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Social values in the Bashkir society of the second half of the 16-18th centuries.

f. A. Shakurova


In a foreign and domestic kochevnikovedeniye the question of the system of social values and its transformation during transition of the nomadic population to a settled form of life support is poorly developed. Article is devoted to the analysis of the social values and requirements dominating at Bashkirs during integration into the structure of the Russian state.

The bibliography of the scientific works devoted to studying history and the culture of the nomadic people contains several thousands of names. The whole area of humanitarian scientific knowledge called a nomadizm, or a kochevnikovedeniye was created. During the modern period of development of the humanities there were necessary gnoseological prerequisites for development of problems of historical sociology of a kochevnichestvo, and, in particular, the questions connected with the system of social values and the nature of their changes during subsidence of the nomadic population.

Process of transformation of the requirements and values dominating at big group of the people of Eurasia can be tracked on the example of the Bashkir ethnos. The first attempt of approach to this subject was made by us in Articles "Mentality of the Nomad and Islam" and "To a Question of Historical Specifics of Urbanizatsionny Processes in the Nomadic World" 1.

In the first of them we considered the social and psychological reasons counteracting early introduction of Islam on Wednesday of the nomadic people of Eurasia in the second

>- historically proved the reasons of rather late acquisition by Bashkirs of the status of citizens.

Entry of the Bashkir lands into the structure of the Russian state in the second half of the 18th century had no precedent in world history. Long historical interaction included two different cultural worlds, two different civilizations. One of them was created in the conditions of a nomadic form of life support, another was generated by a settled form of existence.

The different form of life support gave rise to the different systems of values. The world of representations, needs and sociocultural values of Bashkirs strikingly differed from that which reigned in the Russian agricultural society.

The discrepancy of a system of values could not but become the reason of various collisions. The domestic historian of the end of the XIX century M.I. Semevsky noted: "Those numerous mistakes which did some from the general - and just governors Orenburg in them allegedly cares of the entrusted edge, in many respects resulted from small acquaintance to its history" 2. Meant all specifics of public life of Bashkirs by the history M.I. Semevsky.

The problem of a research of social values is closely connected with a question of social requirements. Requirements influence formation of the system of values dominating at specific ethnosociety during a certain historical period, though feedback can also take place.

Without being an expert in the field of the theory of requirements, the author of article makes bold to subdivide requirements into unconscious and realized. Similar klassi-

the fikation allows to see some specific features of mentality of the nomadic people enduring process of a sedentarization.

What requirements of the Bashkir society belonged to the category of unconscious requirements? It is, first of all, requirement in edinenii3. The need for a unification put in people by nature had significant effect on social behavior of masses.

Influence of natural need for a unification is found in aspiration of the Bashkir population to maintaining integrity of that potestarno-political structure (tribal organization) to which they belonged.

The theoretical provisions drafted by sotsiobiologa give the grounds for entering of some amendments into the theory of a question of origin of a tribal system. The researchers paying attention to the existing fact at the nomadic people of the tribal device were convinced that the breeding organizations were formed only because of low level of production. They coordinated emergence of tribes only to a need factor. Actually existence of associations of this kind was caused by the need for a unification.

The need for a unification which is initially put in people caused existence of such sotsioyestestvenny phenomenon as ability of human masses to self-organization and self-government.

Existence of the specified ability did optional the state forms of government by society. Thanks to existence of well developed self-government the Bashkirs did not feel the need for registration of own statehood.

This conclusion is validated by the latest theoretical material. Foreign and domestic researchers, relying on a huge number of historic facts, drew a conclusion that the state form of government is not society only necessary for ensuring normal activity of the population. They recognized existence of other evolutionary alternatives of social development, passing a gosudarstvoobrazovaniye stage. Researchers introduced also for scientific use the concept integrated soobshchestvo4.

Most likely, Bashkirs had such form of the organization of the population which with success replaced statehood. The need for self-defense was satisfied not at the expense of professional army which Bashkirs did not need, and thanks to existence universal military sluzhby5, resulting from the individual need to protect integrity of ethnosocial formations. Each adult man acted in a double form: and as the direct producer, and as the soldier. In turn, the absence of professional army did unnecessary a tax system...

In what spheres of public life the spiritual and biological need for a unification proved? It is found in tendency to joint labor and military actions. Let's remind in this regard that oblavny hunting, so popular and prestigious at the people of Eurasia, was made only by joint actions, and the most significant all people had a collective work.

