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From the history of formation of police agencies of Ufa in XVIII - the beginning of XX vv



UDK 94

FROM the HISTORY of FORMATION of POLICE AGENCIES of UFA In XVIII - the BEGINNING of the XX VV

© E.P. Sichinsky 1, S.H. Hakimov 2 *

1 Chelyabinsk legal institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation Russia, Chelyabinsk region, Chelyabinsk, 454081, Libedinsky St., 41.

Ph. / fax: & #43;7 (351) 772 69 19.

2 Ufa legal institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation Russia, Republic of Bashkortostan, Ufa, 450091, Kamensky Lane, 2.

* Ph. / fax: & #43;7 (347) 253 63 67.

In article based on archival and legislative sources the main stages of formation of police bodies of Ufa in XVIII — the beginning of the 20th centuries are analyzed. Here interesting actual material about structure, number and financial position of their employees contains. Problems of staffing of police are investigated.

Emergence of police in Ufa is connected with provincial reform of Catherine II. At the statement on December 24, 1781 of the state of a newly created Ufa namestnichestvo positions of governors of a town in Ufa, Buzuluk, Verkhneuralsk, Sergiyevsk, Belebey, Birsk, Bugulma, Buguruslan, Menzelinsk, Sterlitamak, Chelyabinsk and in Troitsk were established a little later. In May of the same year the heads of city police took the oath.

In April, 1782 Catherine II signed "The charter of Deanery, or the police officer" in which the structure of city police and function of its ranks was in details regulated. According to "the Charter...", in the cities the uniform collegial vsesoslovny permanent police body which received the name "deanery justice" was created. Its competence extended only to the city that set organizational distinction of city and district police. Justices of deanery were included the governor of a town, police officers of criminal and civil cases and also two ratman.

The terrible fire of 1816 which destroyed the most part of constructions of Ufa forced to draw the attention of the provincial authorities and the Ministry of Internal Affairs to strengthening of police to whose duties belonged, including, and ensuring fire safety. States of police of the provincial city were unusually quickly prepared, and already on July 14 the same year are approved as the emperor. The structure was headed by the chief of police. At him three private police officers, three quarter supervisors, 12 attendants, the fire captain with two assistants, 45 people were under supervision at 15 police boxes. In each part the was organized "the sjezzhy house". Considering difficult financial position of citizens after the fire, the matter of police was retold into the account of treasury [1].

Thus, in 1816 the process of formation of structure of police of Ufa comes to the end. In the subsequent its development was carried out mainly on the basis of quantitative changes of the device. For example, existence by a number of the Orenburg Cossack army led to folding of practice of strengthening of city police team at the expense of Cossacks. So, 1843 to Ufa were sent 1

village constable and 10 Cossacks [2]. Feature of this structure of the city was that circumstance that it existed as uniform fire and police team. Not only the lower ranks of police participated in fire fighting, but also firefighters were attracted to operational police actions. In 1852, according to executing affairs of the Orenburg and Samara governor general, the fire brigade consisted of 77 lower ranks and 3 corporals directed from the Defense Ministry, and in the structure of police team 20 budochnik and 10 police attendants at parts of the city were employed [3].

The abolition of serfdom demanded carrying out and police reform. On December 25, 1862 "Provisional rules about the structure of police in the cities and counties of provinces" were adopted [4]. According to them, the structure of police, an order of appointment of officials and making management decisions changed. Earlier organizationally the isolated territorial and city police united in uniform district. Association was carried out by abolition of governors of a town of boards, positions of governors of a town and chiefs of police and entry of their devices into the structure of territorial courts which began to be called district police departments. Territorial district police officers were renamed into district. The exception of the general rule was made for the provincial and some considerable cities, posads and places listed in a special application where the police which were not getting under jurisdiction of district were organized. Among these settlements there was also Ufa.

On April 14, 1887 the law "About the Numerical Structure and the Device of Police Teams in the Cities for Which It Is Not Published Special States of Police" was approved [5]. The provision according to which in settlements with population to 2000 souls of both sexes no more than 5 policemen are necessary was enshrined in it. In the cities with more numerous population the calculation had to come from a proportion 1 policeman on 500 people. Instead of former positions in police teams - the senior, junior corporals and privates, new were entered: senior and younger goro-

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dovy (at the rate of 1 to 4). Besides annual 25 rub on regimentals, contents by the first was established of no more than 180 rub a year, the second - 150. According to the legislator, establishment of categories and a difference in payment created an incentive for policemen to diligent service. The listed expenses completely were assigned to the city budget. At the expense of means of the settlement the branch or hiring by the policeman of rooms, their heating and lighting, treatment in hospitals and arms was carried out by checkers and revolvers. In the law it was highlighted that policemen could not be used for performance of duties of delivery men and watchmen at police departments and also for other services and instructions which are not corresponding to their direct appointment - to protect public order and safety.

