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Economic researches in Kaliningrad: on an edge of strategy of the accelerated development of bioresources of Atlantic (to the 50 anniversary of domestic sea economic researches)


UDC 332 (470.26)

V.V. Ivchenko


ON the EDGE of STRATEGY of the ACCELERATED DEVELOPMENT of BIORESOURCES of ATLANTIC (to the 50 anniversary of domestic sea economic researches)

It is told about domestic bioeconomic researches, the history of development of sea fishery in the USSR and also about a contribution of the Kaliningrad economists to development of fishing industry of the USSR and also participation of the Kaliningrad region in oceanic fishery.

The article deals with Russian bio-economic studies, history of sea-fishing development in the USSR. Special attention is given to the contribution of Kaliningrad scientists to the fishing industry development in the USSR as well as to the participation of the Kaliningrad region in the oceanic fishing.

During the post-war period up to 1991 the achievement of shower consumption of food fish products by the population of 17 — 18 kg a year for what a strategy of the accelerated rational development of fish and other resources in internal reservoirs of the country and in waters of the World Ocean was developed was one of the main social state objectives. Thanks to purposeful activity of the Government the country by 1991 achieved huge successes in production and processing of fish and seafood, having come to the second place in the world after Japan. In it the big historical role was played by such outstanding statesmen as Alexander Akimovich Ishkov and Vladimir Mikhaylovich Kamentsev, it is a lot of years heading the Ministry of fishing industry of the USSR and contributing to the powerful development of domestic sea and oceanic fishery. The big role was played in this activity also by the deputy minister of fishing industry, talented: the organizer of domestic marine science, in the past the director of AtlantNIRO institute in Kaliningrad — the doctor of geographical sciences, the academician VASKHNIL Sergey Aleksandrovich Studenetsky.

Now in media and even scientific articles opinions that development of the Soviet sea fishery those years went spontaneously, not in the necessary direction, without economic study that in many respects and served disorder of this powerful periodically appear


The RGU bulletin of I. Kant. 2007. Issue 5. Economy. Page 45 — 51.

industries after 1991. Such judgments or reflect ignorance of a situation at that time, or deliberately distort reality.

All dynamic period of development of sea fishery (1957 — 1990 years) was followed by wide-ranging economic studies in this industry which were a basis of the strategy of development of the Soviet fishery in the World Ocean. So, at the initiative of A.A. Ishkov in the late fifties of last century in the USSR are created: Gipro-rybflot institute (Leningrad) for the purpose of economic justification and design of modern harvesting vessels for various regions and objects of trade of the World Ocean; the Giprorybprom institute (Moscow) designed to prove and design economically the coastal enterprises including fish ports for fishing basins of the country; in Kaliningrad for design of the technology of production and processing of fish such large organizations as NPO Promrybolovstva and Tekhrybprom and also sea basin institutes where the economic research divisions are formed become stronger. The author of article in 1969 was sent to Moscow where he as the deputy director for science took active part in the organization of new Central Research and Development Institute of technical and economic researches and information (TsNIITEIRH) of fishing industry of the USSR.

In the Minrybkhoz of the USSR the permanent scientific and technical council which priority was a consideration of economic validity of any given projects was created: on construction of fishing fleet, development and placement on seaside regions of the country of sea fish ports and fish-processing enterprises, etc. At this time there is a rapid development of fishing industry of the Kaliningrad region focused on large-scale development of fish and other living resources of the Atlantic Ocean. From the very beginning all nodal solutions and projects of such development were followed by preliminary economic researches and technical and economic studies.

In the early fifties last century in Kaliningrad thanks to active efforts of the Doctor of Economics V.A. Murin the institute of BaltNIRO for providing with the researches in the field of a fishery source of raw materials in the basin of the Baltic Sea quickly developing domestic fishing industry of the Baltics is created. As a part of four first research laboratories one was economic. In 1954 — 1955 in fishing numbers of the country and the Government of the USSR the discussion was developed — whether it is necessary to develop in the ports of the Baltics on an equal basis with Murmansk seldyany the fleet for work in the regions of Atlantic? Answers were ambiguous as there were arguments and pros and cons. The staff of young laboratory of economic researches of BaltNIRO under the leadership of Candidate of Economic Sciences Marina Petrovna Eskova in 1957 conducted complex economic researches peredis-

locations from Murmansk to the ports of the Soviet Baltics, and first of all to Kaliningrad, parts of the seldyany fleet of CPT and PT. Results of researches were very proved and convincing. The government of the USSR made the decision on such re-deployment. Further work of this fleet in Northeast Atlantic confirmed high efficiency of this action. It was the first outstanding success of economic fishery researches.

