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Priklonsky: from the royal official to the narodnichesky publicist



A big contribution to studying the North of Russia, including also the Olonets province, populists brought. The publicist Sergey Alekseyevich Priklonsky forgotten nowadays (1846-1886)1 was one of them.

He was born in Moscow in family of the priest of the Zachatyevsky maiden monastery Alexey Timofeev, in 1864 ended Bethany seminariyu2, and then completed a course at law department of the Moscow university. Having graduated from the university, came in July, 1869 on service to department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and served at first in Vladimir, and in August, 1870 it was caused on service to the Olonets province.

Priklonsky at first held small positions in Petrozavodsk, but gradually began to do successful career. In the summer of 1871 he fulfilled the whole month duties of the governor of office governor G.G. Grigoriev, in December, 1871 became the official of special instructions at the governor, in 1872 five weeks (in July and October) fulfilled duties of the governor of office of the governor. At last, in May, 1873 he was appointed the acting as the governor of office of the governor, and in March, 1874 - the governor of office gubernatora3.

Trips around the province were one of Priklonsky's duties. In 1871 he accompanied the governor on a trip around Povenetsky and Olonets counties, in June, 1872 was in a business trip in the Povenetsky county, from October, 1872 to February, 1873 in the Lodeynoye Pole County investigated abuses at preparation of the wood. In 1872 four times (in February, July and twice in August) it left with the governor to Pudozhsky, Kargopol-sky, Vytegra and Povenetsky Counties, having spent on the way in total about a month. In May, 1873 it accompanied the governor on a trip around the Vytegra and Kargopolsky Counties again. During these trips Priklonsky often carried out "confidential orders" of the governor probably connected with supervision of exiled. At the same time he quite freely could meet and meet exiled. This traveling gave him invaluable experience of acquaintance to life of local peasants and exiled.

According to one of his biographers Priklonsky carried out "the most part of the office period" in the Olonets province where "the local intellectuals are developed very little where there are only an ignorant peasantry and bureaucracy where it is possible therefore the strongest operation of weight and where all neobkhodimy active participation of administration to needs of the population", and there it "had an opportunity not to remain the indifferent viewer of operation and the predatoriness dominating in the region and as far as it was

in its forces, fought against the kulachestvo entangling the population" 4. According to other biographer, "he disclosed a lot of abuses in state forestry, than got to himself many enemies" 5.

Being not able to discredit office activity of Priklon-sky, local officials struck him a blow on the other hand: charged it with close acquaintance with political exiled. The fatal role in destiny Priklonskosh was played by his belonging to a circle of spouses Fid-rovsky because of what in May, 1879 he was dismissed from the post of the chief of staff of the Olonets governor, is put under supervision of police and you-nuyaeden was to leave Petrozavodsk.

The student of medical faculty of the Kiev university nobleman Mikhail Vasilyevich Fidrovsky, 24, in the middle of April, 1878 was sent together with two companions "as the main propagandist shown in March... disorders at the Kiev university" in Olonets guberniyu6. According to investigations on the cases of high treasons completed in May, 1880 it belonged to "party of young ukrainofil". By the place of the reference for three students it was defined On a wreath, there they were brought at the beginning of May. Waiting for sending to the place of the reference Fidrovsky addressed from Petrozavodsk with the application to the Minister of Internal Affairs with a request to allow it to come "to some territorial hospital the paramedic". When such permission was got, Fidrovsky addressed at the beginning of June, 1878 with the new application addressed to the governor "about the permission... to be engaged in a feldsherstvo at the Petrozavodsk city hospital" and about its translation "on residence to Petrozavodsk". The consent of the governor was received, and the provincial territorial justice because of absence at that moment of "free medical assistant's vacancies", agreed to allow Fidrovskosh "to occupation medical assistant's art" in the Petrozavodsk hospital "over the state, without salary".

