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Physical training of the population to protection of the Homeland in 1946-1991: some historiographic aspects

s. V. Galdobina



The historiographic research of a problem of military-political education shows that one of its main directions in 1946-1991 mentioned in works of social scientists was physical training of the population, education of strong, hardy and healthy defenders of the Fatherland.

The great influence on activization of development of a problem was had accepted during the studied period of the resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR. Leaning on the being available methodological base and the actual material, the Soviet scientists-social scientists, practice of military-patriotic education defined internal structure of physical training of citizens in a perspective of military-patriotic work in considered periode1. Important elements were here: a) military and applied sports; b) military and technical types sporta2; c) various military and sports circles and sections; d) various reviews examinations on physical and military and technical podgotovke3; e) voyennosportivny games "Summer Lightning" and "Eaglet" 4; e) defensive and sports (voyennosportivny) lagerya5; g) the championship of the country in GTO all-round on prizes of the Komsomolskaya Pravda newspaper 6.

Studying a condition of development of issues of military-patriotic education shows: the problem of activity of the guide of the state and public organizations to development of physical education, sport drew great attention of researchers.

A certain contribution to development of this problem was made by works H. B.


Pechersky, G.S. Kirakozov. In them experience on formation and development of the sports movement in the USSR to the middle of the 70th is analyzed and generalized. However in noted works the content of activities of public authorities and public organizations for physical training of the population to protection of the Homeland, and youth did not find reflection - to service in Armed Forces. Separate aspects of a question reveal in the researches devoted the figure -

Nosta of the Soviet, Komsomol, defense organizations and bodies zdravookhraneniya8.

These problems found reflection in E.V. Astakhova, V.N. Vesterov-sky, A.V. Klykov, K.L. Artyomov's works. A.V. Klykov, for example, showed work of various public organizations of Leningrad on training of youth for military service in one of sections of the thesis. At the same time he noted that during this work the double problem was solved: on the one hand, the general and special qualities of young men necessary for all-physical endurance developed, and with another - high moral and political qualities of the future war were cultivated, i.e. the close unity of the directions military-patriotic vospitaniya9 is shown. In the brochure by K.L. Artemova10 the author essentially approached illumination of the main shortcomings of physical training of recruits, opening of the reasons which generated costs in this work of various state and public organizations. Following new trends of the second half of the 80th, the author made attempt to show ways of elimination of the negative phenomena in this extremely important issue.

In our opinion, it is necessary to refer to honor of the authors called above that their works are the first attempts of the new relation according to questions in the field of education of the population of the USSR in the studied years.

In development at citizens of force and endurance, dexterity and resourcefulness, courage it is told about value of physical education and sport in the collections published by various publishing houses and posobiyakh11.

The analysis of archival sources and publications highlights characteristic feature of historical literature of the middle of the 40th - the middle of the 80th considering questions of physical training of the population to protection of the Homeland, and youth - to service in Armed Forces. It consists in reflection of the embellished state of affairs, lack of display of efficiency of the carried-out work in respect of communication with military service. Conclusion of scientists, critics that "now

almost all recruits are znachkist of GTO", became dominating in dis-


sertation, books, articles. Even if any shortcomings, tables were given, schedules stubborn showed a positive trend and always let know that with this question all is normal and in Armed Forces physically strong, healthy generation capable to seize successfully difficult military equipment and weapon decreased, with firmness to transfer big physical activities, to overcome weights and deprivations of military service.

At the same time archives contain documents and materials which had to adjust scientists and bring them to other conclusions and estimates. So, for example, only in 1965 about 250 thousand graduates of eight-year schools of Ukraine did not execute norms of BGTO13 complex. That the condition of physical training of youth does not meet the requirements of military service, noted in 1967. Secretariat of the Central Committee of the Communist Party Kazakhstana14. These checks of physical fitness of 3.5 thousand young soldiers of one appeal were given in a meeting of section No. 7, XXVII of a congress of the All-Union Leninist Young Communist League considering questions of military-patriotic education. It became clear that only 10% from them could fulfill the requirements of GTO15 complex completely. In 4 years of the Central Committee the All-Union Leninist Young Communist League categorically emphasized: a number of the Komsomol organizations is engaged in outright self-deception, showing in reports 100% delivery by recruits of the GTO standard complex (countrywide 98.7%). It was confirmed by data of check by Sport committee of the Ministry of Defence of the USSR on four norms of the GTO complex of the third step which showed that from checked the GTO standards confirmed only 17.2% of young men, could not float 100 meters - 11%, completely were not able to float - 6,2%16.

