The Science Work
Site is for sale:
Category: History

Agrarian reform in Dagestan in the second half of the 19th century.

 © 2004 of A.K. Halifayev


Agrarian reform in Dagestan was undertaken under direct influence of an abolition of serfdom in Russia in 1861. According to "Situation" of February 19, 1861, peasants acquired personal liberty and the right to dispose freely of the property. One of the main reasons of holding a land reform in Dagestan was not so much the beginning of a land reform in the central regions of Russia how many the fact that reform promoted more painless withdrawal of lands and their further redistribution at the discretion of the new government. However it not up to the end destroyed feudalism basis - land ownership, and only limited it. In Dagestan the country and land reforms were undertaken in the 60th of the 19th century partially, namely: in the Kumyk district, in the Prisulaksky naibstvo, in a shamkhalstvo Tarkovsky and the khanate Mekhtulinsky, without having concerned rait also parts feudal and dependent uzdeny in number of about 60 thousand persons. It is possible to refer social and economic changes which happened countrywide, and activization of the country movement to the factors which forced the government to undertake peasant reform in Dagestan. The developing capitalism of Russia demanded to adapt outskirts economy for bourgeois changes of the center. Except the economic reasons, the tsarist government under pressure of national performances was forced to recognize weight of position of the Dagestan peasants. The deputy informed the tsar: "The question of release of dependent estates became in such situation that it would be imprudent and careless to postpone its decision" [1]. But the solution of soslovnopozemelny questions in Dagestan dragged on in comparison with other regions of the country, and peasant reform in Dagestan was complete only in 1913

For the purpose of preparation and carrying out reform in Dagestan the class and land commissions which members, as a rule, were representatives of military and colonial administration were organized. In 1848 the Derbent commission on studying the class and land relations working till 1852, but without notable results was created. In addition a number of instances and officials dealt with the land questions: district court of Temir-Khan-Shurinskogo of the district, the Dagestan national court, the chief and the governor of the Dagestan area, the tsar's deputy in the Caucasus, council of deputies of the Caucasus, the commander-in-chief of a civil part in the Caucasus. More consistently the land reform was undertaken in the Kumyk district which administratively was in the second half of the 19th century a part of the Tersky region. Preparation of reform in the Kumyk district proceeded from 1860 to 1867. In 1860 the Kumyk committee on the rights personal was created "And land" for which the task was set "to bring into popularity all lands of the Kumyk land owners both disputable, and indisputable, to analyze disputes between owners and to define their personal rights" [2]. In 1863 with the organization of the class and land commission of the Tersky region the Kumyk committee was renamed into the Kumyk department of this commission which had to "lead to the agreement of land owners and the simple people concerning an apportionment to the population of sufficient space from lands possessory" [2, l. 682]. The commission established that "all earth is at princes and uzdeny, and the subject people for use of separate ugo-diya bear the duty determined by custom before owners", and defined that in the Kumyk district from 405,789 des. lands 386,422 des. belonged to feudal lords, and 19367 des. - to treasury [2, 10, l. 33].

In the same 1863 the class and land commission organized in Hasav-Yurte a meeting at which there were princes, on two entrusted peasants from each settlement and on one person of quarters of three main Kumyk settlements (Andrey aul, Aksay and Kostek), for discussion of a question of an apportionment to peasants of a part of the earth of feudal lords. At a five-day meeting in Hasav-Yurte planned three projects of investment of peasants with the earth: 1) land owners feudal lords decided to concede to peasants 1/3 earths; 2) peasants demanded 2/3 all earths; 3) the class and land commission suggested 2/5 lands to provide to peasants, and to leave 3/5 for feudal lords. Fight around three projects of investment of peasants with the earth yielded results not at once. Only on February 5, 1865 "with influential mediation" the chief of the Tersky region of the prince L. Melikov the statement signed by 61 land owners of allocation to peasants of a half of lands of feudal lords, and without repayment [2, by 12, l was drawn up. 151155]. Proceeding from the act of feudal lords of February 5, 1865, the earth allocated to peasants was considered as communal and was subject to the section between auls according to number of inhabitants. Especially made a reservation that reform does not extend to state lands which remained in the property of the state. Then the deputy of the Caucasus approved these rules on March 11, 1866 and through the Ministry of Defence presented to the Caucasian committee. Developed by the Caucasian administration and approved by the Caucasian committee "basis for the solution of a question of investment of peasants of the Kumyk district with the earth" were approved as Alexander II on November 12, 1867 and consisted in the following: "1. On the basis of the statement which is drawn up by the Kumyk land owners of February 5, 1865 to consider a half of all possessory lands subject to an apportionment to the people and to give to the population an opportunity to start a plot of this half. 2. Not to enter farmstead settled life of auls which has to depart to the people irrespective of a half apportionment to it other grounds into this calculation. 3. To announce to land owners that other half of the earth will be recognized behind them on