In the middle of July Fidrovsky arrived in Petrozavodsk. By then he was already married to 24-year-old Elizabeth Stanislavovna Svitych. The wedding took place in Poventsa where she arrived from Mogilev where consisted under the supervision of police "for distribution of criminal promotion". In January, 1878 in Odessa her brother B.C. Svitych was involved in armed resistance of the group of revolutionaries directed by I.M. Kovalsky who arrived them to arrest to gendarmes. In June, 1878 Kovalsky was sentenced to death and shot, and Svitych received 8 years of a hard labor and till November, 1880 was in the solitary confinement of the New Belgorod convict central prison. Fidrovskaya appeared in Petrozavodsk under the supervision of police at once. In December, 1878 at Fidrovsky the son Grigory was born.

By the beginning of 1879 the financial position of family of Fidrovsky improved. In November, 1878 Fidrovsky received from the Ministry of Internal Affairs benefits of 36 rub 52 kopeks for purchase of winter clothes and footwear, since January 1, 1879 the zemstvo appointed to it for service in hospital a salary of 400 rub a year, and since February

The Ministry of Internal Affairs began to pay it 6 rub a month (15 kopeks of daily allowance and 1 rub 50 kopeks in a month of room), since September 27, 1878

At the end of February, 1879 in Petrozavodsk there arrived Pyotr Grigoryevich Zaichnevsky (1842-1896) - the famous revolutionary, the author of the well-known leaflet "Young Russia" written during the conclusion it in the Moscow prison in the spring of 1862. In the leaflet it was proclaimed that that day will come soon, "when under a red banner the revolutionaries will move on the Winter Palace. And if the imperial party uniting landowners, officials and merchants becomes on protection of the tsar, then the call "In axes", and then will be made... then beat without feeling sorry for imperial party as it does not feel sorry for us now... Remember that then who will be not with us, that will be against who against, that our enemy: and enemies should be exterminated in all ways". For carrying out in life of the program the revolutionary party "has to take dictatorship in the hands and not stop before anything". In the leaflet also "extermination" of family and marriage in their former form was proclaimed. Zaichnevsky's leaflet became the first program document of a political trend of "the Russian Jacobeans". A radical appeal to "bloody, relentless revolution which has to change considerably everything, one and all bases of modern society and ruin supporters of a present order" helped the authorities, and in the summer of 1862 under the influence of this leaflet repressive measures were taken. At the end of 1862 Zaichnevsky was sentenced to 2 years 8 months of penal servitude which term was reduced on confirmation to 1 year. Penal servitude he left in the Irkutsk province and in the same place in 1864-1868 lived on the settlement.

In February, 1869 Zaichnevsky returned to the European Russia and since 1873 lodged in the homeland, in Oryol. There he soon created a revolutionary circle of "eaglets" from grammar-school boys and grammar-school girls of high school. 7-8 people periodically gathered "in more secluded apartments", read Spencer, Mill with Chernyshevsky, Lassal, Marx, Lavrov's notes, studied the French revolution, the Commune of Paris, wrote referaty7.

In August, 1877 Zaichnevsky "was sent by the order of the Minister of Internal Affairs to the Olonets province from Oryol in view of an adverse effect on the local studying youth". The place of the reference for it defined the city of Povenets where the person under surveillance arrived on September 4. As many other exiled noblemen, Zaichnevsky received from the Ministry of Internal Affairs on the content of 6 rub a month (15 kopeks of daily allowance and 1 rub 50 kopeks in a month of room). The local district police officer gave it following the results of 1879 such characteristic: "Good behavior, life sober, it is respectful, in anything protivuzakonny and the secret intercourses it was not noticed, but reliability doubtful" 8. In May, 1878 Zaichnevsky got acquainted with Fidrovskimi. For certain not without participation of the last Zaichnevsky decided to be prepared for passing an examination on a rank of the paramedic and from February 28 to May 2, 1879 was in Petrozavodsk for passing of a practical training in local hospital.

The native of the Chernihiv province nobleman Dmitry Petrovich Silchevsky (1851 — 1919), subsequently the famous journalist and the bibliographer became one more active participants of a circle Fidrovsky. It was banished in On a wreath in February, 1877 by the order of the Minister of Internal Affairs "as the main responsible for the demonstration of political character staged at a ball in club of artists", but in July, 1877 was transferred to Petrozavodsk where "was engaged in a pismovodstvo" 9.

