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The woman and the power in the Roman Empire: statement of a problem in aspect of methodology

e. E. Shekhovtsova


Work is presented by department of cultural science and journalism of the Yaroslavl state pedagogical university of Calendar day Ushinsky.

Research supervisors - the doctor of art criticism, professor T.S. Zlotnikova;

doctor of historical sciences, professor T.B. Perfilova

SGatya is devoted to a problem of use of category "gender" and tender methodology when studying the question "the woman and the power in the Roman Empire". The author comes to a conclusion that shout oomosh of this category it is possible to write "other" political story, having revealed attempts zhshshin to design the policy of the ancient Roman state.

The article focuses on the gender category and gender methodology as a means of studying the problem * A tim woman&s role in the political life of the Roman Empire. It is quite possible that such an approach aimed at describing women&s influence on the state politics and policy of the Roman Empire may even result in developing an alternative history of Ancient Rome.

A problem research "the woman and the power in the Roman Empire" has cross-disciplinary character that is connected, on the one hand, with need of identification of specifics of legal and social aspects of position of women of an elite layer for the Ancient world, on the other hand, with requirement of studying mechanisms of ensuring legitimacy of the power of the Roman empresses, their roles in spiritual life of the country and in the procedure of a succession to the throne.

It is known that any essentially new approach to scientific problems leans on new methods and ways of a research. In our situation a new way of a research is use of category "tender". However the difficulty is that the called category generally is used for studying modern society. It was offered by the English sociologist E. Oakley investigating a social perspective of a floor and distinguishing two concepts: "floor" - biological differences women's from men's and "gender" - sexual features, sexual

the roles acquired in process inkultu-2

radio sets.

Whether use of the category "gender" and tender methodology used for studying public disciplines for a problem research "the woman and the power in the Roman Empire" is possible? For the answer to the question posed it is necessary to analyze achievements of researchers in a scope of category "gender" for studying antiquity.

Tender researches draw attention of scientists more and more today. Though "the female subject" is present at the Russian and foreign historiography more than 200 years, only since the end of the 80th of the 20th century the long period of accumulation of the actual knowledge naturally was replaced perio-

house of their synthesis, creation of concepts.

At the same time works of this sort generally remain results of activity of loner researchers, but not groups

scientists and institutes. So, S. Blundell, having studied curricula of the universities of Great Britain for the history of Ancient Greece and Rome, came to a conclusion that at them the classes devoted to women in the history in 100% of cases are optional. Despite attempts of researchers to apply category "gender" to studying antiquity, there is only a small number of the universities where seriously investigate this problem: in Great Britain 12 higher education institutions from 28, in


Indicators are even lower than the USA. Student's conferences on a problem "Feminism and classics" to Cincinnati, Princeton, in the Universities of Southern California and Arizona on which use of category "gender" for studying antiquity was considered were for students the only opportunity to present results of the researches about application of feministic theories on ancient history.

J.P. Hollitt, the researcher from Maryland, studying Latin literature, came to a conclusion that, despite positive experience of use of category "gender" when studying antiquity, scientific discussions are irresponsive to researches of tender asymmetry and women's experience therefore scientists have to continue to develop new methods is-6


Perhaps, the reason of current situation consists in an androcentrizm - the deep cultural tradition reducing universal subjectivity to the uniform male norm represented as universal objectivity, at that time

as others of subjectivity represent -


sya as aberration.

Nevertheless for the analysis of a social order the foreign researchers try to give to the tender character so fundamental what already have categories "class" or "race". According to J. Kelly, the main reason for studying the public relations of floors - political. Orientation to tender methodology in Isto-


richesky knowledge assumes consideration of historical process through a prism of a tender perspective and reconstruction of the past proceeding from tender experience of any given era and means expansion to all areas of historical knowledge, consideration of all processes on the basis of gender and social paradigmy9. It, in turn, can lead to falling of androcentriche-sky vision of historical process.

Using tender methodology, it is possible to try not just to restore historical existence of the Roman empresses, but also to try to study historically developed relations of domination and submission between floors, the nature of the power and to prove L.P. Repina's assumption that the dominant position of men and inequality of floors is connected with functional division human

activity on private and public sfe-

ry and with replacement of women from the last.

It is known that in the Roman Empire the role of the woman was limited to family duties, education of children what, in particular, the characteristic given to the spouse of the emperor Augustus, Libya testifies to: "She observed sanctity of a home with ancient strictness... was passionately loving mother, the indulgent spouse and the good assistant in smart plans of the husband and in pretense to the son" & #34;.

Relying on situation J. Butler about

tender as phenomenon performatory and


carried out in the time i.e. created at the beginning of emergence of mankind which covered all spheres of life of men and women and divided between them execution of certain social roles, we can investigate the Roman empresses as bearers of the power, their quality as wives and mothers.

In real life the social norms and socialization do not create extremely courageous men and extremely womanly women. The psychologist S. Bem pointed that

the courage and femininity are not opposed each other: the person can have at the same time both courageous and womanly lines. Moreover, S. Bem assumes that it is even desirable to be androgenic, i.e. to incorporate the best of both sexual roley13.

In the history of the Roman Empire the women can carry empresses who managed to reach the power thanks to the male lines noticed in their characters still by antique authors to such An-droginnym.

In "Biographies of August" such characteristic of the empress Samso, Prokul's spouse as "the woman with occurs

14 and "

male character". "Set" of negative qualities of empresses at Svetoniya is very close to the corresponding characteristics of authors of "Biographies of August". The antique historian saw only the repellent parties of the identity of empresses: "imperious", "impetuous" 15.

