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Students in the third Reich

 © 2005 E.A. Palamarchuk


Among Nazism problems which still wait for the complete solution in domestic science, perhaps, the priority place belongs to the analysis of youth policy of the national socialist mode. The monograph prepared at the beginning of the 90th of the 20th century by group of scientists of the Tomsk university under the leadership of N.S. Cherkasov [1] became the first attempt to consider this subject. Recently it gained a certain development in O.Yu. Plenkov and S.V. Kormilitsin [2]. However in one of works it is not told about the place of students in policy. Meanwhile the matter is represented more than relevant as among members of the neo-Nazi groups which were sharply becoming more active in modern Europe the considerable share is the share of high school youth.

In recent years the Weimar republic the universities much more, than other educational institutions, become a national socialism stronghold [3, page 264]. Besides hypersensibility of student's audience to the slogans about "stab in the back" and "the Versailles shame of the nation" which were a keynote of Nazi promotion, the last, in our opinion, spoke as a protest against the changes to the worst introduced in their situation by an economic crisis and inability of the last Weimar offices to cope with a situation, and opportunities, great in comparison with school students, for expression of this protest.

The highest party and state authorities of the third Reich setting the task of coverage total control of all age groups and categories of youth paid special attention to students as substantially experts with the higher education should become further conductors of national socialist policy, having held key posts in various government and party institutions.

Even at organizational registration of the National socialist German Labour Party (NSDAP) for the purpose of involvement of students under Nazism banners the 20th point of its program included the requirement "to undertake full reorganization... a national education system to give to each capable and hardworking German of advantage of the higher education and at the same time an opportunity to take the place in national leaders" and also granting "educational privileges for training of exceptional children of poor parents at the expense of the state, irrespective of their profession and class association" [4]. With establishment of Hitler's regime the implementation of the "Langemarka program" opening a possibility of receipt in the universities for the young people who did not have the certificate on the termination of high school - the entrant was begun. However since 1934 a number is entered

the restrictions considerably narrowing a circle of people which could count on obtaining the student ID card. And among the criteria which are been the basis for selection of entrants, the level of their knowledge was at all not on the first place: as an indispensable condition for entering a higher education institution there was a presence at the graduate of high school of the characteristic containing the conclusion about its suitability to receiving the higher education. Of course, not all had that. Besides, according to the statement of the management of the all-German organization German Students from

9 February and to the decree of the Reich Minister of internal affairs dated on April 21, 1934 all graduates of average educational institutions seeking for entering a higher education institution had to leave a labor service in the special camp. After its termination the "Notebook of a duty of the German students" granting them the right for transfer in a higher educational institution [5] was given by it. Besides these restrictive measures, in 1934 in the presence of 30 thousand entrants the quota for going to the universities in 15 thousand people was introduced. Actually on student's benches that year the village 11774 first-year students. It turned out to be consequence both demographic recession in the country, and designated at Nazis of decrease in prestigiousness of the higher education in general and humanitarian in particular (says about the last, for example, that fact that if during the period between the first and second world wars of 30% of student's youth fell to the share of philological faculties and their environment left the majority of teacher's frames for high schools, then in 1939 their number decreased to
10 %, and in 1941 - up to 5% [3, page 264]).

From now on the students had to submit to requirements of the most strict discipline. At the same time, as well as at high school, the priority in higher education institutions was given to physical training and formation of character to the detriment of the academic training. Already in the first issue of the magazine "Nemetsky Student" which began to be issued in the third Reich, the great value for new regime of the person of action in comparison with the detached observer was approved. This statement as follows was proved: to become in the future the judge, to the law student of rather two-semestrial studying the right. For it acquaintance to real life which practical work at the industrial enterprises or farms gave was considered as more important.