The reasons of the situation of affairs were: deception, eyewash,


substitution of training of znachkist of GTO ordinary actions.

Eyewash and additions at the beginning of the 80th of the 20th century in physical training of future soldiers were noted in the Leningrad and Tyumen regions, in


Armenian, Kyrgyz, Turkmen, Tajik federal republics. Vicious practice was also the fact that a large number of collectives of physical education, and especially rural, during this period were not engaged in training of youth on norms to GTO19 complexes at all.

Result of such "joint activity" of scientists and practicians is that in the first half of the 80th only every fifth young man called


in armed forces of the USSR, confirmed GTO standards.

It is necessary to tell that, except contemporary records, about serious problems in


physical training of young men there were also open publications in the press. Told about suspense of a problem also results of a meeting of board of the Ministry about -


of Rhone of the USSR in January, 1988 what the Pravda newspaper wrote about.

So what caused discrepancy of the conclusions which were contained in historical researches with a situation in practice?

First, on activity of scientists, say, quite often carrying commentator, and even tactical character, what during the period till 1985 was "unfashionable" to speak about small efficiency of the carried-out work and the available shortcomings affected; secondly, the fact that archives with which researchers worked especially local, were carriers of "false" information since contained and contain along with others and the leveled material, i.e. all that reporting, which except as "eyewash" not nazovyosh23; thirdly, activity of various sports organizations was directed to education of champions that resulted in neglect of mass character in sport and forced to give the "beautiful" account which removed then in arkhivy24.

Thus, noted above as a result of stagnation, demanded dogmatic approach together with need from scientists from a position of a lesson of the truth to tell about inadmissibility to please to immediacy to go for distortion of real situation, betraying objectivity of scientific knowledge. And it finally led to serious costs in questions of defense of the country.

Here it is possible to agree with conclusions of practical character And. Item Volko-


va which offered: a) to strengthen work on promotion of the GTO complex, to make regular trainings sport vital need of everyone chelove-ka26; b) to increase military and applied orientation of classes in physical education; c) to involve youth in active classes military and applied a look -


mi sport; d) to get rid of a formalism, a paperwork; e) to strengthen care of improvement of sports base and more effective it ispolzovanii28; e) to resolve a personnel issue, especially for the organization mass sports dvizheniya29.

Before researchers of the beginning of the 21st century nowadays, in connection with new requirements in all growth there is a task together with practical workers of search of ways of effective permission of the available problems in training of physically strong, healthy defenders of the Homeland, taking into account experience and errors of last years.

The separate group of works of 1946-1991 is made by the works of scientists and practicians opening activity first of all of the All-Union Leninist Young Communist League and DOSAAF on development


military and applied and military and technical sports. First of all, it editions of DOSAAF publishing house which on average in a year released about 250


names of literature on this problem. At the same time the main attention was paid to the description of achievements of those years, display of the importance of these sports in

training of the population for protection of the country. As a rule, the problem parties of business were stated without search of the deep reasons.

From a huge lot of the works which came out during this period on a participation problem


To DOSAAF in the organization of sports work, we will allocate works of the former chairmen of Defense society A.L. Getman, A.I. Pokryshkin, G.M. Egorov who incorporated all aspects of activity of DOSAAF. Books, collections under their edition are written in major tones and have propaganda character to a large extent, aiming to draw public attention to headed by them organizatsii33.