Even presently joint work is perceived as a holiday, a celebration. It is especially noticeable in rural areas. For example, in the period of a haymaking when several families unite in uniform artel for joint carrying out haying works. The emotional lift felt by participants of a haymaking is shown in singing, jokes, draws and is raised - festive mood of all participating in collective work.

A spiritualizing of human masses collective labor process, their spiritual transformation during performance of joint actions finds the scientific explanation in

the fact that they most fully satisfy inherent in them by nature requirement in edinenii6.

The natural thirst for a unification proved also in requirement of collective experience. It was satisfied with joint holding weddings, funeral and festivals.

Especially strongly the specified requirement minutes of danger affected subconsciousness of masses. Any extreme situation promoted unity of the population. In the same place, where it was permanent, the human unity was shown especially considerably.

We will return to a question of the values dominating in the Bashkir society. Above we already noted the close dialectic connection existing between values and requirements.

In our opinion, the main social value was belonging to a certain community, that is to the tribal organization.

It was already said above that social needs of the nomadic people should be subdivided into conscious and extramental. We rank the need for entry into the structure of the tribal organization as the second group. Here it is necessary to carry that that we designated as freedom of travel.

The nomadic form of life support can be marked as managing by means of systematic movement. (And a prerequisite) successful managing the traficability on a certain space was the main condition.

In a concrete historical situation of HU1-HUSh of centuries the specified social value took the form of the right of Bashkirs for a kochevaniye within the collective volost ancestral lands.

The freedom of travel found the concrete embodiment in one custom. We called it the right for an otkochevka for borders of the collective volost ancestral lands, or the right of leaving the formal leader, i.e. the volost foreman or kantonno-go the chief. Cattle-farmers nomads had this traditional right always. It occurred also at Bashkirs. Judging by the remained written sources the Bashkirs widely had this right even after acquired the status of citizens of the Russian state.

In cases when Bashkirs came to discontent with actions of the immediate superiors - volost and yurtovy foremen, they acted from familiar spots and an otkochevyvala on the territory of other Bashkir volosts. This occurrence was everyday even in the middle of the 19th century. However the Bashkir tradition of free movement on space conflicted to the new social realities caused by entry of the Bashkir population into structure of Russia.

And already Bashkirs "from notable" demanded to impose the ban on this ancient nomadic custom. Foremen asked for the help the Russian government. They wanted the throne to forbid in the legislative way this tradition. Their desire was sounded in the Order given to the Laid Commission in 1774. In it the Bashkir foremen, complaining of the tribespeople, wrote: "Others for arbitrariness and fearless life deliberately show suspicion on foremen and depart to other foremen zhitelstvuyushchy in places, distant from them, and in that case without having over themselves to fear as consisting from team in a long distance, come to arbitrariness and fearlessness" 1. The Order from the Bashkir foremen given to the Laid Commission contained a request for suppression of similar actions. As we see, in destruction of the traditional right for an otkochevka, first of all, Bashkir "top" was interested, it is much more, than the Russian government administration.

We gave the concrete examples illustrating manifestation of need for free movement.

The freedom of travel acted as extramental value. Only with its loss the ordinary nomad cattle-farmer realized what he lost.

If the freedom of travel was provided with the conditions lying out of the person, then other value directly depended on him, and, more precisely, on his opportunities. On this basis we include it in number of the realized values, and we designate as ability to movement on space. In what here a difference?

The ability to movement on space depended on material, or economic opportunities of the individual. It was closely connected with a possibility of housekeeping as it was caused, finally, by successful managing.

On the other hand, the possibility of systematic movement created favorable conditions for a cattle pasture - the main wealth of nomads.

Issues of political economy of a kochevnichestvo are insufficiently handled in domestic obshchestvovedchesky science. Let's share some own reasons on the matter.

It is known that division of property on movable and immovable is characteristic of economy of the settled people. And the real estate made the much bigger value, than personal estate. It was a basis of economy in the conditions of a settled form of existence.

In societies with a nomadic form of life support the basis of economy was formed by personal estate, first of all the cattle and "кош". Initial value of the term "kosh"

>- a yurta for servants, or "an economic extension". Later the maintenance of this word extended. It began to act as an equivalent of the Russian concept economy.

In nomadic societies only the person having own (individual) economy had ability to movement. In the Bashkir society the status of the owner was extraordinary high. Not without reason the word "owner" had positive emotional coloring and was said with a shade of respect and respect. Cattle breeding all could have access to classes, but it was important to work at the same time not in foreign economy, and in own.