The fate of the Roman world quite often was defined by women, not one empress ruled under a name of the husband, and quite many took part in upravle-


scientific research institute. Empresses Libya, Agrippina Mladshaya, Yulia Domna treat their number.

According to the theory developed by A. Igli, the majority of tender distinctions are products of the social roles supporting or suppressing difference in behavior of men and women. Social roles quite often bring to obrazova-


niya of social and tender stereotypes.

So, in the Roman Empire the positive characteristic is given to future empress Yulia who grew as the typical Roman girl: was engaged house rabo-

I 18 l

that, spun yarn with slaves. Antique

authors neutrally treat that some empresses were busy with literary activity, for example, Agrippina Mladshaya kept a diary. At the same time negative characteristic is given to the matrons who encroached on exclusively men's activity: To Agrippina

are invariable biological markings - they are socially designed and are made defined

types imperious strategy.

Thus, for studying diverse aspects of life of the Roman empresses the appeal to category "tender" is productive. The tender methodology allows to estimate the sociohistorical phenomena taking into account a floor factor, to disprove biological predefiniteness of acts of the person. The tender approach applied today based on the idea that not biological or physical differences between men and women, and cultural and social significance which society attaches to these distinctions are important gives to researchers the chance to write other political story and the history of the power, to see in it same-gender influence on another, to reveal attempts of women to send to the politician, even when formally they were discharged of it.

1 L.S. Vygotsky. Psychology/bus vstup. Article H. E.Bepakc. M.: EKSMO-Press publishing house, 2000. Page 539. V.I. Uspenskaya. Feministic criticism of modern sociological knowledge//Woman. History. Society: Sb. nauch. the article / Under a general edition of V.I. Uspenskaya. Issue 2. OGUP: Tver regional book and journal publishing house, 2002. Page 49.

N.L. Pushkareva. A problem of an institutionalization of tender approach in the system of historical sciences and historical education//Woman. History. Society: Sb. nauch. the article / Under a general edition of V.I. Uspenskaya. Issue 2. OGUP: Tver regional book and journal publishing house, 2002. Page 9.


of Blundell S. Gender: The Virtues and Vices of the Mainstream:

Skinner M. B. Gender and Diversity in Place: Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Feminism and Classics:

Hallett J. P. Response: Safe as Houses? The Politics and Discourse of Feminism and Classics: http:// of

Dictionary of tender terms / A.A. Denisova, etc.; Regional public organization "The East — the West. & Female Innovative Projects"; Under the editorship of A.A. Denisova. M.: Information -

The 21st century, 2002. Page 9.


J. Kelly. Social relations of floors and methodological value of history of women//Women. History. Society: Sb. nauch. the article / Under a general edition of V.I. Uspenskaya. Issue 2. OGUP: Tver regional book and journal publishing house, 2002. Page 39. & Dictionary of tender terms. Page 72.

L.P. Repina. A floor, the power and the concept of "the divided spheres": from history of women to tender history//Social sciences and the present. 2000. No. 4 Rlektronny resource]. - Access mode: of /013rEPINA.pdf

& #34; Cornelius Tucidide. Annals. Small works. History: In 2 t. / A.S. Bobovich Lane, G.S. Knabe. T. 1: Annals. Small works. the 2nd prod., stereot.; T. 2: History. the 2nd prod., ispr. and reslave. SPb.: Science, 1993. T. 1. Page 144.

Younger when it together with the emperor Claudius bypassed a military system in defiance of all customs, was present at reception of the Armenian ambassadors and tried to sit down on a throne near the son Nero, or Libya participating in fire extinguishing as all this was perceived as options of exclusively men's activity.

Therefore, positive or negative characteristic is given to empresses only for those actions which they carried out, but not for belonging to a female. According to T. Mack Dzhinna, a floor could not serve in Rome as assessment of women as second-rate citizens. Moreover, a floor was not uniform category of the status in Rome: because prostitute worthy women, and men who soiled themselves prostitution had no same status, as

or procurement, also lost a cart -


mozhnost of participation in political life. Tender markings of subjectivity not



Masterson M. Occluding (?) Lens: The Turn to Masculinity in Roman Studies: /


13 Bern highway Tender psychology. SPb.: p paradise of m - E V R O Z N A To, 2002. Page 71.
14 Lords of Rome: Biographies of the Roman emperors from Adrian to S. N Kondratyeva Diokletiana / Lane; Under the editorship of A.I. Dovatur. M.: Science, 1992. Page 315.
15 Svetony Mr. Trankvill. Life of twelve tsezary / the Lane from armor. L m. Gasparova; Predisl. and primech. M.L. Gasparova; Poslesl. M.L. Gasparova, E.M. Shtayerman. M.: However, 1991. Page 83.
16 Friedlander of l. Pictures from the household history of Rome during an era from Augustus until the end of a dynasty An-toninov//the General history of the European culture / Under the editorship of I.M. Grevs, etc. SPb.: Prod. Brockhaus - Efron, 1913. T. 4. Page 289.
11 Sh. Burn. Decree. soch. Page 104.
18 vipper of river yu. Essays of history of the Roman Empire (termination). Rome and early Christianity: Elite soch. In 2 t. Rostov N / D.: Phoenix, 1995. T. 2. Page 185.

& #34; Pavlov and. and., Yelizarova e. bb. The woman in antique Rome: review of some new foreign researches Rlektronny resource]. - Access mode: of 13.doc

10 zherebkin and. "Read my desire...". Postmodernism. Psychoanalysis. Feminism. M.: Ideya-Press, 2000. Page 37.
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