In a direct connection with issues of physical training of the population those years there were issues of medical and improving work. However it is necessary to emphasize that those years the authors did not set before themselves the purpose specially to investigate activities of public authorities and public organizations for medical and improving work in interrelation with preparation for military service. Usually these questions if were put, then in the form of fragments in separate trudakh34. The attempt to show essence of medical and improving work and a role in its implementation of medical institutions of Kyrgyzstan and the Kazakh SSR is made of V.M. published small on amount of works only Kalmyko-vym35. With the author it was emphasized that the crucial role in successful training of healthy youth belongs to school, including the school doctor. Positive aspect is the approximate comprehensive plan of improving work on training of youth for conscription offered by the author. At the same time practical work of various organizations for carrying out medical work with youths of premilitary age as V.M. Kalmykov does not reveal.

At the same time the historiographic analysis of the available literature and the state of affairs in practice says that this problem demanded more detailed study. It should be noted that the complexity of disclosure of this problem in 1946-1991 was caused first of all by closeness of information and installations of that time about improvement of the qualitative state of health of the population of the USSR. Therefore more objective information about a condition of lechebnoozdorovitelny work was given in scientists, inaccessible for the majority, izda-nyakh which also till today carry closed harakter36.

For example, archival documents demonstrate that in 1966 14-16%


pupils of high school of Ukraine were short-sighted, in Azerbaijan from 15 to

20% of recruits were not examined. On low level medical

improving work with recruits specified in 1967 and 1974 of the Central Committee of the Communist Party Kazakhstana39, in 1970 - the Central Committee of the Communist Party Turkmenii40.

In 1946-1991 from 700 to 800 thousand children in the country belonged to special group with weakened zdorovyem41, every tenth young man on a state


health it was unusable to service with troops. For the same reason also the number of the persons who received a delay from military service grew: in 1983 0.9% of recruits, in 1984 - 1.0%, in 1985 - 1,1%43.

As of 1991 only 20-25% of future soldiers were recognized doctors of almost healthy, and 58% of graduates of schools - limited for health reasons in choice of profession, including armeyskoy44. From among about 70% of Muscovites, fit for military service, for the beginning of 1992 had restrictions - because of an illness they could not serve in the Navy, airborne forces, frontier troops.

In the 80th of the 20th century the draft commissions faced with the forgotten things long ago - growth of number of the young people who became unproductive and infected with louses. In 1991 the number of the recruits having "deficiency of body weight" increased almost by a third, infected with louses - for 20%. And it in only one year. In these conditions the signing of the order of the Minister of Defence of the USSR No. 260 of 1987 was not timely and it is essential its adjusting order No. 436 of 1991 on modification of the so-called schedule of diseases. It agrees to the last the direction in troops of those who got under category suitable for not service with troops earlier was excluded (it is about 30 thousand recruits). Undoubtedly, these decisions significantly complicated completing of army and fleet, they once again "bared" the problem prime cause - a disease of the society.

Thus, estimating in general a condition of researches in 1946-1991, it is necessary to emphasize that the historical science took a significant step forward in study and synthesis of experience of physical training of the population to protection of the country. In the second half of the 80th of the 20th century they became less descriptive, more fundamental, critical. Creative achievements of scientists-historians, their achievements were promoted in many respects by opening of broader access to archival funds and book-depositories of the country.

But as it was already noted, along with achievements of the Soviet science in a research of problems of physical training in 1946-1991 also shortcomings which essence was as follows are inherent in it: many of works suffered from an excessive opisatelnost, reflected the embellished state of affairs; deep nauch-

the ny analysis of contents, character, means, forms and methods of the carried-out work often was substituted for simple transfer, etc.

Speaking in general about a historiography of problems of physical training in 19461991, it should be noted that after 1991 there were new works which can be divided into two groups conditionally:

>- first, works in which the attempt objectively is given to assess current situation. These are A.I. Anokhin, V.N. Ivanov, S.D. Polovetsky, V.V. Prilutsky, A.V. Maklachkov, S.F. Kuzhilin, S.V. works Fedulova45 it is fuller, though is fragmentary, these questions are investigated in the doctoral dissertation And. Item Volkova46;

>- secondly, the researches, articles calling into question need to consider experience proshlogo47.

In general, speaking about a condition of a historiography of a research of issues of physical training of the population in 1946-1991, it should be noted, as today these problems demand study in respect of synthesis of experience and search of ways of optimization of transition to contract army. At the same time remain low-investigated years since 1946 on 1959, questions of interrelation of strengthening of defense of the country with fight against drug addiction, with improvement of health of the population of Russia.