It was important, working, to be not the hired worker or the farm laborer (in this quality "tusnak", "yasyr" and "baygush" often acted), and the owner. Only the person which had the social status of the owner was able to afford to live and manage by means of movement. Not owner was doomed to settled life.

The hard fate of "ownerless" was aggravated also with the fact that with loss of ability to movement it turned into category of disabled people, lost "the civil rights" and was perceived by the tribespeople as the person of "the second grade".

So, the ability to movement on space acted as one more value of the Bashkir ethnosociety.

Possession of the status of the owner was of the next value of the Bashkir society. Unfortunately, the social category of the owner during the Soviet period of development of science remained outside attention of historians-social scientists. A priority of the collective beginning in lives of society, hypertrophied attention to collective farm and collective work, covered from scientists a figure independently managing subjekta8.

Certain methodological inaccuracies were allowed also when studying social essence of Bai. The long time of Bai was identified with feudal lords, ranking them as a class of exploiters. The term "bay" is traditionally translated as "the rich person, the rich man". However a concept the rich man does not disclose social and economic essence of the specified social group. In our opinion, as the Russian equivalent of the Turkic term "bay" it is necessary to use the concept "kind owner".

What the kind owner means? The outstanding domestic economist P.N. Savitsky offers to the specified phrase the following explanation: In the modern ordinary language "kind owner" is called good, zealous, "real" 9.

Thus, Bai is a kind, that is "real" owner. It is natural that Bai's status in the Bashkir society was quite high. The wealth was the certificate

economic enterprise, diligence, experience and sharpness as to keep the cattle - the main wealth of Bashkirs, in difficult conditions of a kochevnichestvo was difficult business.

So, among the social qualities, the most valuable from the point of view of society, it is possible to allocate successful managing which embodiment was Bai's figure.

Besides successful managing which consequence was one more significant value, namely: wealth / baylyk, two more states were especially significant in the nomadic environment. It is a batyrstvo and leadership. The social importance of both qualities entirely was defined by public requirements.

It is known what in the Bashkir society of specialized army did not exist. Function of defense fell on ordinary community members. They were direct producers and at the same time acted as soldiers. The double social essence imposed additional obligations on nomads cattle-farmers. One of them consisted in need to behave in good physical (and fighting) a form and to be ready at any time to reflect the enemy's impact. Those who got the batyr's rank were such. They stood general high in esteem and respect because were most demanded in nomadic society. If successful managing of individuals guaranteed to nomadic society continuation of life, then presence of the persons who had qualities of the batyr guaranteed them protection against infringement of life from the outside.

The third and most prestigious quality nomads had a leadership. It took the leading place in the system of vital values of nomads. Sources of the high status of leaders in nomadic societies are that the leader served as "the uniting uniform beginning" (K. Marx's expression). The fate of society depended on the correct actions of the leader, finally.

Thus, public requirements brought any given qualities which owing to the demand gained socially important character to life.

Recently in regional scientific and social and political literature the trend of exaggeration of a role of the city in life of the Bashkir ethnos was clearly designated. Let's raise in this regard the question of the relation of the pastoral people to a city way of life.

City life did not fit into that system of values which existed in nomadic societies. From the point of view of the nomad the city life is unnatural, likewise as the city is unnatural. The relation, similar, typical for the pastoral people, was expressed by the famous Nogai poet of the 15th century Aysan Kaygy. In one of the songs he questions:

"What in our century adequately pity?" - also answers a question so:

"The steppe covered with the white stone cities!"

The people conducting pastoral economy did not feel the need to live in the cities. City life was incompatible with all way of life of the Bashkirs living mainly at the expense of cattle breeding. Residence in the city demands settled life, for the nomad it is equivalent to death. Requirements of a year-round pasture of the cattle demanded from owners-skotovladeltsev of periodic and regular change of residence.

Messages pastoral economy, sitting in one place, it was impossible and it is almost impossible. At the forced long delay in the local territory the cattle was doomed to death. Suffered in this case not only the animals forming the basis of economy of Bashkirs also the earth suffered. At the forced stop the vegetable cover of the soil to the basis was eaten away by animals, vypasayemy on it, the earth was trodden and became unsuitable for the subsequent pasturage. Settled life, settled lifestyle, thus, it was unsuitable for cattle-farmers nomads.

And as life in the city meant and meant settled life, it could not but be in a conflict with those norms of life which were accepted at nomads.