full authority of property with delivery to it on it appropriate documents. 4. To recognize the sites allocated to the people as public to divide these sites between auls, according to the population of each of them, and by the number of lands. 5. To leave all state lands at the full order of the government".

On the basis of the approved rules the soslovnopozemelny commission started carrying out reform. She made the draft of the partition of possessory lands and that is important "categorically solved disputes between owners because of the earth" [3]. The commission divided possessory lands into two half. Their half allocated to owners lands was transferred on full authority of property with execution of appropriate documents [4]. The deputy of the Caucasus in the instruction to the chief of the Tersky region of February 27/29, 1869 for No. 1232 allowed the Kumyk land owners to alienate the earth belonging to them [5]. The rights for possession of land grounds were in addition most highly confirmed by the emperor [6]. After reform for 166 feudal lords remained 184,396 des. For example, at the prince Temirov remained 23720 des., at princes Adzhamatov - 23720 des., at the prince Kazanalipov - 13,486 des., at princes Alibekov-11,378 des. etc. [2, 12, l. 241] The provided data demonstrate that bases of feudal land ownership remained and consequently, and unlimited opportunities for economic enslavement of the peasantry. Feudal lords actually had an opportunity to force peasants to bear duties and to pay taxes.

As for investment with the earth of peasants, unlike Russia in the Kumyk district the country plots were taken away not on "revizsky soul", and on smoke irrespective of of what number of members this smoke consisted, and the plot included comfortable and inconvenient lands. As a result of reform of 6844 country yards received 52% of all earth, and 166 yards of feudal lords - 48%, and the last the best part of the earth departed. Thus, on each feudal lord it was the share in 40 times more of the earth, than of country smoke. By the beginning of a land reform in the Kumyk district about 5297 smokes of Kumyks and 1517 smokes of nomads - Nogais were registered [7]. As a result of reform land rights of Nogais were violated most of all. According to the order of tsar's authorities, at them it was selected 175720 des. the best earth it is also given forever to three regiments of Tersky Cossack army. These lands were recognized as the nomad Nogai tribes which are not used for designated purpose. And the earth left to them was worse [8], it consisted almost only of pasturable sites. The tsarist government aspired to that feudal lords got the best lands, and inconvenient lands are saline soils, boggy places, sands - to peasants. The further course of events also showed that the inviolability of the property right of peasants was often broken. Osudarstvy the earth at mountain rural societies in favor of treasury, at that time was alienated

as feudal land use remained invariable. In documents of local peasants more often called the state poselyana.

The sites allocated to the people were recognized as public [10]. Legal entity to which the earth was allocated was the rural community. Country smokes received the land plots only in temporary use (the same as it was in great Russian provinces). The autocracy expected to provide with preservation of communal land use with its leveling beginning on the basis of mutual responsibility timely performance by peasants of the state duties and taxes. Peasants could not receive the passport and leave society while taxes or shortages were registered for them. As a matter of fact it led to enslaving of the peasant by "world".

By 1870 the separation of possessory lands from rural was complete. Disengagement of lands between rural societies actually was not carried out, it specified only temporary borders. The land question was not legislatively finally up to the end resolved. There were no concrete norms of land surveying, redistribution of the earth. The project of distribution of lands between rural societies of the Kumyk district made by the class and land commission in the 60th was not even approved by the higher authorities. 40 years later, in 1909 the chief of the Tersky region informed that "the design card" of distribution of lands between settlements of the former Kumyk district "is lost" [11].

Extremely serf nature of reform in the Kumyk district was shown in a question of discharge from a plot of peasants of other nationalities which moved on the Kumyk plane after the end of military operations in 1859. According to the instruction of the Caucasian administration, the rights to an allotment of 299 families of Chechens and Dagestan mountaineers (aukhovets, salatavets, etc.) and also 142 families of Mountain Jews were absolutely deprived [12]. Tsar's authorities, depriving of peasants of other nationalities of an allotment, most likely, pursued the aim to keep group of landless peasants whom feudal lords could enslave for certain.