1 See, e.g.: AstahovaE.B. The party leadership in physical training of youth in the conditions of improvement of socialism (1971-1981). (On materials of the Ukrainian SSR): Yew.... edging. east. sciences. Kharkiv, 1986; V.N. Vesterovsky. Activities of the party organizations of Ukraine for strengthening of a role of the state and public organizations in physical training of workers to protection of the Homeland (1966-1980): Yew. .kand. east. sciences. Kharkiv, 1986; Yu.S. Vasyutin, V.G. Krivorotenko, V.A. Narkimsky. Military-patriotic education of youth: theory, history, practice. M.: VKS, 1977; GizzatulinM. Our contribution to military patriotic education//Secondary vocational education. 1984. No.12. Page 30-31; V. Leybov-sky there Were to the attack young guys//Sovetsky Sport. 1987. June 5; A.D. Novikov. Physical training (to a question of a subject, the principles, means, methods and forms of the organization of classes physical exercises). M.: Physical education and sport, 1949.
2 Promoted introduction of military and technical sports regularly carried out since 1958. All-Union sports contests on military and technical sports. Questions of glider, parachute, aviamodel sport were constantly covered in the Rodiny Krylya magazine - the monthly mass aviation magazine DOSAAF of the USSR issued since 1950
3 Are carried out since 1968 (see: RGASPI, f.1, op.38, 105, l.14, 40; l.298, l.4).
4 The military and sports game "Summer lightning" was held since 1967 with school students of 5-8 classes, and "Eaglet" - since 1972 with pupils of 9-10 classes, schools of vocational training and technical schools (see: RGASPI, f.1, op.38, 773, l.189).
5 Similar the camp arose in our country in 1964 at the initiative of the Komsomol organizations of the Perm, Irkutsk and Novosibirsk regions (see: RGASPI, f.1, op.38, 719, l.19).
6 It is carried out since 1974 (see: RGASPI, f.6, op.12, 69, l.21-22). The GTO complex is entered in 1931 at the initiative of the Central Committee of the All-Union Leninist Young Communist League.
7 See: N.V. Pechersky. Activities of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union for physical training of workers in the period of the developed construction of communism (19591964): Yew. .kand. east. sciences. Volgograd, 1964; G.S. Karakozov. The party management of physical culture and sport in Dagestan in the conditions of the developed socialist society. 1959-1972: Yew.... edging. east. sciences. Makhachkala, 1975.
8 See: V.I. Shabelnikov. Activities of the Communist Party of Ukraine for the management of the public, defense and sports organizations in 1961-1970: Yew. .kand. east. sciences. Donetsk, 1974; O.A. Losev. The party management of the organization of health of workers in the conditions of the developed socialism: Yew. edging. east. sciences. Odessa, 1980.

See: A.V. Klykov. Activities of the Communist Party for development of physical education of sport and tourism in 1961-1975: Yew... edging. east. sciences. L., 1987.

10 Zh.L. Artyomov. Formation of readiness to protect the socialist fatherland. L.,
11 See: P.D. Lukashov. Military sports of school students on the area. M.: Education of 1978; Sport on checking. M.: Physical education and sport; V.G. Chinayev, Shabrov I.V. Sportivnotekhnichesky club opens doors. M.: DOSAAF, 1978, etc.

See, e.g.: P.D. Kudryavtsev. Activity of the Moscow city party organization for military-patriotic education of young workers in modern conditions (1961-1971): Yew. .kand. east. sciences. M, 1973. Page 159; Komsomol and DOSAAF. M.: DOSAAF, 1974. Page 98, etc.

13 RGASPI, f.17, op.102, 2143, l.24.
14 RGASPI, f.17, op.103, 1440, l.80.
15 RGASPI, f.6, op.12, 64, l.35.
16 RGASPI, f.1, op. 66, 211, l.135. Generally because of inability to float in the country about 30 thousand people annually sink (See: RGASPI, F.1, op.116, 5, l.9).
17 RGASPI, F.1, op. 66, 212, l.3.
18 RGASPI, op.116, 6, l.59.
19 RGASPI, f.1, op.66, 213, l.47.
20 RGASPI, op.116, 6, l.80.

of 21 Cm: Yu. Romanov. At a discount on wind//the Red star. 1973. November 23; A. Arpishin of Norma for the sake of a form//Komsomolskaya Pravda. 1973. November 27.