The first signal of existence of a circle of Fidrovsky arrived to the governor Grigoriev from the chief of Olonets provincial gendarme management colonel K.F. Kretkovsky on May 22, 1879. "On my observation of a way of life the persons banished in different cases to the Olonets province under supervision of police it turned out that the former student of the Kiev university Mikhail Fidrovsky... gives at itself in the apartment, in Koyander's house a brothel much consisting here as to the persons which are equally again sent under supervision of police and also some local young people and pupils arriving to vacation time where stay in conversations sometimes until late at night. Most often persons under surveillance Zaichnevsky (it is nowadays sent to Povenets) and Silchevsky visit Fidrovsky. Having accepted to observation, from the party, the measures ought behind this, but to get into society of these persons for everyone observing very difficult; meanwhile sumnitelno that, hardly these persons share between themselves in conversations good belief. And therefore in order to avoid the case able to vkorenit in this society harmful to the government a circle, I a circumstance it have honor to inform data of your excellency".

At the same time the report on Fidrovsky's circle arrived from Olonets provincial gendarme management to Minister of Internal Affairs L.S. Makov. In this regard in office of the minister "The note for memory" was made on May 24, 1879. "Data are received that the governor of office of the Olonets governor collegiate secretary Sergey Priklon-sky is in close relations with local persons under surveillance which often happen at it, and he saw to the first station of Pyotr Zaichnevsky sent to the city of Povenets recently. About it it was reported to the Olonets governor, but any measures it is not taken. To ask the governor" 10. The next day, May 25, Poppies sent a request to the Olonets governor Grigoriev with a request to confirm the above-stated data. In a week, June 3, Poppies sent to Grigoriev the encrypted telegram "Petrozavodsk, to the governor. I ask the prompt reply about orders according to my letter on May 25... about Priklonsky" 11.

Apparently, right after obtaining the report from gendarme management the governor Grigoriev called Priklonsky, explained current situation and suggested to leave service at own will. Priklonsky had no choice. Soon "Olonets provincial sheets" reported: "on May 23 the governor of office of the Olonets governor a stake -

the lezhsky secretary Priklonsky, according to the application, is dismissed from service in resignation" 12. In the conditions of repressions which ruling circles brought down on the country after attempt at Alexander II made on April 2, 1879 by a zemlevolets A.K. Solovyov the resignation became for Priklonsky quite light punishment. Possibly, Grigoriev wanted to hush up in such way the scandal threatening to it with considerable troubles.

Already on June 2 Grigoriev sent to Makov the report. "I have honor to report that the governor of my office collegiate secretary Priklonsky really was the sign with Fid-rovsky consisting under the supervision of police, Silchevsky and Vershinin and went to the country last May with Pyotr Zaichnevsky consisting also under the supervision of police what I immediately learned about, but the chief of gendarme management did not report about it to me, Priklonsky on May 23rd marked, according to his application, is retired by me from service and yesterday he left from Petrozavodsk to Moscow to the parents" 13.

Later the Petrozavodsk chief of police Belyaev informed the governor Grigoriev: "Now the apartment of the student Mikhail Fidrovsky consisting under the supervision of police in the city of Petrozavodsk is visited quite often from local Petrozavodsk inhabitants by the official of office of Olonets provincial excise management Gorlov, the pupil of a provincial gymnasium Shishiktorov, the forest warden Baptidanov and Silchevsky consisting under the supervision of police in Petrozavodsk. Visited before left nowadays Petrozavodsk the official Priklonsky studying in a local gymnasium the nobleman Gorecki and coming from the permission of the administration from Povents Zaichnevsky who is there under the supervision of police. There were in Fidrovsky's apartment also other police sent through Petrozavodsk under supervision to the Olonets province which were here very short time of the person. The purpose of visits by all these persons of the apartment of Fidrovsky, in a visible way, was only one acquaintance. Zaichnevsky at Fidrovsky during the stay in Petrozavodsk had for a payment for himself a table and therefore there was more often other" 14.