They considered resettlement to the city on the permanent residence as vital accident. Transition of the nomad to residence to the city marked a number of the negative phenomena. First, most often it was caused by loss of own economy that already in itself was huge misfortune. The ruined members of ethno-society appeared in the city as "baygushy". They were employed for day or seasonal works, became farm laborers. The status of similar citizens was incommensurably below that status which was possessed by these persons when they lived in rural areas.

Other specific moment defining features of mentality of nomads concerns their relation to work of the farmer. From the point of view of the cattle-farmer nomad the plowman-farmer leads the life unworthy the real man. Besides he unworthy treats a horse.

The plowman, from the point of view of the nomad, is not capable to military work. It besides lost ability to movement. Already owing to the above-mentioned factors the cattle-farmers scornfully treated grain-growers.

The psychological rejection of agriculture peculiar to the Bashkirs who were a part of the Russian state is explained by the last circumstance. The Bashkirs who are actively forced by the Russian administration to agricultural classes very reluctantly left more prestigious for them pastoral work. Transition to agriculture was fairly perceived by them as the act leading to decrease in their social status. "Between the Bashkirs belonging to the Cossack estate the special attachment to agriculture is not noticed, - researchers of the nineteenth century noted, - only the extreme need forces them to address this trade... On the contrary, to cattle breeding and nomadic life, unseparable with them, on an old habit the Bashkirs kept former sympathies" 10.

We depicted contours of those sociocultural values which dominated in the Bashkir society during entry into the structure of the Russian state. Gradual integration of the Bashkir society into the Russian caused gradual change of a traditional system of values.

1 Shakurova, F.A. Mentalitet of the nomad and Islam//Ethnicity and confessional tradition in the Volga-Ural region of Russia. M, 1998. Page 85-91; it. To a question of historical specifics of urbanizatsionny processes in the nomadic world//City Bashkirs: problems of language and culture. Ufa, 2001. Page 106-110.
2 Semevsky, M.I. Bibliographic notes//Russian old times. 1891. March. Page 40.
3 The specified requirement was for the first time marked out foreign and otchestvenny-m of a sotsiobiologama and referred by them to category of biological requirements. See: Panov, E.N. Escape from loneliness. Individual and collective in the nature and in human society. M.: Azure, 2001. 640 pages It is known that the modern doctrine about requirements include different types of classifications. Requirements can be subdivided into biological and social, material and spiritual, individual and public. However the need for a unification found by foreign and domestic sotsiobiologa hardly keeps within the Procrustean bed of the existing qualifiers. It with identical success can be carried to all types of requirements. The author of the manual "Person and His Requirements" S.V. Orlov (SPb., 2006) emits two layers in material requirements: rather simple material biological requirements and more difficult - material social.

On a number of the general signs the need for a unification should be included in the category of material social. But it at the same time both individual, and public. At the same time, being by origin biological, it can be considered as spiritual need.

The question of the place of the specified need for the existing classifications which is brought up by us will demand additional researches. However already now with all definiteness it is possible to say that existence of biological need for a unification confirms the validity of the concept of complete, integrated human nature.

4 Alternative ways to a civilization / under the editorship of N.N. Kradin, A.V. Korotayev, D.M. Bondarenko, V.A. Lynsha. M.: Lagos, 2000. 368 pages
5 K. Marx wrote about the phenomenon of "universal slavery" inherent in east societies. However it was not slavery as the service was realized by all as need and was carried out quite voluntarily. In this regard we found it possible to use expression "universal military service".
6 We will afford small derogation from a subject. Recently in literature the trend of negative attitude to a role of the collectivist beginning in the history of human communities, including in the history of Russia is clearly shown. The feeling of collectivism is scornfully reduced to "herd instinct", regarded as sign of social backwardness. Detection of natural need of people for a unification gives strong reasons to consider similar negative assessment of collectivism of the deprived scientific basis.
7 TsGADA. T. 324 (The commission about the composition of the draft of the New Code). Op. 1. 103. Part 2. Item 215 and about.
8 See about it: Shakurova, F.A.K to a question of a ratio of the concepts "owner" and "owner" in relation to communal traditions of the people of the Eurasian world//Russia and the East: Traditional culture, ethnocultural and ethnosocial processes: Materials IV of the International scientific conference "Russia and East: interaction problems". Omsk, 1997. Page 33-35.
9 Savitsky, P.N. Hozyain and economy//Russia between Europe and Asia: Eurasian temptation. Anthology. M.: Science, 1993. Page 135.
10 Materials statistically, geography, history and ethnography of the Orenburg province. Orenburg, 1877. Issue I. Page 129.
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