In this regard the labor service which was carried out to the period of semestrial vacation and calculated for 10 weeks [5] was also extended to students. The Reich Minister of science, formation and the culture of Rust in the performance before the first group of students of the Berlin university going to the camp of a labor service said on June 16, 1933: ". Truly big practical school you

you will not find there inside (at the university. - E.P.) or in gymnasiums, you will find it in camps of a labor service as there training and entertainments stop and action begins" [3, page 267]. "The one who fails in the camp, - the minister emphasized, - loses the right to operate Germany as the university graduate". Here it is appropriate to provide the statement of one of Nazi authors writing: "National socialism pulled out the German student from his isolation, gave it in hands a shovel and put it on a political front line of the labor camp" where it let and in the reduced scale should face the same problems which rise before its nation. "The labor camp is not the living room and salon not of high society; here life with all its difficulties and tension, with its shortcomings and nobility, take-off and falling, unpleasant and beautiful manifestations dominates. The balanced person is in integral reality" [6, page 394]. "Political soldiers in a uniform, - it was said in article mentioned above from "The German student", - will move to the universities. The intellectual is afraid of such barbarity, but the younger generation wants to return to the jungle" [6, page 378]. In the same expressions the address to students of professor-historian of the Hamburg university A. Rein which he made at the beginning of 1933 was sustained. "We, Germans, - he convinced, - long bore a nickname of barbarians as an honor symbol - in barbaric invasions during the Middle Ages when the German intellectual world magnificently blossomed; we were barbarians in Renaissance and in world war. Bismarck was nicknamed the barbarian. If revolution (Nazi. - E.P.) also call barbaric, means we know that we on a right way (Students reacted with a loud prolonged applause)" [6, page 381].

Even more remarkable, in our opinion, is the speech of the world famous philosopher M. Heidegger who became in the spring of the same year the rector of the University of Freiburg dated November, 1933 and containing a fair share of pathetics. "Your lives will not cope dogmas and the ideas. The Fuhrer, and only he one, now and in the future - reality of Germany and its law", - addressed it students. In the inaugural lecture in May, 1933 he proclaimed: "Repeatedly extolled academic freedom has to be expelled from the German universities as this freedom, being especially negative, was not original. It means, mainly, carelessness, capricious manifestation of intentions and tendencies, non-obligation. The concept of freedom of the German students returns to the original value now" from which "future obligations and duties of the German student will result. The first obligation - in relation to Community of the People... This obligation has to be strongly established and take root a labor service. The second obligation - in relation to honor and the fate of the nation among other nations - is connected with military service.

The third obligation of the student - a spiritual mission of the German people. These three obligations are obligations which stretched from the people to the fate of the nation in its spiritual mission, - all equally resulted from the German soul. Three services to which they give life, - labor service, military service and service of knowledge - equally obligatory and equivalent." [6, page 382-383].

Thus, and in Heidegger's speech reflecting an official position of the Nazi management despite statement of equivalence of the listed spheres of application of forces specified by category of the younger generation, mastering knowledge it is put on the last place. Consequences of similar policy in the sphere of the higher education did not keep themselves waiting long. Command of Wehrmacht noted at recruits "annual decrease in level of knowledge, abilities to think logically and to express itself logically" and also "inadequate knowledge of German in its oral and written forms". Besides, many young Germans directed in business and Wehrmacht where the university diploma was optional. In general the total number of students decreased from 128 thousand in 1931 - 1932 to 57 thousand in 1937-1938. Special losses were suffered by faculties of theology and the right. At the same time as opposed to program installations of national socialists there was a reduction of number of students from the middle and lower middle class whereas at the same time the number of young people whose parents had the higher education increased in high school audiences [6, page 396-397].

Achievement of unification of student's life in the third Reich has to be promoted by creation in 1933. National socialist German student's union. However, first most of students sought to keep freedom or gave preference to membership in numerous associations in this connection G. Sheel heading the imperial student's management expressed concern on the fact that students quite openly refused to join this organization "for the ideological reasons" [7, page 178]. However since April, 1934 the similar behavior began to be considered as incompatible with stay in higher education institution, membership in the union was announced obligatory for all students [8, page 165], and in 1936 happened violent merge still of the associations existing at that time to the National socialist German student's union [6, page 379, 395].