So, Fidrovsky' circle was opened by the Petrozavodsk gendarmes in April, 1879. The chief of Olonets provincial gendarme management immediately sent Zaichnevsky back in Povenets. Soon after that dismissal from service and departure from Petrozavodsk of Priklonsky took place. From documents it is possible to conclude that in Fidrovsky' circle a leading role was played by Zaichnevsky, and the circle was organized by the principle of the Oryol circle. Participation of grammar-school boys in it is especially indicative. Possibly, and the issues discussed at meetings of a circle of Fidrovsky were the same, as in a circle of "eaglets".

The Petrozavodsk authorities managed with members of a circle resolutely, but, it is necessary to recognize, softly. The note of June 13, 1879 made probably a hand of the governor Grigoriev without instructions of the addressee, but obra-remained

shchenny, apparently, to the chief of police. "The colonel Kretkovsky personally said to me that in view of need under the real political circumstances to strengthen supervision of exiled, meanwhile in Petrozavodsk there is a lot of studying youth and workers at the gun plant on whom Fidrovs-ky can have an adverse effect therefore it finds necessary to send it on residence to other counties of the province". In the same day the governor disposed to send Fidrovsky in Pudozh (most remote district center), and Silchevsky - in Povenets.

In September, 1880 under amnesty which is carried out by M.T. Loris-Melikov, Silchevsky was released from the povenetsky reference "with prohibition of entry into St. Petersburg". Fidrovskiye was also abandoned under amnesty of Pudozh, but secret supervision of police of them remained. Zaichnevsky in August, 1879 was sent from Povents to the Arkhangelsk province.

Close acquaintance with Fidrovskimi, the revolutionary Zaichnevsky, zhu a rnalist Silchevsky and other exiled resolutely turned Priklonsky's life. Their influence on it was so strong, and the relations with local officials so intense that he neglected further office career and undertook journalism. After dismissal from service according to the order of the Ministry of Internal Affairs for Priklonsky since July 22, 1879 the confidential police surveillance was established. Soon it left to Moscow.

In Petrozavodsk Priklonsky had interest in the history of the Olonets region. Using the official position, he studied the documents closed for researchers - archive of office of the Olonets governor and others. By the end of stay in Petrozavodsk it had the extensive local history archive which he took to Moscow. After Priklonsky's death several folders with its papers got to the famous researcher of Old Belief A.S. Prugavin and remained as a part of personal fund of Prugavin in RGALI. In the same place there were also its manuscripts of articles and sketches devoted to Old Belief. Possibly, the same selections of extracts from archival documents were made by Priklonsky and on other interesting his topics: history and the current state of the peasantry and country land tenure and land use in the Olonets province, stay in Petrozavodsk of G.R. Derzhavin and to others, but the fate of these materials is unknown. Thus, during stay in Petrozavodsk Priklonsky though did not publish almost any publicistic or local history work, but actively prepared for their writing. Using office opportunities, it managed to collect big and in many respects unique material on the history of the region.

Data on the Moscow period of life of Priklonsky were kept by V.A. Gilyarovsky. In article "The Moscow Newspapers in the 1880th Years" he wrote about life to Chernyshakh - rental rooms in the center of Moscow. "So numbers on Tver in Olsufyev's house, against Bryusov Lane were called... In top this is

the shah of these meblirashka I lived in 1882-1883, and near me there lived the writer M.I. Orfanov (Mishla). F.D. Nefedov, N.M. Astyrev, S.A. Priklonsky and G.I. Uspensky chewed here, and illegally stayed, spending the night at Mishl, at me, Pyotr Grigoryevich Zaichnevsky who then just came back from penal servitude, the author of the well-known leaflet of 1862 designing to go on the Winter Palace and to exterminate living there" 15.