22 See: To raise patriots//the Truth. 1988. January 24. Similar cases were celebrated at a meeting of Committee of national control of the USSR in the spring of 1988 in some other regions of the country: in spite of the fact that almost all recruits were registered as znachkist of GTO, check of KNK revealed rough additions in it. In some regions of Moldova, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan the GTO standards confirmed no more than 10-15% of young men (See: Spring draft//Truth.
1988. On April 17).

For example, in 1961. The presidium of the Central Committee of DOSAAF of the USSR adopted a number of resolutions in which condemned opening of the facts of eyewash and additions to reports on preparation of technical shots, the number of athletes, on growth of ranks of members of Society, etc. (See: CA ROSTO, century 9552, op. 1-and, 13, l. 75, 85, 148).

24 During the studied period in the USSR about 36 volunteer sports societies and over 100 thousand sports collectives worked (See: Military-patriotic education. Page 207).
25 A.P. Volkov. Activities of the CPSU for military-patriotic education of preinduction youth in 1961-1988 (problem historiography): Yew. .kand. east. sciences. M, 1989. Page 158-159.
26 In 1985 because of psychological fear of loadings only 31% of young people ski, 24% are engaged in jogging, 16.4% skate (See: A.P. Volkov. Training of youth for protection of the Homeland. Page 39).
27 At a meeting of the constant commission of the Central Committee of the All-Union Leninist Young Communist League on physical and military patriotic training of youth on January 14, 1981 it was emphasized that in 20 years in three the number of the young men and girls who are engaged in military and technical types was reduced

sport (See: RGASPI, t. 1, op. 116, 5, l. 13-14).


In 1968 30% of averages and 75% of eight-year schools of Ukraine had no gyms (See: RGASPI, t. 17, op. 102, 2143, l. 25), in 1977 the security with sports constructions in Kyrgyzstan made no more than 20% of norms (See: RGASPI, t. 6, op. 13, l. 51, l. 17). For 1986 in the country of 41% of schools had no gyms, one swimming pool fell on 480 kindergartens, 220 schools and 96. Practically in the mid-eighties in the country were not any parachute tower (in 1936 them was 2500) - (See: RGASPI, f.6, op. 14, 42, l. 43). Attract scientific interest and the facts of careless use of the available material resources. For example, in Kazakhstan, Tataria, the Khabarovsk, Krasnoyarsk regions, the Moscow region the closed constructions in the 70th were loaded only for 70-80%, stadiums - for 30-50%, open complexes and platforms - for 15-30% (See: RGASPI, f.1, op. 116, 5, l. 19).


For 1982 from 45 thousand instructors-methodologists on production gymnastics the vast majority had no special preparation in conditions of production. From 43 thousand collective farms and state farms this position was entered only in every second economy and only 25% of instructors had sports education (See: RGASPI, f.1, op. 116, 5, l.15).

30 See: for example: Military sports of pupils. M.: DOSAAF, 1973; Voropay A.V., Hryniv V.A. Bud strong, hardy. M.: DOSAAF, 1973; A.I. Grechikhin. Competitions "Hunting for Foxes". M.: DOSAAF, 1973; V.A. Zakharov. Sport - business Komsomol. M.: Voyeniz-dat, 1976; Smiths D.N., Yu.S. Vasyutin. Military sports center. M.: DOSAAF, 1973; N.V. Pechersky. The sport guards the world. M.: Physical education and sport, 1967; A.N. Skvortsov. To train youth for protection of the Homeland. M.: DOSAAF, 1970; S.F. Feldman. Central strelkovosportivny club of DOSAAF. M.: DOSAAF, 1964; Physical and technical training of the recruit. M.: Physical education and sport, 1967, etc.
31 Annual circulation of publishing house was 20 million copies (See: The annotated catalog of literature of DOSAAF (1945-1977). Bus sost. V.F. Korabelnikov, A.A. Kvitnits-ky. M.: DOSAAF, 1979. Page 83).
32 Cm: Malshchukov of M, And. The management of the party organizations of the Urals by obshchestvennooboronny and sports societies in days of the eighth five-years period (1966-1970): Yew. edging. east. sciences. Perm, 1978; S.I. Grachev. DOSAAF: Steps of growth, 1966-1975. M.: DOSAAF, 1976; DOSAAF - the Homeland: collection. M.: DOSAAF, 1977; Smiths N.D. Strengthening of defense of the country and DOSAAF. M.: DOSAAF, 1972; A.L. Mamayev. Military-patriotic education of youth in the organizations of DOSAAF. M.: DOSAAF, 1973; To defense society Decorated with the Order of the Red Banner - 50 years//the Communist of Armed Forces. 1977. No. 1. Page 50-56; F.D. Sysoyev. Style of work