Since 1960 the fishery fleet of Kaliningrad began to be replenished with the modern Tropic BMRT and RTM fishing vessels intensively. At high rates the coastal base of the fishing fleet — ports, fish factories, ship repair, fridges, etc. grew. Fishing vessels further and further went from ports of basing to the remote fishing areas of Atlantic. In work of the fleet the forwarding scheme of the organization of its activity was introduced that sharply increased the performance of work and allowed to master effectively fish resources in the most remote areas of the ocean. Somewhere at the end of 1961 — the beginning of 1962 I am invited to work in AtlantNIRO institute (before BaltNIRO) to a position of the head of the laboratory of economic researches by the new young director S.A. Studenetsky — future deputy minister of fishing industry of the USSR on science. From this point all my life for long thirty years was connected with scientific sea research of domestic fishing activities in the World Ocean.

There was 1962. The fishing fleet of Kaliningrad, having left to the remote fishing areas of Atlantic, faced a problem of reduction of the time spent of vessels directly on trade. The increased duration of transition of vessels to the remote areas of the ocean and back to the port sharply lowered their efficiency at limited terms of autonomous swimming. There was a serious obstacle in development of the remote sea areas rich with fish resources. In the course of heated discussions the famous specialist in industrial fishing Vadim Alekseyevich Bekarevich, the chief economist of one of the fishing Vladimir Abramovich Tep-litsky enterprises and other employees of the Fishery fleet of the Kaliningrad region put forward daring idea — not to return court to the port, and to replace with them crews in foreign ports. Thereby due to reduction of time for transitions to port the time spent of vessels on fishing and, respectively, catch of fish increased.

The principal organ of management of fishing industry of the Kaliningrad region which was called at that time as Baltrybtrest charged to laboratory of the economic researches AtlantNIRO to study and handle this issue comprehensively. Having started technical and economic study of a question, we tried to study first of all foreign experience. It turned out that on the Japanese mother ships plants the replacement sometimes practiced in the sea of some part of the crew occupied with heavy activity: ryboobrabotka and loading and unloading works. Also other interesting fact was elicited. In 1960 in KA -


the liforniysky university of the USA the project of whaling base with the atomic power station, with the displacement about 17 thousand tons and autonomy of swimming of 18 months was developed. At the same time it was supposed to replace team in the sea three times. However it were examples, specific and very remote from our task. Therefore our laboratory had to execute all complex of calculations and researches on determination of economic effect of replacement of BMRT and RTM crews of vessel "Tropic". They showed big effectiveness of this technology: catch by one vessel increased to 30%, the prime cost of ready fish products decreased by 5 — 6%, profit increased by 10 — 12%. Results of researches were transferred to the Minrybkhoz of the USSR. On them in 1963 — 1964 on the Northern basin (Murmansk) and at the fishing enterprises of the Baltics and Ukraine, experiments for further mass introduction of replacements of crews on the fleet were made. For the next years thanks to this progressive technology the Soviet sea fishery received millions of tons of additional catch of fish. Looking back for last years, one may say, that it was the powerful breakthrough of the Soviet fishery which provided it an opportunity effectively to develop the most remote fishing areas of the World Ocean.