Acting through the last the authorities received quite effective instrument of daily control of student's life in the third Reich and disciplining of students allowing to direct thirst, characteristic of youth, for radicalism at the course set by the mode. For the purpose of elimination of any hindrances on this way in higher education institutions as well as in other organizations, it was purged from "undesirable elements". By the beginning of 1934 about 570 students underwent an exception for political motives. Some of the first under blow got

Jews. With acceptance on April 25, 1933. "The law against overflow of the German schools and universities" for the Jewish students the quota which made 1.5% that corresponded to a share of Jews among the population of the country in general was established. In some university cities the discriminatory measures against the Jewish student's youth were entered still earlier. So, on April 1, 1933 in day of carrying out national anti-Jewish boycott the members of the Hamburg office of the union achieved from the rector of the local university and the member of the city senate Ofter-dinger of decision-making to limit access for Jews to training at the university. They obtained the consent of the president of university administration on the fact that petitions of Jewish students for providing financial aid to them were not considered, and to Jewish teachers the professorial and associate professor's ranks were not given. Besides, students of the Jewish origin were regularly exposed from the "Aryan" peers to physical and moral humiliations. In November, 1938 after events of "crystal night" all Jewish students had to leave university walls [6, page 379; 9].

Students of the German higher education institutions took active part in persecution of racial and politically alien faculty. On April 19, 1933 the head of "the German students" G. Kruger instructed the local student's organizations to expose university Jewish teachers, communists and socialists and also those whose approach to teaching "reflects their liberal or in particular pacifistic orientation and who in this regard does not approach to train the German students in the nationalist state". Naturally, very often professors famous as strict examiners [6, page 378] became targets (the truth, according to some information, in 1933. The national socialist German student's union sometimes spoke out in defense of high school Jewish teachers [8, the most rare exceptions, some kind of costs, connected with the fact that the permissiveness concerning "non Aryans" did not become the general norm of life yet) were page 164], but it. In the first 12 months of national socialist domination 14.34% of all faculty members of the universities and 11% of professors were fired. Düsseldorf lost 50%, Berlin and Frankfurt am Main - on 32 everyone, Geldeyberg - over 24, Breslau - 22, Goettingen, Freiburg, Hamburg and Cologne - from 18 to 19% of the pedagogical shots. At the university of Kiel 28 representatives of professorate fell a victim of this campaign. Moreover, student's activists of fight for "purity of ranks" insisted on that further Jewish professors were allowed to publish the works only in the Jewish language, and employment of employees of the higher school was carried out only with the consent of students.

The situation and in other higher educational institutions was same. In the diary of the famous philologist Klemperer

On March 31, 1933 there was a record: ". The Dresden students made the statement today: & #34; Unanimously, having closed ranks .chest the German student does not allow us to deal with евреями". To Jews the entrance to the dormitory is closed. And how many Jewish money was spent a few years ago for its construction!

In Munich associate professors Jews are already forbidden to enter the building of the university" [10].

At the same time in strict accordance with laws of dramatic art of totalitarian regime the bans and repressions fell upon the printed materials which were not answering to ideological installations of Nazism. Students national socialists demanded withdrawal from university libraries of the textbooks and courses of lectures which were not causing in them trust owing to "unreliability" of their authors [3, page 266]. On May 10, 1933 there was an event which became history of Germany as "Day of burning of books" and reminded of the most gloomy times of inquisition. At the initiative of the National socialist German student's union on Berlin Franz-Josef - the parade-ground it was arranged grandiose to an auto-da-fe: students and other national socialists publicly burned down books by twenty four "undesirable and harmful" authors among which there were Karl Marx, Siegmund Freud, Stefan Zweig, Heinrich Mann, Erich Kestner (the last became an eyewitness occurring), etc. In the middle of this bacchanalia there was Goebbels and addressed the audience with inspiring speech, "added fuel to the fire". "The age of extreme intellectualism terminated now, and success of the German revolution paved the way to the German spirit again, - he loudly proclaimed. - You do a right cause, betraying spirit of last flame. It is the strong, great and symbolical act. The past lies on fire. The future rises from fire in our own hearts" [11].

