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Ivan Platonovich kalyaev: terrorist murderer or fighter for freedom



Article is devoted to the analysis of views of a visible sotsiapista-revopyutsioner of I.P. Kalyaev. The author shows evolution of his ideological views: about the relation to terror, to the death penalty, about universal values, such as mercy.

The article is devoted to the analysis of views of a notable socialist-revolutionary I.P. Kaljaev. The author shows the evolution of his attitude towards a terror, death penalty, universal values, such as mercy.

revolutionary socialists, terrorism in pre-revolutionary Russia, the death penalty; socialist-revolutionaries, terrorism in pre-revolutionary Russia, death penalty.

On February 4 (on old style) 1905 Alexander II's son and the uncle of the emperor Nicholas II, the Moscow governor general, the prince Sergey Aleksandrovich Romanov came back to the residence on Tverskaya Street. When the carriage was in only several quarters from the house, the 27-year-old Social Revolutionary Ivan Kalyaev dressed for masking by the peasant threw a bomb in crew.

In the letter from prison Ivan Kalyaev will describe this murder: "I threw at distance of four steps, with running start, in an emphasis and saw how the carriage was broken off. I remember, in me pakhnut smoke and chips directly in the face. Then saw steps in five from himself, lumps of grand-ducal clothes and a naked body" 1 are closer to gate.

What pushed the young man on murder? Events took place at the beginning of the Russo-Japanese war when the Russian troops suffered one defeat behind another. In Russia, and especially in both capitals, the radical terrorist groups became more active. Ivan Kalyaev was one of representatives of such group also.

Data on I. Kalyaev's biography are rather poor. Some biographic details contain in its appeal in Senat2. Ivan Platonovich Kalyaev was born in 1877 in Warsaw where he studied in the Russian gymnasium. His mother was Pole, from impoverished shlyakhetsky family, the father — the Russian, police supervisor, from family of serfs. I.P. Kalyaev wrote about the father: "It was the person honest, did not take bribes and therefore we very much lived in misery". Already the grammar-school boy Kalyaev was interested in the ideas of the Polish Socialist Party. Kalyaev spent 1897/98 academic year at the Moscow university, and since 1898 studied at the St. Petersburg university. In the spring of 1899 he was arrested for participation in student's disorders and sent in Ekaterinoslav where adjoined social democrats. In 1902 entered the university in Lviv, but soon after that in MOSOLKIN Yaroslavl was arrested and sent again. There it entered a party of revolutionary socialists.

Sergey Fall of 1903 Kalyaev went abroad and became the member fighting orgavaleryeeich- "Since then till last day I looked for nization of the Party of Social Reforms a case to leave

the graduate student as the terrorist. My direct feelings in it nasaratovskigo board, my thoughts of need of this sort of actions

iosuditstveany ate the scandalous disasters which fell to lot of mine rotekhnichesky ------------the university

1 B.V. Savinkov. Memoirs of the terrorist. — M.: Thought, 1991, page 98.
2 The appeal of I.P. Kalyaev in the Senate//the Past, 1908, No. 7.

dynes. Abroad I tested with what contempt all Europeans treat Russian, precisely a name of Russian — a shameful name. And I could not but come to conclusion that the shame of my homeland, is terrible war external and war internal, this open union of the tsarist government with the enemy of the people — capitalism — is a consequence of that malicious policy which follows from century traditions of autocracy".

I. Kalyaev became the fanatic of terror against autocracy. He considered that terror is task number one before which all other problems of revolutionary fight fade. When the Central Committee of party of Social Revolutionaries publicly condemned terrorism in the parliamentary countries of Europe, I.P. Kalyaev said to B.V. Savinkov that he continues to believe in terror more, than in all parliaments of the world.

After murder of the grand duke I. Kalyaev was arrested. His defender M.L. Mandelstam had the view of terror and Kalyaev's fate: "Political murders were everywhere and always: Carnot, Kliveland. But where terror does not lean on general discontent, it decays on a root... The sedition which is not leaning on a distemper — a plot. The sedition finding the highest sanction in a distemper — revolutionary party. The government itself pushes people on terror. Kalyaev in the past the social democrat. Social democracy — the party recognized around the world, this great historical movement of our era. And only at us in Russia for belonging to Social Democratic Party of people fling in prison. Kalyaev was seized in Silesia and given to our government, arrested by it and let out with prohibition for five years to lodge in the most cultural cities. It goes abroad, there becomes the terrorist and returns to the fatherland the member of the fighting organization" 1. Thus, M.L. Mandelstam not only did not enter polemic with Kalyaev, but also acquitted him, treating his beliefs with respect.