In the next years the Soviet oceanic fishery developed fast speed. In this development the special place was allocated to Kaliningrad. In process of advance of the Kaliningrad fishery on vast open spaces of the Atlantic Ocean there were all new and new technical and economic problems, the range and structure of economic researches extended. For example, in 1963 between the USSR and the new independent Republic Cuba the strategic agreement in which there was point on creation in the last large Soviet base of the fishing SRT fleet for its work at the coast of North America — in trade areas banks Georges and Newfoundland is concluded. From department of fishing industry of the Central Committee of the CPSU (then the CPSU very attentively supervised fishing industry) and the Minrybkhoz of the USSR the categorical instruction arrived: to put aside all works and all forces to throw on scientific and practical economic researches of expediency of a re-deployment of a part of the seldyany fleet of SRT from Murmansk and the ports of the Baltics to Cuba. I had to develop urgently a technique of researches, to create several teams of scientific employees-economists and to dispatch them in the centers of basing of the fleet — Murmansk, Tallinn, Riga, Klaipeda — for collecting and the analysis of necessary data. Then we made the general economic justification on the basis of which the Minrybkhoz of the USSR made the decision on implementation of this project and the specification is given to Giprorybprom to design fishing base in Cuba. It is known that such base was created and successfully served domestic fishery many years. Thus, one may say, that economic researches in Kaliningrad always were, figuratively speaking on an edge of strategy of the accelerated development domestic fishery of bioresources of the Atlantic Ocean.

In 1964 to me suggested to pass into NGO of a promrybolovstvo, where to become the chief of newly established large department of technical and economic researches and the COMPUTER (TEI and COMPUTER). I agreed. This department conducted wide-ranging economic studies: on studying the new equipment and hydroacoustic rybopoiskovy equipment of sea fishery, creation of new research vessels, development of the feasibility study for organizational schemes of interaction of vessels hunters with unique "East" mother ships, techniques of application of systems of the SPU in work of the fleet and many other things. The big role in these researches was played by the engineer-economist Yu.A. Kalintsev.

On the place of the head of the laboratory AtlantNIRO I recommended the creative and active chief economist of one of the fishing enterprises of Vladimir Abramovich Teplitsky. The next years showed that I was not mistaken. He proved as the talented research associate and the head. Many years under its management became and forecasts of development of fishery complexes for the republics of the Soviet Baltics were successfully applied. It developed methodology of the accelerated depreciation and definition of optimum service life of heavy-tonnage fishing vessels. By 1991 he became one of recognized scientists-economists of the fish industry of the country.

In 1971 after the biennial business trip to Moscow I returned to AtlantNIRO where at first headed department, and since 1973 became the deputy director for scientific work (economic researches and information).

It is necessary to notice that economic fishery researches in Kaliningrad continued to extend and be diversified, answering "burning" problems of the industry. By 1975 in AtlantNIRO there were about six economic research divisions and computer center headed by highly qualified specialists: economic forecasting of development of the industry (edging. econ. sciences V.A. Toeplitz cue); pricings (edging. econ. L.V. Fedorov's sciences); the automated control system for the fleet on trade (V.N. Sedov); methodologies of planning of the enterprises (A.D. Burakov); the analysis of placement of the fleet on fishing areas (V.A. Bekarevich.); computer center (N.F. Paly). In these scientific divisions over 140 employees worked.

These years AtlantNIRO's economists-researchers were actively connected to developments of the international economic projects on fishery. In particular, they took part in developments of the feasibility study for national fishery of the Kingdom of Morocco, the republics of Sierra Leone, São Tomé, Prinsipi, etc. On scales and social and economic consequences the development of the feasibility study project of restoration and development of fishing industry of the young Republic of Angola was especially significant. In 1976 I was lucky to head and carry out on the coast of the country covered by civil war the largest in the second half of the XX century Soviet economical and geographical


an expedition across Africa. Us, group of experts of eight people, threw with plane on the South of Angola. From there — from the Cunene River in the south to the river of Cabinda in the north — we went an autonomous expedition under military cover of Cubans. Within three months the expedition took place 1700 km. 13 ports, 220 enterprises and 450 vessels of various types were surveyed. On the basis of collected information upon return to the USSR the feasibility study project of development of fishery was developed and transferred to the government of Angola that helped to overcome to this country hunger.

In the late sixties — the beginning of the 70th years of the XX century I was carried away by the idea of a research of synergism of economy and trade biology that further it was issued in the conventional scientific direction "bio-economic researches of the ocean". The main link in this direction — development of the theory and methodology of creation of the bio-economic inventory of the World Ocean was revealed. Within several years of researches this problem was substantially solved. By 1977 I achieved opening in AtlantNIRO the USSR's first laboratory of bio-economic researches of the ocean where within studying the bioeconomic inventory the difficult task was set — to develop methodology of economic assessment of living resources of the ocean on the principles of a differential rent. For the solution of this unique task the creative and purposeful research associate with extraordinary thinking was necessary. I managed to find such young economist, the graduate of the Kaliningrad technical institute of fishing industry Lidiya Semenovna Shekhovtseva. She showed uncommon qualities in many respects thanks to her talent and persistence we could develop and experimentally check a technique of economic assessment of fish resources of the ocean on the regions of Atlantic. Further she successfully defended on her the master's thesis in CEMI AS USSR and headed laboratory of bioeconomic researches.

Progress of bioeconomic researches of the ocean nominated Kaliningrad to the first place in the USSR in this most difficult sphere of sea scientific research. To me suggested to head in 1980 the Scientific and Advisory Council (SAC) at Academy of Sciences of the USSR and the Minrybkhoz of the USSR on economic problems of living resources of the hydrosphere which I directed before the collapse of the USSR in 1991. In 1980 — 1985 by results of researches a series of large monographs, in particular "Problems of the bioeconomic inventory of the World Ocean" was published in the central publishing houses. These books brought broad popularity in the scientific environment to the Kaliningrad economists-researchers in the USSR and abroad. So, in 1985 — 1986 the famous French researcher of oceans Jacques Yves Cousteau who corresponded with the author of this book became interested in results of researches on the bioeconomic inventory.

Unfortunately, unreasoned radical reforms of the beginning of the 90th years of last century brought down financing and sea economic fishery researches in Kaliningrad. It would be desirable to hope that at the present stage of revival of Russia these researches will gain new development together with growth of sea domestic fishing industry.

List of references

1. V.P. Anisimov, V.V. Ivchenko. Prospects of creation of the bioeconomic inventory of the Atlantic Ocean. Biological resources of the Atlantic Ocean. М: Science, 1986.
2. Bioeconomic researches of rational development of living resources of the hydrosphere / Sb. nauch. tr. Kaliningrad: AtlantNIRO, 1990.
3. Questions of economy of fishing industry: Sb. nauch. tr. / Under the editorship of S.A. Studenetsky. Kaliningrad: AtlantNIRO, 1963.
4. Yu.T. Glazunov, V.V. Ivchenko, Yu.A. Kalintsev, etc. Practice of use of a system of the SPU at the fishing enterprise / Under the editorship of V.V. Ivchenko. M.: Pishch. pry., 1971.
5. V.V. Ivchenko. What to be the strategy of revival of a sea fishing complex? / / Program and strategic development of the seaside region of Russia: Monograph. Kaliningrad: KGU publishing house, 2003.
6. It. About a technique of economic assessment of fish resources of oceanic fishery / Kaliningr. information center. Kaliningrad, 1969.
7. It. Problems of the bioeconomic inventory of the World Ocean: bases of the theory and methodology: Monograph. M.: Agropromizdat, 1985.
8. It. Economical and organizational problems of rational use of bioresources of the World Ocean: Monograph. M.: Pishch. pry., 1980.
9. V.V. Ivchenko, S.V. Savanovich, L.I. Perova, etc. Development of fishery in the open ocean: The monograph / Under the editorship of V.V. Ivchenko. Kaliningrad: Prince publishing house, 1989.
10. V.V. Ivchenko, V.N. Sedov, A.M. Bobkov. The automated control system for the fleet on trade: The monograph / Under the editorship of V.V. Ivchenko. Kaliningrad: AtlantNIRO, 1979.
11. V.V. Ivchenko, L.S. Shekhovtseva. Methodical recommendations about economic assessment of bioresources of the ocean by method of the closing expenses / Under the editorship of V.V. Ivchenko. Kaliningrad: AtlantNIRO, 1979.

About the author

V.V. Ivchenko is Dr. econ. sciences, the prof., RGU of I. Kant, ggsyepko@ajeg: that. gi


UDC 332 (470.26)

V.S. Bilchak, V.V. Ivchenko, V.N. Krasnokutsky


The contribution of professor Yu.S. Matochkin to creation and development of the first Free economic zone of Russia in the Kaliningrad region is described.

The article emphasizes Professor Yu. Matochkin&s contribution to the establishment and development of the Free Economic Zone in the Kaliningrad region, first free economic zone in Russia.

The RGU bulletin of I. Kant. 2007. Issue 5. Economy. Page 51 — 54.

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