Feature of peasant reform in the Kumyk district was the fact that unlike Russia here peasants received plots without repayment. With the end of disengagement of feudal and country lands the dependent attitudes of peasants towards feudal lords stopped. What to explain with that the tsarist government forcing the Russian peasants to pay unreasonably big redemption payments to landowners made an exception for the Kumyk peasants? The fact is that to force peasants to pay repayment to feudal lords for the lands which were occupied by the Kumyk feudal lords by means of royal officials for rather short period (second half of XVIII and the beginning of the 19th centuries) it was fraught with danger of a peasants uprising against a tsarism and local feudal lords.

In the Kumyk district as a result of peasant reform of 30 thousand peasants were exempted from execution of taxes and duties in favor of feudal lords. But this earth did not provide concerning their tolerable existence. Therefore they were forced to resort to rent of the possessory earth on crushing terms. However, undoubtedly, as the positive fact it is possible to recognize transition of Nogais after reform to settled life.

For permission of a class and land question in Tarkovsky a shamkhalstvo, the Mekhtulinsky khanate and the Prisulaksky naibstvo in 1864 the temporary commission which is consisting of royal officers, existed till 1870 was formed. In 1867 the Temirkhanshurinsky district was formed of the specified possession, in this regard the commission began to be called "The temporary commission for analysis of the personal and land rights of the population of the Temirkhanshurinsky district". Materials of the commission formed the basis of partial release of dependent peasants of the Temirkhanshurinsky district. In a note about establishment of the commission the chief of area of prince L.I. Melikov noted that recently there were many complaints: to the poselena complained of "the wrong increase" baddies of duties, of "constraint in use" by lands and water", bek - on "harassments poselyan" to appropriate possessory lands and evasion from duties. The commissions were entrusted to be "claimed" from a shamkhal and the khan, members of their childbirth - bek and chanka-bek of data on their personal and land rights and to make sure in fact the stated land rights and the possessory relations [13]. Results of work of the commission were the basis when determining the size of material security of the former possessors after elimination of autonomous possession. In the report of the commander-in-chief conducted. it was noted book by Mikhail that the commission of 1864 was engaged also in analysis of land disputes [13, of a 9-, l. 3]. Actually work of the commission generally came down to collecting of the slaves and feudal and dependent peasants and registration of the existing taxes and duties given about quantity in favor of feudal lords.

According to the commission, in three feudal possession there were 42 settlements with total amount of 13970 smokes from which peasants of 9 settlements making 3423 smokes did not leave obligatory duties to khans and baddies. Peasants of 33 settlements (10547 smokes) were in the obligatory dependent attitudes towards feudal lords [14].

Release of the peasants who were depending on feudal possession of a shamkhal and the khan was made on August 1, 1867 when the prince Melikov after announcement of the decree of the tsar on discharge from the power of a shamkhal and the Mekhtulinsky khan declared that peasants "become free from all duties and taxes, direct and indirect now" [15]. Elimination of the dependent relations was externally issued as voluntary refusal of possessors of the rights. As a result in three called possession the dependent relations of 4967 country smokes stopped. If to consider on average in five souls on smoke (local authorities at calculation of statistical data on the number of the population took this figure as average coefficient), then the number of the released peasants was about 25 thousand souls of both sexes.

The tsarist government made nothing to resolve the land question radically. During administrative transformations and release of a part of dependent country people the question of the land device, i.e. definition of the property rights to the land plots, their borders and the sizes, was not resolved. Disengagement of country lands from feudal, the size of the next-to-skin earth of peasants was not defined. The lands which were in use of peasants behind them were not formalized. Actually peasants had that number of the earth which was in their use before reform. All this was used by feudal lords for enslavement of country masses.

Unlike Tarkovsky's shamkhalstvo and the Mehta-linsky khanate in the Prisulaksky naibstvo from 30 thousand des. the princely earth peasants received without repayment about 14330 des. Other lands remained with Kazan-lipova. Besides, country lands were razmezhevana from possessory. As well as in the Kumyk district, peasants used lands on the communal right with periodic repartitions.

