3.3 2.6

Belebey 2.9 4.9

Menzelinsk 7.1 6.7

Birsk 4 3.8

Silver-tongued orator 0.8 0.5

All expenses of city self-managements can be united in several groups: 1) content of the most city self-government; 2) obligatory expenses (the maintenance of police, a fire wagon train, the prison lock, a military billeting, special assignments on the maintenance of the central departments); 3) improvement of the city; 4) expenses on national education; 5) social security (expenses on public contempt, the maintenance of almshouses, purchase of bread, a grant by the victim at the fires and wars, expenses on medical staff). Distribution of expenses in the district cities and provincial Ufa had no essential differences, but some distinctions nevertheless were observed. In the provincial center, considerable funds for improvement were spent. The main part of these sums from -

was found to the device and analysis of exhibition rooms. Also unlike the district centers in Ufa was more than so-called obligatory items of expenditure. It was caused also by administrative position of the city (big staff of police employees, provincial institutions, the prison lock), and need of the population (for example, continuous expansion of a fire wagon train). Obligatory expenses were not an innovation for City Councils. Since former times under the authority of the city there were such obligations to the state as the maintenance of police, prison, a military billeting. If before reform they borrowed to a half of the budget, then after 1870 the situation changed a little. According to a remark of one of the Ufa governors, city provinces of self-government are engaged in the structure of schools and pro-gymnasiums more willingly, avoiding objects, "directly carried by the law to obligations of city departments" 22. In counties the public contempt was a prerogative of zemstvo or individuals. At the same time in the district centers meet expenses not so peculiar to Ufa: for example, the maintenance of a petty-bourgeois justice or singing chorus at sobore23.

In the field of municipal finance of pre-revolutionary Russia was not any healthy locality, emphasize many issledovateli24. Nevertheless it is impossible to deny positive changes in municipal management of the cities. City lands and property were important sources of city income. It is necessary to notice that in building of city immovable imushchestvo the noticeable role was played also by the state support. After reform of 1870 some buildings were transferred to the jurisdiction of the city authorities. However city land grounds of the cities of the Ufa province did not differ in the big sizes therefore in revenues of the budget it was focused on rent of property, taxes, noticeable income were brought also by city banks. Absence

such credit establishment in some cities was reflected both in life of ordinary citizens, and on activity of city municipal bodies.

Seriously slowed down work of the city authorities of a shortage from outside of both tenants of city imushchestvo and lands, and simple house owners which for years did not pay estimated collecting. Unauthorized occupation of city lands remained one more illegal phenomenon. In a financial equivalent the facts of the last were not so large-scale, however also interfered with healthy economic development of the cities. Despite all these

negative points, in post-reform time the material and financial base of city public managements considerably increased: the number of city lands, city imushchestvo increased, the city rules regulating issues of trade were revised at this time city credit institutions and also other municipal property, for example, city slaughterhouses appeared. Thus, in the first post-reform decades the material and financial base for more effective development of social infrastructure of the cities was prepared.

1 The central state historical archive of the Republic of Bashkortostan (further - CGIA RB). T. I-11. Op. 1. 84. L. 65-about.
2 Statistics of land property and the inhabited places of the European Russia. Issue VI. SPb., 1884. Page 45.
3 TsGIA RB. T. I-11. Op. 1. 57. L. 191-192-about.
4 O.A. Polyanina. Bodies of city self-government of the Ufa province (1900 - the beginning of 1917). Ufa, 2006. Page 42.
5 An overview of the activities of the municipal government and position of municipal economy of Ufa from 1870 to 1881. Ufa, 1881. Page 72.
6 S.M. Vasilyev. Post-reform Ufa//From history of feudalism and capitalism in Bashkiria. Ufa, 1971. Page 186.
7 In the same place. Page 187.
8 TsGIA RB. T. I-11. Op. 1. 82. L. 200-about.
9 In the same place. 69. L. 183.
10 In the same place. 47. L. 44.
11 An overview of the activities of the municipal government and position of municipal economy of Ufa from 1870 to 1881. Ufa, 1881. Page 34; CGIA RB. T. I-11. Op. 1. 47. L. 134.
12 TsGIA RB. T. I-11. Op. 1. 68. L. 77.
13 In the same place. 42. L. 55.
14 In the same place. L. 56.
15 An overview of the activities of the municipal government and position of municipal economy of Ufa from 1870 to 1881. Ufa, 1881. Page 81.
16 I. Dityatin. Articles on stories of the Russian right. SPb., 1896. Page 264.
17 TsGIA RB. T. I-11. Op. 1. 75. L. 105-about.
18 In the same place. 57. L. 190-about.
19 In the same place. 49. L. 2.
20 CGIA RB. T. I-2. Op. 1. 15239. L. 14.
21 CGIA RB. T. I-11. Op. 1. 66. L. 108.
22 CGIA RB. T. I-2. Op. 1. 15243. L. 10-about.
23 CGIA RB. T. I-11. Op. 1. 60. L. 39-53; D. 53. L. 51-55-about.
24 L. L. Bases of municipal economy. M.; L., 1928. S. 403; G. Shreyder I. Nashe city

self-government. SPb., 1902. T. 1. Page 175.

Sarah Green
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