In the book "Moscow and Muscovites" Gilyarovsky described it so: "S.A. Priklonsky, the author of the book "National Life in the North", harmonious and beautiful, with the person still fanned by recent polar storms of the Ledovity ocean smoked a cigarette behind a cigarette, continually shaking ashes from the curling fair-haired beard". Gilyarovsky also remembers that Priklonsky was the cheerful person able to notice amusing lines in ordinary life. He provided the following story by Priklonsky in the book "Moscow and Muscovites":

"Returned after two years of absence to Moscow yesterday. I go on Tver, still, as before was... Same two-storeyed yellow house of Filippov... The same gold kalatch over a door hangs... The same hotel of Shevaldyshev is near. Farther the same blue, with huge gold letters the sign over grocery shop: "Generals". Just over it the same size other old sign - "Photo", - well, say, everything, as well as was... From a distance these two large inscriptions only are also visible: "Photo"... "Generals". I read and as I will burst out laughing on all street! The people stop, and I look, I cannot come off. I look and laugh loudly. I read aloud "Photo" and "Generals" - and I laugh loudly.

"Hello, Sergey Alekseyevich. Whether long ago on this earth? Yes what is with you" - someone offers to me a hand. I look - my defender Plevako.

"Hello, Fedor Nikiforovich! Yes you look, read", - I pointed to an opposite wall.

"Well photo, well Generals..."

Suddenly his broad face blurred in a smile. The Kyrgyz slanting eyes laughed, and burst a laughter on all street.

The crowd was formed. Acquaintances approach, greet Plevako. Ask that it, and he raises both hands, one points a finger at one sign, to others - at another. All read and laugh loudly, looking at two big gilded pork heads boldly outstanding in the middle of a wall, just between the signs "Photo" and "Generals"" 16.

In Moscow the writer G.I. Uspensky, the lawyer F.N. Plevako, the narodnichesky writer and the publicist M.I. - Orfanov, the revolutionary man of the sixties P.G. Zaichnevsky and many other representatives of the liberal and narodnichesky movement entered Priklonsky's environment.

In 1879 Priklonsky's cooperation in the liberal newspaper "Russkiye Vedomosti" began. Right after departure from Petrozavodsk it published a series of essays there "From the North of Russia. Letters on the Olonets province" (1879. No. 331; 1880. No. 6, 17, 23.30, 46, 62, 66, 73, 111, 151), "In fight

with an animal" (1880. No. 167, 175, 190, 213), "Victims of war and Russian society" (1880. No. 174, 180, 184, 203), "Essays of administrative exile" (1880. No. 225,230,235,255,337; 1881. No. 56), "Polesniki and obirala" (1881. No. 165) and other materials. Some time it was a part of edition of "The Russian sheets".

Already contemporaries noted that at the heart of its works there were both own observations, and materials, "extracted by it from Olonets archives as, being in the crown service, Sergey Alekseyevich was not limited to administrative activity, and became with local community, statistics and the history of the region closely acquainted". "Letters from the Olonets province", according to one of biographers Priklonsky, "will be long memorable to all, interested in land tenure forms in Russia because besides the description of modern community, they comprise documents on the history of introduction of repartitions of the earth in the north" 17. Subsequently the "Letters from the Olonets province" which were originally published in "The Russian sheets" were published by him the separate book "National Life in the North" 18.

The book by Priklonsky "National life in the north" is remarkable from several points of view. Moved the author a keen interest in life of peasants of the Olonets province, hot aspiration to understand what represents and in what direction the northern peasantry evolves. Therefore it went from concrete material, from personal observations and the data collected by it on the place to generalizations and conclusions. At such approach the author is positive to cut, perceives rural rich men as the elite of country society which subordinated itself fellows villager not only economically but also "is moral", shows withdrawal as a way of fight with malozemely, etc.

Before arrival to the Olonets Province of Priklonsky lived in the Central Russia and could compare position of the peasantry there and in the north. Therefore in the book "National Life in the North" regional features of position of peasants are pronounced (often repeating lean years, extensive damage caused to country economy from constant attacks of wild animals, and others).

Narodnichesky views to which Priklonsky adhered were expressed in criticism of actions of the authorities and zemstvoes, attentive studying questions of country land tenure and land use at the positive relation to communal and negative - to personal land tenure, but only partly prevailed over its constructions. Though as the objective researcher he recognizes also those phenomena which did not keep within narodnichesky schemes (for example, stratification of community). Much attention paid in the book to development of rural school demonstrated gradual evolving of Priklonsky from radical to the liberal populism.