The tsarist government, having cancelled duties and taxes in favor of Tarkovsky's shamkhalstvo, the khanate of the Mekhtulinsky and Prisulaksky naibstvo, since 1867 imposed peasants with a podymny tax in treasury. The prince Melikov declared to Mekhtulinsko-go's peasants of the khanate that "from now on they are exempted from all duties and taxes what they bore till this time to the khan and chanka, with a duty to bring since 1867 in treasury a monetary tax in that quantity in what the other villages of Temir-Khan-Shurinskogo of the district which are not in any obligatory attitudes towards owners are laid over" [15, page 50-51].

Reform in this part of Dagestan was vague and inconsistent. The tsarist government for the purpose of strengthening of positions of the land aristocracy as social support did not extend peasant reform to the peasants who were depending on bek. If in 1867 were exempted from execution of feudal duties and taxes in favor of three listed possessors of 47% of their total number, then other country smokes in number of 53% remained depending on bek till 1913. Therefore it is impossible to claim that in 1867 all population was exempted from feudal duties and taxes.

Dagestan in general was the only region where considerable groups of peasants still remained in dependence of bek in the empire. The dependent relations rait also some uzdeny not only were not abolished in the 60th of the 19th century, and opposite, were legalized. Tsar's authorities in essence legalized the dependent relations of these groups of peasants by drawing up according to bek of instructions of taxes and duties of peasants in favor of feudal lords. These instructions

were officially approved as chiefs of districts and were distributed to peasants of dependent settlements. Within three weeks every Friday at an exit from mosques the representatives of local authorities read to peasants the list of taxes and duties to baddies. Thus, instructions got law force, for violation of their peasants subjected to strict measures of influence, sometimes beksky taxes collected from peasants by means of troops.

From the 60th of the 19th century to 1913 the rayata and dependent uzden persistently fought for the release. Their fight took place in different forms: individual and collective complaints, refusal of taxes and duties to baddies, causing any material damage by it (arsons of manors, fellings of the wood, murder of bek and members of their families, etc.). In the 90th of the 19th century and at the beginning of the 20th century the movement against bek reached the greatest scope. Peasants of villages. Yawls of the Samur district in 46 years (1851 - 1907) 43 times complained on bek to the military authorities, 14 times self-willedally ceased to leave beksky duties and 9 times rendered obvious disobedience to authorities which forced them to execution of beksky taxes. In 1859, 1861, 1883, 1905, 1907 the military authorities suppressed peasants uprisings by means of troops [16].

On June 21, 1869 Alexander II approved the structure of the Southern Dagestan class and land commission which had to prepare a question of investment with the earth of peasants of Kaytago-Tabasaransky, Kyurinsky and Samur districts. The assistant to the military chief of Southern Dagestan colonel Madatov was appointed the chairman of the commission, members - the lieutenant colonel Rychkov and the major Mombelli. According to instructions of the deputy conducted. book by Mikhail, work of the commission was divided into two periods: in the first it has to collect necessary data on the general system and the nature of the class and land rights and to make the draft of the provision on the land device, and in the second - to start permission of private disputes and complaints on the basis of the approved situation [17]. From the very beginning of work, statements for land disputes and requests for allocation of the land plots began to come to the commission. So, in January, 1871 the commission sorted the complaint of attorneys of residents of Terek-meysky villages that bek select the lands which are in public use and even myulk are the land plots which were earlier in "exclusive use" of the certain yards. Was decided to ask orders of the military chief of Southern Dagestan about the ban to baddies to select the lands which are in use poselyan "until definition of the commission", and to analyze the arisen disputes in district courts [17, l. 37 about. - 38, 41]. However consideration of land disputes in district and verbal courts most often confused them as the parties produced the contradictory evidence in the absence of uniform rules about the land relations.