The problem of control of formation at students of national socialist outlook also was substantially assigned to the National socialist German student's union. It is directly said about it in the whole series of the publications placed in 1935 in the second issue of the magazine "Narod V Stanovlenii" (edition of the last in general paid much attention to students problems). So, having specified that the solution of all questions connected with political and world outlook education of the German students, Gerhard Mener, the author of article "Political-education work in camps of training of NSG is transferred to the union (national socialist German. - E.P.) the student's union", noted that thus the student's union continued performance of that mission which at the previous stage was carried out by the Hitler Youth and a labor service. Work of the union, he wrote further, "promotes to create national socialist scientists who in the future will be able. to organize national socialist reasonable science". "The best form of world outlook education of the German student, - Mener continued, - it was shown in the training camp" as

the purpose of the union - in bringing up people, "who understand national socialism not only theoretically, but also live them in practice... Such people cannot be selected and brought up through reports and lectures., but only in true community which is reached only in friendly joint life and collaborations as it occurs in the camp of training where the law of team dominates" [12, page 95]. At the same time, Mener emphasized, the team is operated by the chief (Fuhrer) of the camp which is its part, sharing joy and suffering with the subordinates. Similar the camp functioned in vacation time. Besides "the mental training work" in them did sports and different types of work. The author of article gave as an example the camp of the student's union, acting during autumn vacation of 1934. Their inhabitants "collected a tree in forests, made small dry branches and boughs, connected them and loaded brushwood in trucks in which collected combustible material was transported to points of the organization & #34; winter помощи"", or assisted peasants neighboring villages in harvesting, "getting thus communication with country folksgenossen which became much more sincere, than that could be reached through the general meetings and holidays". Not the last role in unity of such students, according to Mener, was played by friendly evenings during which, gathering after hard day work at fires, all amicably sang old fighting songs of the Nazi movement, and the Fuhrer of the camp read fragments from national socialist literature [12, page 96-98].

The similar ideas are introduced by H. Kremer: "National socialism at the German higher schools needs team which is obsessed with consciousness of the social and national communications covering all nation possesses desire and force, scientific and cultural elements, statement of the purpose and a system in order that in strong self-education as appropriate to fulfill the general requirements." [13]. The chief of imperial service A. Derikhsvayler put on the first place a students debt before fater-landy: "We want to bring up guys who would not strike with the person in dirt in all spheres and in all life situations; those for whom the thought of the people and the fatherland is everything and for which life means only a duty and work", - he emphasized [14]. The head of racial and political management of NSDAP V. Gross wrote that the student's youth "has to... to be a bearer of spiritual fight for unity of a new image of the world", and for achievement of the objects set for it the mode it needs three virtues - "obedience and discipline of the inclusion in the people;. diligence and fidelity to the professional duties;... the hero and the fighter who clearly understands greatness of the fight and therefore loves it" and which scoops "from this love for great fight. force for a victory"

The provided statements had program character and do not need additional comments. The same requirements were imposed also to the youth studying in special educational institutions which status in the third Reich was officially raised. Need of it found justification at G. Moritts. The main difference between the last and higher education institutions, according to him, was that "the higher education institution is the venue of researches while the special educational institution transfers results of these researches to practical knowledge and transfers them to the pupils", at the same time, however, without forgetting also about carrying out "world outlook political education". Speaking about technical special schools, the author emphasized that their task consisted in attraction "to the national socialist state of efficient Fuhrers of the enterprises who understand the responsibility not only in relation to the enterprise, but also to the workers and to all people". Special schools in general, he claimed, "in the future will become places in which everyone capable to a folksgenossa will be able to get an education and on the basis of the increased achievements will find the right to become the Fuhrer of the suite" [16].