>- on the level of modern requirements. M.: DOSAAF, 1976; B. Tramm. On service military. M.:

DOSAAF, 1977; School of courage and patriotism//Communist of Armed Forces. 1976. No. 23. Page 46-54, etc.

33 See: Hetman A.L.O military duty and soldier's service. M.: DOSAAF, 1970; Defensive Decorated with the Order of the Red Banner. M.: DOSAAF, 1976; G.M. Egorov. Military-patriotic education//Party life. 1982. No. 24. Page 68-72; Business of all people. M.: DOSAAF, 1984; Decorated with the Order of the Red Banner defensive / Under a general edition of A.I. Pokryshkin. M.: DOSAAF, 1971; A.I. Pokryshkin. For the benefit of protection of the socialist Homeland//the Communist of Armed Forces. 1971. No. 24. Page 33-38; To Defense society - 50 years//the Moscow collection. 1976. No. 12. Page 10-14; Cooperation is close, the help - mutual//the Soviet patriot. 1976. November 11.

See: G.M. Zyryanov. Decree. soch. Page 168-173; B. Tumanov. We train youth for military service//the Military bulletin. 1965. No. 8. Page 61, etc.

See: V.M. Kalmykov. The organization of medical and improving work among young men and recruits. Frunze: Mektep, 1972.

For example, it is possible to call the doctoral dissertation of L.A. Bublik.

37 RGASPI, t. 17, op. 102, 2143, l.24.
38 RGASPI, op. 103, 1235, l.143.
39 RGASPI, t. 17, op.103, 1440, l.81; op. 142, 1597, l.3.
40 RGASPI, op. 106, 1838, l. 60.
41 In 1974 such was more than 800 thousand (See: RGASPI, t. 1, op. 38, 725, 52), in 1981

>- 720 thousand people (See: RGASPI, t. 1, op. 14, 42, l. 15), in 1986 - more than 700 thousand (See: V. V. School: reorganization time//Komsomolskaya Pravda. 1986. On August 22).

42 RGASPI, t. 1, op. 116, 5, l. 13; Let will not stick together gloss of medals//the Truth. 1988. December 19.
43 See: Volkov.P. Training of youth for protection of the Homeland. M, 1992. Page 30.
44 See: Neznamovv. Military reform//Russia. 1991. No. 38.
45 Cm for example: A.I. Anokhin. Defensive reserve of Russia//Red star. 1999. September 25; A. Anokhin. They were the first. M, 2000; A.P. Volkov. Decree. soch.; V.N. Ivanov. Some issues of military-patriotic education. Kaliningrad, 1993; A.V. Maklachkov, S.F. Kuzhilin. Decree. soch.; S.V. Fedulov. To train experts; to raise patriots//the Red star.-2000. February 26.
46 See: A.P. Volkov. Activities of public authorities and public organizations of the USSR for training of youth for protection of the Homeland in 1961-1991: Yew. .d-ra. east. sciences. M, 1995.
47 See, for example: Yu.A. Lomtev. Military-patriotic education of youth of the Urals: from positive and negative experience of its organization in the 70th of the XX century: Avtoref. yew. .kand. east. sciences. Orenburg, 2002.
Lewis Brown
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