In Ufa as a part of police team, on the basis of states of 1887, there were 55 people, them them 10 seniors and 44 junior policemen [6]. In March, 1895 the Minister of Internal Affairs I.N. Durnovo approved new staff of police team of the city. Now in the provincial center 16 senior policemen and 67 younger served [7].

Despite the changes happening in the Ufa police in the 90th of the 19th century them was nevertheless insufficiently for needs of the city. After opening in 1888. The Samaro-Ufimsky railroad the population of the provincial center by 1903 grew from 25 thousand people to 70. Rapid growth of the city was followed by increase in number of the negative phenomena to which the Ufa governor A.S. Klyucharev pointed: "Construction of the railroad, construction of new buildings in the city demanded a large number of working hands that on the one hand caused influx of workers, with another affected strengthening among the population of revelry, alcoholism and crime" [8]. In turn, it led to increase in load of police force which was not able to cope with the arisen difficulties. Proceeding from really current situation, the leaders of the province petitioned before the Ministry of Internal Affairs for expansion of states of the Ufa city police to 182 people [7, page 105]. The prepared project provided inclusion in already existing structure of positions of the manager of an information desk, the police officer by a detective part, the assistant to the police officer of a reserve and three district supervisors of a reserve and also 20 district supervisors. About 137 people were planned to finish the number of city police team. Thus, besides simple increase in number of staff of city police, the project of new states provided also high-quality transformations to the organizations of this service.

To acceptance of new states there was a numerical increase in employees, renaming of private police officers into local. However introduction of a position district which was absent earlier became the most important step in development of structure of the Ufa police. In more swept requirement -

which to police territorial unit it was felt so that at the turn of the century the city was divided into 14 sites where, for the lack of district, their duties were carried out by policemen [7. page 104]. With introduction of this position officially, district were distributed between police stations of the city unevenly. In the first and second sites was registered on 5 district, in the fourth - two, and in their third site was not in general [9]. Nevertheless, the Ufa chief of police, with assistance of the governor, managed to carry out, at own risk, a number of the transformations which are not supported by higher instance. In 1903 in the city it was organized at police an information desk which worked rather effectively, at the principles of self-sufficiency. In 1913 it was "легализирован" with approval of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of "The provision on the Ufa information desk" [10].

In 1904 with assistance of the governor the Ufa chief of police G.G. Bukhartovsky made the detective office which is "not specified" by states, having allocated for this purpose from the general structure of ranks of police of one police officer, one assistant to the police officer and four policemen. At detective office the photolaboratory, anthropometrical bureau and printing house was equipped. I.F. Andreyev, earlier the acting as the police officer 3 sites of the city of Ufa was appointed his first head [11]. Financing of new division was carried out at the expense of a part of the detective provincial credit, they whom 500-600 rubles a year were allocated for needs of detectives, however were not enough this sum. Though, according to the chief of police, "activity of detective police was not quite successful, owing to lack of the centralized financing, neighbors tried to adopt its experience. In September, 1907 the Orenburg chief of police, in connection with limited opportunities of the general police to stop the thefts which became more frequent in the city, robberies, hooliganism cases, addressed with the official report the governor about the organization of detective office. It was supposed to use practice of the Ufa colleagues [12].

On July 6, 1908 the emperor signed the law "About the Organization of a Detective Part". In 89 cities of the Russian Empire (besides the capitals) as a part of police departments for production of searches for general criminal character in the cities and in counties, detective offices of four categories were created. Depending on the category, the number of staff of office was defined. In June, 1908 the department of police of the Ministry of Internal Affairs forwarded the project of the staff of the detective office of the third category established in the city to Ufa.

In Ufa the police officer of 1 site V.A. Oshurko on whom all organizational difficulties of creation of already official new division laid down was appointed the chief of detective office. In 1916 were a part of office: the chief, his assistant, the clerk, the official managing registration of criminals and correspondence on

to searches and observation, photographer, three supervisors of the first category and two supervisors of the second category [13]. Since 1914 in Ufa the office of "The Russian society of promotion of application of dogs to police and guard service" worked. The employee of city police N.P. Elsakov and the chief of detective office V.A. Murnek directed office [14].