In the course of work the commission in July, 1871 made a note about a class and land system of Kaytaga, in June, 1872 - the set of data on Northern

To Tabasaran, including the list of taxes, duties, requisitions and other income of the North Tabasaran bek, in December, 1872 is begun "poll of estates" of the Kyurinsky district about their class and land rights [17, l. 41 about., 59, 69]. The data collected by it differed in discrepancy, probably because bek and the poselena supplied with the opposite information on questions of possession of the earth and serving of duties. At last, fall of 1879 the commission developed "The draft of the provision on the land device poselyan Southern Dagestan" which discussion continued 4 years. By its drawing up the data collected by the commission and also the provision of May 14, 1870 on the land device state poselyan in the Transcaucasian provinces, the provision of November 8, 1870 on the land device of the population in the Sukhumi department were considered and, at last, governed on March 26, 1874 about the land device of the state peasants of the Stavropol province [17, of a 7-, l. 163-164]. The draft of the provision made by the commission divided the population of Southern Dagestan into 3 categories: 1) state to the poselena, installed on own lands (the poselena of "free societies", the poselena on the lands bought by them at bek purchase or in a different way); 2) state to the poselena, installed on beksky lands and the fixed duties leaving to baddies "time forever"; 3) state to the poselena, installed on state lands (inhabitants confiscated in 1877 from bek of settlements and the poselena of the being Kyurinsky khanate, villages of the Samur district). The project established that lands poselyan the first category are assigned to them in a private property; lands poselyan the second category, being in use of bek, poselyan and in their joint use, admit a private property of bek; lands poselyan the third category are considered as state property [17, of a 7-, l. 165-165 about.]. Thus, the project mainly fixed the interests of bek and recognized that the dependence poselyan from bek had land character.

However the project developed by the commission did not result in any results as the highest Caucasian administration rejected it. Due to the abolition of the Caucasian namestnichestvo (1882) and introduction of a position glavnonachalstvuyushchy a civil part in June, 1883. The southern Dagestan class and land commission was liquidated. Same year at glavnonachalstvuyushchy "The commission for the termination of a class and land question in parts of the Caucasian region of military and national management" was created [18] which began to work in Temir-Khan-Shura headed by the military governor of the region of book H.3. Chavchavadze as a part of his assistant to the colonel E.F. Tikhanov and the lieutenant colonel Simonov sent from Tiflis [19]. In the instruction from Tiflis it was specified that work of the commission has to consist of 2 periods - drawing up the draft of rules about the land device, and then permission of private disputes and complaints [19, l. 12-12 about.].

Special attention was paid to extensive correspondence on analysis of private land disputes. Apparently, activity of the commission on this instruction actually differed from work of the commission of 1869 a little. 15 years (1898) later the draft of the provision on the land device state poselyan the Dagestan area, the faces of the highest Muslim estate installed on lands and also which are depending on bek and societies" was developed ". Introduction to areas of the basic principles of the similar "Situation" operating since May 14, 1870 in the Transcaucasian provinces - Elizavetpolsky, Baku was provided in this project, Erivansky and Tiflisskaya's parts which slightly weakened feudal oppression, but did not abolish the dependent relations at all. This situation fixed lands in the property of possessors and established that to the poselena, continuing to use lands and grounds, leave for them "in favor of land owners" former duties" [20]. The draft of the provision taken as a basis was revised by the following amendments: for poselyan the norm of an allotment was not established, the plots which were at them actually at the time of adoption of the project were fixed in their use; appeared article about cancellation of duties, "not following from land use"; sections on replacement of natural duties monetary and about rules of carrying out redemption operations. So, the commission in 15 years of work did not come to a consensus about the nature of duties. The project of 1898 after discussion in Glavnonachalstvuyushchy's Council was sent to St. Petersburg for consideration in the Ministry of Defence and the Ministry of Internal Affairs. From the Ministry of Internal Affairs on the project serious remarks which consisted in the following were stated: situation needs to be extended not to two districts (the project concerned only Kaytago-Tabasaransky and Kyurinsky districts), and to all others, the earth should be provided to peasants not in use, and in property, the question of repayment can arise if the property right behind baddies, but not behind treasury is recognized. The project was returned to Tiflis for completion. Eventually this project, also as well as previous, was not approved, and the commission was liquidated. The hope of the rural societies forced to leave beksky duties for fair solution of the problem of land ownership various commissions, practically disappeared. Delay and finally failure of work of the next class and land commission was connected also with extremely difficult interlacing of norms of land use in various societies of Dagestan and with a contradiction to their general legislative establishments of the Russian Empire. The law on transfer of state lands of a system of military and national management to the order of the Ministry of the state imushchestvo was on June 14, 1888 one of attempts of the solution of a land question. Thereby the Russian government tried to resolve a land issue in the way "reckonings of all mountain population to the category state poselyan, installed on

state lands" [21]. But at discussion of the matter the State Council rejected the offer on recognition of the unconditional right of treasury for all lands of "military and national management", referring to the promises made by representatives of the higher authority about preservation for inhabitants of property rights. Also the position about recognition of these lands state was rejected on the ground that they "belong to nobody legally" - the mountain population cannot document the land right which is based on the adatny right and has no written law". The task to issue these rights "under the charters and laws" just was also assigned to the class and land commissions which had to "assimilate the activity the subdued parts" with the general system of the empire.