In the book "National Life in the North" Priklonsky managed to give a picture of position of peasants of the Olonets province, deep, detailed and independent of bureaucratic instances, in 1860-e-1870-e. Because of the

the book was forbidden oppositional orientation to the address in public libraries and public reading rooms. But a number of hosts of magazines placed on it extensive and in general positive retsenzii19.

The great public outcry was received also by a series of essays Priklonskosh in "The Russian sheets" - "Essays of administrative exile". Narodovolets S.A. Ivanov in the memoirs wrote about these essays, "the political administrative exiled devoted to the description of situation and in general orders of this reference", as about publications, "turned on themselves at the time general attention". Their publication was interrupted upon the demand of censorship.

In December, 1880 in Moscow the liberal newspaper "Zemstvo" began to be issued by group of territorial figures. Among the publicists who were constantly cooperating in it there was also Priklonsky: he conducted a weekly review of internal life. The newspaper printed articles in which the facts of impoverishment, decline of agriculture, low level of education, etc. were given. In one of numbers article "Hunger in the Olonets Province" was placed (1881. No. 33). After Alexander II's murder the newspaper received two cautions "for forbidden and unfair condemnation of activity of the persons holding important state positions" 20 and in July, 1882 was closed.

In 1880 in Moscow arose liberal narodnichesky the Russkaya Mysl magazine which "on the list of employees was the most interesting magazine of the 1880th years" 21. Soon in this ru rnat Priklonsky was invited. Preparation of one of the major sections - "internal reviews" which it conducted "about two years" was charged to it. Besides, it placed a number of the publicistic articles in "The Russian thought". His biographer wrote: "Publicistic articles of Priklonsky are selected from the mass of similar with fervor of tone and sincerity of belief... This fervor and sometimes sharpness of tone created to the dead many acceptable difficulties and was, kazhstsya, one of the reasons of an exit of Sergey Alekseyevich of the list of employees of "The Russian thought"" 22. S.A. Ivanov wrote about Priklonsky's cooperation in "The Russian thought" that he was "soul of this zhsurnal during the best time of its existence".

In 1883 the extensive essay of Priklonsky (published under the pseudonym "Lonsky") the "Derzhavin in Petrozavodsk" 23 was published in the zhsurnal "Russian Thought". This work differs from numerous works of both pre-revolutionary, and Soviet researchers of the biography of G.R Derzhavin in abhorrence to the poet. Priklonsky's essay was written in the conditions of bitter struggle of the liberal and narodnichesky intellectuals with throne. And in these conditions Derzhavin singing of Catherine II and her confidants, the participant of fight against E.I. Pugachev's revolt, the royal minister and the governor, was for liberals and populists one of symbols of hated throne, her faithful servant, a support and "Felitsa's singer". In the conditions of Alexander III's government when cruel acceptable rules worked, it was unsafe to criticize acting

ministers and governors. And the critic Derzhavin became in fact all system of autocracy veiled by criticism. Priklonsky tried, and not unsuccessfully, to give the objective assessment of activity of Derzhavin based on big actual material on a post of the governor of the Olonets province. Opposition political views of the author and probably his personal irritation against the colleagues forced it to exaggerate and add tendentiousness and a negative to the description of activity of the poet governor in Petrozavodsk. Now, when quite kind picture in the description of the state activity of Derzhavin dominates, Priklonsky's essay is read with a particular interest.

From the St. Petersburg editions Priklonsky cooperated in the Nedelya newspaper which was in the 1880th the edition liberal narodnicheskogo the directions. In "Week" it published article "Our Kulachestvo" (1884. No. 35) in which defended the idea of a minovaniye Russia of a capitalist phase of development. In quickly praveyushchy "Week" it was the last large narodnichesky publicist defending ee24.

S.A. Ivanov characterized value of journalism of Priklonsky for oppositional editions of the 1880th so: "Brisk or to tell more true, the serious, talented publicist, he was even more invaluable... as the rare expert on all Russian administrative car. Till 1880, that is before the emergence in a literary field, it long time served as the governor of office of the Olonets governor, and therefore with the Russian administrative orders was the sign to a subtlety. For literary work it left this position under influence... Zaichnevsky with whom he got acquainted in Petrozavodsk where Zaichnevsky lived in quality of the administrative exiled".

Cooperation in narodnichesky editions and acquaintance to Zaichnev-sky made big impact on Priklonsky's outlook and created to it the corresponding reputation. When S.A. Ivanov under the influence of Zaichnevsky intended to issue the illegal revolutionary newspaper for the general public, he decided to involve in Priklonsky's cooperation and did not make the wrong choice. S.A. Ivanov wrote that at a meeting with it Priklonsky "itself pointed to poverty of revolutionary literature in the direction stated by me above so in general it was possible to count on its consent to participate in the estimated newspaper for certain".

Priklonsky suddenly died on October 21, 1886 and was buried on the Vagankovo Cemetery.

1 Sergey Alekseyevich Priklonsky//Russian thought. 1886. No. 11; Sergey Alekseyevich Priklonsky//Historical bulletin. 1886. No. 12. Page 664-665; From S.A. Ivanov//Narodovoltsa's narodovolchesky memoirs of 80th and 90th. M, 1928. Page 27, 51, 52, 64; etc.
2 CGIA of Moscow. F.229. It. 5. 568. L.Pob.
3 National archive of the Republic of Karelia (HA PK). T. 2. Op. 68. 2237. L. 78-87ob.
4 Sergey Alekseyevich Priklonsky//Northern bulletin. 1886. No. 11. Page 1.
5 Sergey Alekseyevich Priklonsky//Historical bulletin. 1886. No. 12. Page 664.
6 HA PK. T. 1. Op. 10. 46/6. L. 1-386.
7 E.L. Rudnitskaya. "Society of national release" and its Russian communications (P.G. Zaichnevsky's circle)//Revolutionaries and liberals of Russia. M, 1990. Page 149-150.
8 F. NA RK 1. Op. 10. 54/114. L. 132ob.-133.
9 In the same place. L. 189ob.-190.
10 RGIA. T. 1282. Op.1. 561. L. 1.
11 In the same place. L. 3.
12 Olonets provincial sheets. 1879. July 2.
13 RGIA. T. 1282. Op.1. 561. L. 4.
14 HA PK. T. 1. Op. 10. 48/6. L. a 213a-213a about.
15 V Gilyarovsky And. The Moscow newspapers in the 1880th years/Past. 1925. No. 6. Page 127.
16 V Gilyarovsky And. Moscow and Muscovites. M, 1968. Page 420-422.
17 Sergey Alekseyevich Priklonsky//Northern bulletin. 1886. No. 11. Page 2.
18 Priklonsky S.A. National life in the north. M, 1884.
19 Business. 1884. No. 1. Page. the 2nd. Page 85-90; Domestic notes. 1884. No. 1. Page. the 2nd. Page 82-85; Bulletin of Europe. 1884. No. 2. Page 854-857.
20 I.P. Belokonsky. The territorial movement before formation of the People's Freedom Party//the Past. 1907. No. 4. Page 243.
21 B.I. Yesin. History of the Russian journalism of the 19th century. M, 1989. Page 185.
22 Sergey Alekseyevich Priklonsky//Northern bulletin. 1886. No. 11. Page 2.
23 S Priklonsky A. Derzhavin in Petrozavodsk//the Russian thought. 1883. No. 10. Page 175-212; No. 11. Page 235-265.
24 V.I. Kharlamov. Publicists of "Week" and formation liberal narodnicheskoy ideologies in the 70-80th years of the 19th century//Revolutionaries and liberals of Russia. Page 177.

I.A. Revin


Long time historians believed that to Dona "slavery reigned in full force, as well as in the central Russia and Ukraine. Peasants sold, changed for horses, hunting dogs, lost in cards and in general disposed of them as the integral property, live stock..." 1 At the same time the contribution of peasants to development of agriculture Donskoy oblasti2 was positively estimated. However the memoirs of peasants which reached us draw much more difficult picture, revealing social and economic, political and cultural processes through perception of peasants.

Barbra Elizabeth
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