For Kalyaev terror as revolutionary means came true itself what the terrorist murderer sacrificed himself. He said to E. Sazonov that he passionately would like to die on the spot pokushe1 M.L. Mandelstam. 1905 in political processes. Defender's notes. — M, 1931, page 253.

a niya, but that it would be even better to die on eshafote2. As the person called for self-sacrifice, the terrorist, according to Kalyaev, has to be clean in the private life. For it the fighting organization was something like "sanctuary", brotherhood of companions on business where murder of children is unacceptable.

Attempt at the grand duke had to be made on February 2, 1905 when he went on a performance to the Bolshoi Theatre. But also. Kalyaev, having already raised a hand to throw explosive, saw that not only Sergey Aleksandrovich, but also his wife, the grand duchess Elizaveta Fiodorovna, and children of the grand duke — Maria and Dmitry sits in the carriage. I.P. Kalyaev could not kill the woman and children and lowered a bomb. Subsequently the whole group of terrorists agreed with this decision.

In several days after murder of the grand duke — in the evening on February 7 — his widow, the grand duchess Elizaveta Fiodorovna, visited Kalyaev in Butyrsky prison. Motives of the grand duchess are unknown. Wrote to the seals that she nobly forgave the murderer of the husband and suggested to intercede for him before the tsar. The Eserovsky press declared that it is cunning maneuver from the government, nearly provokatsiya3. But we have no reasons to doubt that the grand duchess was deeply believing woman sincere in the desire to forgive the husband's murderer. It is clear also, as. Kalyaev rejected its offer on protection. In the story about an appointment with the grand duchess I. Kalyaev words did not tell that she suggested to intercede for it. He wrote that she told it: "I would like only that you knew that the grand duke forgave you that I will pray for you" 4 — and asked it to take from her "for memory" an icon. Kalyaev accepted an icon.

Subsequently, March 24, after publication in newspapers of the report on this date ("emergence in the seals of news of acceptance of an icon by me in lighting, tendentious and offensive for me"), I.P. Kalyaev wrote the open letter to the grand duchess. In this letter he claimed that he did not express any

2 Sazonov E.I.P. Kalyaev//Past, 1908, No. 7, page 33.
3 Revolutionary Russia, 1905, 64, page 15.
4 In the same place, No. 68, page 3-5.

repentances: "... I have nothing to regret as my conscience is pure... It was for me a recognition symbol from its party of my victory, a symbol of her gratitude to destiny for preservation of her life and repentance of her conscience for crimes of the grand duke".

The trial of Kalyaev took place at special presence of the Senate on April 5 the same year. Protected Kalyaev the barrister V.A. Zhdanov closely related to Social Revolutionaries supporting them and later, in 1907, sentenced to four years of a hard labor in the matter of social democrats, and the barrister M.L. Mandelstam. But all their efforts to save I.P. Kalyaev went to waste as nobody, including and the defendant, believed in the punishment which is not connected with deprivation of life.

Kalyaev wrote to companions the letter which was transferred to them it by the defender in court. "You know my beliefs and the power of my feelings — Kalyaev wrote in this letter — and let nobody grieve over my death. I gave all myself to business of fight for freedom of the working people... let and washing death my business crowns with purity of the idea.

To die for beliefs — means to call on fight, and whatever victims elimination of autocracy cost, I am firmly convinced that our generation will terminate with it forever. It will be a great celebration of socialism when before the Russian people the scope of new life, as well as before all who test the same century oppression of royal violence opens." 1

Trial of Kalyaev raised those questions on which and now there are no definite answers. The question of death penalty, first of all, belongs to them. Here what was stated about it in the speech by the defender M.L. Mandelstam: "say to the .ena that murder — always murder; that human life is the highest blessing on which nobody, neither the personality, nor society has the rights to encroach. There is a famous comedy show of a formula of arrest of the French police: — freedom name, I will arrest you. — The representative of the accusatory power in our process acts this way, for the sake of life value he demands death." 2

I.P. Kalyaev's identity is ambiguous as all events of those years are contradictory and ambiguous. One thing is clear, that historical events of that time make us think of eternal questions: terror and attitude towards him; need of the death penalty; at last, such universal values as mercy which the act of the grand duchess Elizaveta Fiodorovna who forgave the husband's murderer seems.

1 V.K. murder of Sergey Aleksandrovich by the sotsi-alistom-revolutionary I. Kalyaev. - M.: Modern problems, page 65-66.
2 In the same place, page 35.
Gervase Peter
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