The question of preparation of reforms passed into office of the commander-in-chief on military national management. The solution of a land question received a new boost with restoration of a namestnichestvo (1905) and appointment of the count as the deputy I.I. Vorontsov-Dashkov who poselyan to baddies in the Dagestan area stated the point of view on origin of the dependent relations in 1907 in "the Vsepoddanneyshy note on management of the Caucasian edge". He supported "immediate cancellation" of the dependent relations poselyan to baddies which "cannot be tolerant further", causing disorders of the population. At the same time he considered it necessary to pay "certainly" to baddies a reward for the duties having the nature of "a payment for works on management" [22]. It is rather interesting to note that this point of view of the deputy was taken by Council of ministers of Russia which also recognized "as insistently necessary abolition of the dependent relations" peasants to baddies, "especially as the revolutionary promotion developing in the region found in serfdom remnants plentiful food for excitement of the peasants who in places absolutely stopped payment of the duties lying on them which should be collected by force by means of troops". Nicholas II with own hand wrote the instructions on the decision of Council of ministers: "I hope that the questions started by the deputy will get fast permission" [23].

In 1908 the deputy for "the fastest permission of the relations poselyan to baddies" formed in Tiflis "Special meeting" headed by the assistant by civil Part E. Vatanats as a part of ranks of management and podatny inspection with the assistance of representatives from bek. The convened meeting developed the plan of carrying out reform and decided that it is necessary to liquidate the dependent relations by "repayment of duties", and for this purpose it is required to define their types, the sizes and cost in terms of money. For the purpose of carrying out such work "The temporary regional commission" headed by the military governor of the region S. Volsky as a part of chiefs of all districts, podatny inspectors and with participation of representatives of interested parties (bek and peasants) was formed in Temir-Khan-Shura [24]. It is necessary

to note that the commission of 1908 worked more effectively, than the previous "land commissions". It made the detailed conclusion about origin and the modern provision of the dependent relations poselyan to baddies and also summary sheets which included the description of duties on each settlement with the translation them on monetary assessment and with the indication of bek - recipients of duties [24, 215, l. 19 about.-29]. At prices of duties the prices "averages for the last before 1908 five years" were used. Their monetary assessment, the redemption sum which was the 10-fold cost of the annual sum of duties and also the average amount of alleged annual payments of the certain yards in treasury at repayment of duties was given in the made table on each settlement of area where duties were left. It was noted that bek "expressed a wish" that the redemption sum was given them from treasury by cash and at a time. The commission estimated the total cost of annual duties on area at 30330 rubles 94 to., including at Temir-Khan-Shurinskom the district - at 6114 rubles 80 to., in Kaytago-Tabasaransky - at 18612 rubles 10 to., at Kyurinskom - at 4725 rubles 09 to., in Kazi-Kumukhsky - at 71 rivers 30 to., in Samur - at 635 rubles 65 to., in Avarian - at 72 rubles. The military governor Volsky regarded these figures as which are extremely moderated, not subject to further reduction [24, l. 19, 30-43 about.].

Besides cancellation of the dependent relations the legislative fixing of the rights of land owners in the Dagestan area was of great importance. At discussion of this question in Council of the deputy, offers on recognition of all land grounds poselyan were considered by the property of treasury. Council of the deputy noted that the offer to announce all lands of rural societies the property of treasury, and to equate inhabitants to the state peasants contradicts the developed land use order. It was specified in the decision of council that in Dagestan all locals (private owners and rural societies) have all rights of possession, use and order of the land plots on customs, but these rights are formally not affirmed by the Russian laws [24, 353, l. 153-155].