With establishment in 1903 of district police guards the need for vocational training of new police structure sharply increased. Originally training of policemen was assigned to stanovy police officers. But practice showed that this form of preparation of new shots is unacceptable. Therefore, according to the order of governors and with assistance of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, short-term courses for police policemen began to be created. Programs of these courses were prepared on places and considered features and level of proficiency of their listeners.

The first similar courses in South Ural opened in Ufa on June 15, 1905. According to the order of the governor Klyucharev, temporary school courses for training of the persons wishing to hold a position of police policemen were created. The term of training was calculated on two weeks, and the first release [15] took place on June 30 the program consisted of general education and special objects. Classes were conducted by teachers of local educational institutions.

In process of completion of police guards the temporary school courses, obviously, were transformed in 1906 to school of village constables at a reserve of the Ufa city police where the most capable and healthy policemen for preparation for occupation of vacancies of the senior policemen and village constables were sent. In July the first release took place. In 1912 the training term at school was two months, but, according to teachers, it needed to be increased twice [16].

The next stage in formation of one of the first professional institutions on preparation of police shots in South Ural was connected with activity of the new Ufa governor P.P. Bashilov and the chief of police S.A. Sham-levich which, obviously, possessed not only the idea of creation of independent school on training of village constables of police guards, but also a merit its realization. During 1912 the considerable organizational preparation which allowed to start next year classes was carried out. The building for school was found, training classes are prepared, teachers are picked up, training programs are made, special literature and visual aids are acquired. On January 12, 1913 the governor approved "The provision on school of village constables of police guards in Ufa" [16, l. 20-20ob].

the School intended for training of police policemen for replacement of higher positions of village constables and also those old-timers of village constables who did not pass preliminary

training. Selection of candidates for receipt provided their preliminary check and only the best of policemen "in the form of encouragement" could be admitted to school, on condition of successfully passed examinations in Russian (reading and the letter). Preference was given to the persons who earlier already finished any educational institution. In school it was recruited two times a year, no more than 25 people at the same time were accepted. The course was calculated for three months. Classes were from February 15 to May 15 and from September 15 to December 15.

The first Russian revolution of 1905-1907 with all evidence showed inability of small police to cope with mass riots. In November, 1905 in the Ministry of Internal Affairs the discussion of a question of numerical structure and the amount of monetary pay of ranks of city police teams was complete. Due to earlier stated, the ministry made the "overdue" decision - to determine the number of policemen in relation to the population at the rate of 1 to 400. But also here the central department showed inconsistency. As basic data about population materials of a census of 1897, that is data of eight-year prescription [7, l were accepted. 18-30].

The last increase in the number of staff of the Ufa police had to happen on the basis of the resolution of Council of ministers "About Strengthening of Police in 50 Provinces of the Empire and about Improvement of Official and Financial Position of Police Ranks" adopted on October 23, 1916. However the mechanism of realization of reform in conditions of wartime was not worked out, stirred numerous coordination, and then it was interrupted with the February revolution which suggested to resolve an issue of protection of law and order on essentially other beginnings.

LITERATURE

1. Full code of laws of the Russian Empire (PSZ RI). T. XXXIII. No. 26355.
2. State Archive of the Orenburg Region (SAOR). T. 6. Op. 6. 11870. L. 15.
3. GAOO. 13180. L. 23.
4. PSZ RI. T. XXXVII. Office second. 1862 No. 39087.
5. Central State historical archive of the Republic of Bashkortostan (CGIA RB). T. I-9. Op. 1. 715. L. 21.
6. State archive of the Russian Federation (HECTARE of the Russian Federation). T. 102. Op. 44. 32 of Part 33. L. 40.
7. In glory of the Fatherland. T. 1. On monarchic service. Ufa: 2002.
8. CGIA RB. T. I-9, Op. 1. 715. L. 104.
9. Address calendar of the Ufa province. The help book for 1905 Ufa: 1904.
10. HECTARE of the Russian Federation. T. 102. Op. 68. 10.ch. 43. L. 12-13.
11. S.H. Hakimov.//UYuI bulletin. 1999. No. 1 (4). Page 83.
12. GAOO. T. 11. Op. 1. 857. L. 4.
13. The address calendar of the Ufa province for 1917 Ufa: 1917.
14. S.H. Hakimov. Police in the system of bodies of provincial management of post-reform Russia (1862-1914). Ufa, 2003.
15. CGIA RB. T. I-9. Op.2. 89. L. 191.
16. CGIA RB. T. I-9. Op.1. 894. L. 19.

Came to edition of 21.11.2005

Sharon Anderson
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