For realization of the tasks set for it the students, as well as youth in general, had to differ in excellent health. Within the Imperial Student's Business organization created by the law of November 2, 1934 (it united 64 imperial German higher schools and 51 local student's organizations), the student's service of health operating in all higher schools of Germany and existing only at the expense of student's contributions was formed. As H. Streit noted, were implementation of selection among entrants for the purpose of elimination within its competence not approaching on medical, racial and hygienic and hereditary and biological indicators; carrying out obligatory inspections of students, in particular, in connection with wide circulation of tuberculosis among them; creation of student's health insurance funds, care of patients, "insurance in case of accidents, political education of health and selection". Strictly following will of the Fuhrer demanding from the management of higher education institutions to pay attention "first on health, secondly, on development of character, thirdly, on endowments", Imperial Student's Business, the author of article emphasized, "closely cooperates with services in which the student has to prove the human and political position" - about the Hitler Youth, CA, CC, a labor service, a reykhsver, labor unions and the National socialist German student's union. The health insurance fund compensated to each of 100 thousand students nearly 70% of all expenses on treatment in case of a disease, at the average posemestrovy payment at a rate of six a reykhsmarok raised from each student. The same contributions to fund of insurance upon accidents made one reykhsmarka while compensation for damage at the expense of this fund could reach 20 thousand a reykhsmarok.

In addition, within Imperial Student's Business the loan cash desk which of funds if to trust Streit, long-term loans for total amount of 16 million a reykhsmarok were issued to 30 thousand students [17] worked.

Assuming that the figures specified by Streit are overestimated (such conclusion can be drawn from the propaganda nature of its publication) and without having an opportunity to check their reliability, we nevertheless see no strong reasons to call in question the fact of the similar support which was carried out by Nazis concerning that part of the students answering to official criteria of full value which was pressed for money.

The similar policy fully reflected the nature of the third Reich representing, in our opinion, a hybrid of the police and social state at obvious domination of the lines inherent in the first. The financial support appearing to certain circles of student's youth (including at the expense of contributions of students), certainly, was real. However it had the quite concrete price, allowing the authorities to corrupt student's community and thus it is even closer to tie it to the mode, and further - to integrate it into Community of the People.

the New mode initially declared negative attitude to the higher female education (according to leaders of national socialism, women had to give birth to children and be engaged in a household, without thinking of career). On April 25, 1933 for students the ten-percentage quota was established that brought into the pre-war period to sharp reduction of their quantity: from 18.5% the years preceding arrival of Nazis to the power up to 11.2% in 1939. The same Germans who could break through in number of "electees" had to, as well as their fellow students, besides mastering knowledge, undertake additional obligations in relation to a faterland. In article devoted to female higher education (1935), R. Genzekke wrote that "awareness of need to include each student to construction of the third Reich it. was in the center of the people, felt a part of the events in the people and promoted it", generated the requirement of creation in the German students of the main service for students. "Already throughout three semester, - she noted, - each student of a .okhvachen within the student's office plan which demands from it regular trainings by sport, cooperation in national socialist national charity, namely in the organization of "The winter help", intense training in air defense, first-aid treatment" [18].

From the beginning of World War II the number of male students for obvious reasons is reduced. Already on the planning meeting held by Goebbels on December 12, 1939 the minister instructed

"to dispose that the general release of medical students from military service was stopped" [19]. At the same time, in spite of the fact that continued to remind women of a Reich regularly of need to make a contribution to implementation of population policy (in 1943, for example, the gauleiter of Munich at a meeting with students of the local university expressed opinion that they should think not so much of study how many to give birth to children from the German soldiers that caused a storm of indignation of audience), quantitative ratio between men's and female student's youth changed in favor of the last. By 1944 women and the girls made nearly a half of all studying at the universities of a Reich [6, page 397].

Favorable conditions for receipt and training in higher education institutions of the military personnel who especially had fighting experience were at the same time created. Rust's instruction of April 20, 1941, with changes and additions of April 30 and on September 21, 1942, "to participants of the current war who want to study or intend to continue already begun study" tax benefits and monetary grants which sums were that more were provided, than more long the term of their military service was. At the same time special attention had to be paid to disabled veterans. In case of need, - it was said in the document, - participants of war can be encouraged during their study with in addition received privileges". It was at the same time emphasized that tax exemption extended to "the spouses and children who fell in the current war or participants of war, the dead owing to wound on military service" [20, l. 1]. Disabled veterans and also its participants whose term of a period of service was more than three and a half years of active duty from which at least two years were necessary for military years fell into the best state. They were completely exempted from payment for training. For other categories of the military personnel the following gradation was established: over two, two and a half, three years of active duty (from them in each of the listed cases respectively not less than half a year, years, one and a half years during the war) granted the right (in the same sequence) not to pay for a quarter, a half, three quarters of all or remained training period. Similar privileges were only provided to the same veterans who were already university graduates, but sought to continue the education, in case for this purpose there were serious reasons: need of receiving the corresponding profession or change of the last owing to the wound which resulted in disability [20, l. 1]. The rector of university to which such exempt went could cancel in coordination with the local student's Fuhrer release from payment in case of low progress or bad behavior of the last. Wives and children fallen in war or the dead owing to the wound got in it were granted the right of free education for the entire period of training [20, l. 1ob.].

War gave to the authorities a reason to raise a question of further reduction of a part of theological faculties. On March 6, 1940 Goebbels charged to Gutterer managing affairs of a reykhsministerstvo of national education and promotion to make the corresponding request in the ministry of national education, having proved it by the fact that "the number of students theologians at many universities does not correspond to number of teachers" [21]. It was reflection of the continuing efforts of the party and state instances of a Reich on weakening of influence of church to youth which became in wartime even more relevant: on instructing in Goebbels's ministry on July 31, 1940 Gutterer received from the chief the instruction to check information that a certain Potsdam priest afforded the following statement in one of sermons: "My God! Smiluysya over our youth which carries aimlessly out life". "In case it is the truth, - Goebbels emphasized, - Gutterer has to explain in the form which is not allowing doubt to the priest that in case of repetition of similar it is expected by a concentration camp" [22].

At the same time in the years of war, especially at its final stage the controls of students were forcedly temporarily loosened. The students arriving to a short-term holiday for study continuation remained under a military jurisdiction and were not obliged to follow orders of student's leaders in this connection did not show a special piety in relation to the National socialist German student's union. According to reports of SD, similar students preferred to indulge in pleasures of free private life, ignoring participation in meetings, party work and to volume similar actions. "After their long stay in severe conditions of military life they want to plan again independently own affairs, to devote themselves. to classes and independently to dispose of the time", - it was noted in one of such messages [7, page 179]. Many of students were dissatisfied with the extreme politicization of education which happened in the Nazi state caused decrease in educational standards [23]. However except for activity of the underground organization White Roza, a little noticeable opposition to the mode in the student's environment it was not observed. Students bulk orderly carried out the duties dictated by wartime. At the beginning of a winter semester of 1944 - 1945 of 54% of all students were called at the same time up for active duty. Same "lucky" whom the specified mobilization did not affect were expected by the battlefield. They should leave audiences and together with professors to join ranks of a folksshturm [7, page 180].

In general it should be noted that Nazis managed to rally an overwhelming part of students,

as well as youth in general, around the system of values imposed to it, having generated at it feeling of participation to "great making" of history (irrespective of whether there was a speech about a labor or military service, prosecution of Jews and dissidents, justification of military expansion) and having forced to follow the set reference points up to agonal spasms of a Reich.


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19. RGVA, t. 1363, o^ 3, 3, l. 10.
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21. RGVA, t. 1363, o^ 3, 6, l. 6.
22. In the same place, 10, l. 44.
23. Kater M.H. The Nazi Party. A Social Profile of Members and Leaders, 1919-1945. Cambridge; Massachusetts, 1983. P. 99.

Institute of management, business and right

On November 3, 2004

Dean Ramirez
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