As a result of all discussions the office of the deputy prepared two bills - "About the Termination of the Dependent Relations Poselyan to Baddies and Keshke-lovladelets of the Dagestan Area and Zakatalsky District" and "About Land Management of the Population of the Dagestan Area and Zakatalsky District". The official Caucasian and St. Petersburg authorities after 44 years of work of various royal commissions in Dagestan reached a perfection limit in art of bureaucratic delays of tightening of the solution of a question of land management of Dagestan and release rait also feodalnozavisimy uzdeny. At last introduced two projects about land management and release of dependent peasants to the State Duma. Despite numerous discussions and completions, the bill "About the Earth — the Device of the Population of the Dagestan Area and Zakatalsky District" it was not approved by the State Duma. The essence of this project was in strengthening those lands which are in their valid possession behind rural societies, certain owners and mosques. Inconsistency of a question of land ownership was already traditional here.

On June 21, 1913 at a meeting of the State Duma by consideration of the bill of the termination of the dependent relations in the Dagestan area and the Zakatalsky district the speaker from the Duma commission deputy Kharlamov urged deputies to adopt the law in "a haste order" and to finish "the serfdom remains in the Caucasus which dragged on because of the Russian authorities so far" [25]. The bill was adopted in three discussions without debate, and on June 22, 1913 is approved in a final version. On July 7, 1913 the law "About the Termination of the Dependent Relations Poselyan the Dagestan Area and the Zakatal-sky District to Baddies and Keshkelovladelets and about Establishment in These Areas Establishment on Country Affairs" approved by the IV State Duma was approved by the emperor Nicholas II [26].

The termination of the dependent relations was regulated "By the rules about the termination of the dependent relations attached to the law poselyan the Dagestan area and the Zakatalsky district". Rules established (Article 1) that since January 1, 1913 all dependent to the poselena are exempted from left by them in favor of bek of duties. According to other document-application under the name "The Schedule of the Rewards for the Cancelled Duties Which Are Due to Baddies", to baddies the sum from treasury which peasants had to extinguish within 20 years was given at a time. The law created in Dagestan institute of world intermediaries in number of 20 people and the Dagestan presence, regional on poselyansky affairs, designed to implement reform. Presence was headed by the military governor with three assistants appointed the deputy. He made "Instruction" for work of all institutes connected with peasant reform. In "Rules about the termination of the dependent relations" was established that distribution of a reward to baddies, consideration of their statements and complaints, settlement of disputes concerning a reward is assigned to world intermediaries. It agrees the instruction approved by the deputy, the world intermediary specified in the decision: 1) the basis of issue of a reward to each person, including those baddies which were not brought in these commissions of 1908 and was put forward by "reasonable claims"; 2) the list of all bek between which the amount of remuneration, with the indication of a share of everyone is distributed. Becky, concordant with the decision of the intermediary, gave about it the receipt. Complaints to decisions of world intermediaries were considered by "Regional presence" in the 30-day time which, having more validity, could change the decision of the intermediary [27].

In November, 1913 the military governor of the region issued the order on distribution of positions of world intermediaries in districts: in Temir-Khan-Shurinskom the district 3 world poselyansky departments, in Dargwa - 2, in Kazi-Kumukhsky - 1, in Samur - 1, in Kyurinskom - 1, in Kaytago-Tabasaransky - 4, in Avarian - 1, in Gunibsky and Andi - on 2 [28] were created. Though in the Dargwa, Gunibsky and Andi districts of the dependent relations did not exist, in them positions of world intermediaries as it was planned to use them when holding a land reform were also established - world intermediaries had to "get acquainted close with local peculiar land and legal conditions and features of public and household way of the mountain population" [29]. On November 20, 1913 the first meeting of the Dagestan presence, regional on poselyansky affairs, which adopted necessary instructions for world intermediaries [30] took place. On April 21, 1914 the deputy published "The instruction about a contribution of a poselyanama of the Dagestan area and Zakatalsky district of extinctive payments and delivery to baddies and keshkelo-owners from treasury of a reward for the cancelled duties on the basis of rules about the termination of the dependent relations on July 7, 1913". By January 1, 1916 the Dagestan bek received from royal treasury 291271 rubles. And peasants had to repay this redemption amount annual contributions within 20 years, beginning since January 1, 1913 at once. As a result of peasants forced to redeem feudal duties in a tenfold size. In total peasants of 95 auls (13026 yards) with a total number of 70 thousand people were exempted from taxes and duties to baddies

It obra?

Maria Loreen
Other scientific works: