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Daily service of the lower ranks of the Russian Imperial fleet

seriya History. Political science. Economy. Computer science. 2010. No. 19 (90). Release 16

UDC 947 (63.201





A.V. Panova

In article conditions of daily service of corporals and the lower ranks of the Russian Imperial fleet are investigated. Key parameters of social stratification among the lower ranks of the Russian fleet are considered.

The hierarchy of corporals and the lower ranks of the Russian fleet can be tracked on their resettlement on the vessel. By the large ships (battleships and cruisers) the separate cabin relied the senior boatswain. There were, however, options of double placement: everything depended on the number of the place by the ship. Furniture of a cabin of the senior boatswain differed from officer a little. There lived conductors slightly worse - corporals of long service. Most often they lived on four or even six. Originally called conductors in Russia the senior pupils or graduates of schools of Morsky department training navigators, gunners, the engineer-mechanics and shipbuilders. In other words, it was talked of the "rank" corresponding gardemarinsky. After practical training the young people received ranks of the ensign of the respective building (Cases the engineer-mechanics of the fleet, Corps of naval navigators and Corps of ship engineers) 1. Since 1903 the rank of the conductor began to be appropriated to extra urgent corporals of the fleet, turning them into similarity of "semi-officers". In ground forces to a rank of the conductor there corresponded the subensign's rank (it was most often appropriated in wartime to the caused a stir corporals) 2.

The number of conductors by the ship could exceed two dozen. For example, by the linear ship "Emperor Paul I" which became operational in 1912 they were according to the fighting schedule 24 persons. Entered this number: senior boatswain, bataler, senior paramedic, four artillery, alarm, steering, four machine, two kochegarny, bilge, mine and machine, alarm and ranging conductor, conductor-galvaner and two conductors-electricians. Let's note that a number of conductors held positions at which at the beginning of an era of steam and armor officers on the Admiralty, or the so-called officials (equated to officers carriers of "cool ranks") consisted or. It were the skipper, mine and artillery and machine holders. Directly lower ranks, i.e. sailors of the 1st and 2nd article, were placed in compartments and corridors of the so-called inhabited deck, and from three to eight cubic meters of a living space were the share of each sailor.

Became the corporal of the fleet after the termination of konduktorsky engineering and artillery classes. There were schools of batalyor, subskippers, machine corporals, artillery holders, machine quartermasters who prepared for the fleet of junior technical and economic specialists.

After the short review of hierarchy of the lower ranks we will look how passed for them typical day on the warship. At five o'clock in the morning in a watch bell (a ship bell - the Bus) two bottles fought (two half-hour intervals after four hours)

1 Russian State archive of Navy (RGA Navy). T. 1172. Op. 1. 2. L.17.
2 N.V. Manvelov. Life and death by the ship of the Russian Imperial fleet. M, 2008. Page 81-82.

and boatswains began to awake team. Sailors jumped and beds - the canvas mattresses filled by a colored stopper began "to knit. Then sailors washed salty water, prayed and about half an hour had breakfast. Between a half of the sixth and six o'clock in the morning the big cleaning of the ship began. At eight o'clock in the morning, upon termination of the second watch, on the vessel there was a solemn raising the flag. Then, approximately in the forenoon, the lower ranks were engaged in various works. A part of people painted or repaired various details; recruits studied artillery and mechanisms of the ship. By twelve o'clock there came time of a lunch after which time for after-dinner rest was allowed.

The lunch was preceded by a ceremony of delivery of a wine portion to the lower ranks. Let's begin with the fact that in the Russian fleet there was a concept of "a state cup". She relied in swimming to each sailor, the corporal, the conductor daily, and twice. The exception was made by the sailors who were "in the category strafovanny". The sailors and corporals limited in the rights and who were subject for offenses to corporal punishments were among "strafovanny". Transfer to this "category" to peace time was possible only on court, and in military - and in a disciplinary order. Strafovanny sailors (corporals and sailors lost the rank) had also no right to an additional salary and distinctions. Besides, in a disciplinary order they could be subjected to punishment by birches to 50 blows. If lower rank sentenced to imprisonment, then the number of possible blows increased to two hundred.

What "disfranchisements" expected convicts for military crimes? They were not made in corporals, not sent in the structure of guard of honor and not appointed signal and messenger. Temporary holidays did not rely Strafovanny sailors.

For receiving forgiveness strafovanny it was required to serve blameless not less than a year. It was possible to become the ordinary sailor as an award for bravery or "other distinctive feats" earlier. In this case the final decision was already for the commander of connection of the ships.

The background of correctional facilities of the Russian fleet is connected with existence of prisoner companies of Morsky department in the first half of the 19th century. A bit later prisoner companies are abolished, and for some time the navy remains without own places of detention. The general process of the liberal changes in the Russian society made topical an issue of revision of the basic principles of contents concluded in prisons of Russia and about creation of new prison institutions which activity would be based on more humane beginnings, than earlier. In this plan the question of communication of emergence and formation of correctional facilities of the fleet with judicial reform of 1864 in Russia deserves a research, not accidentally the earliest of these institutions arises at a boundary of 1864 - 1865 3

Along with army in the 60th. of the 19th century created the penitsitarny system of Morsky the ministry. The sea investigative Kronstadt prison was the first similar institution for pre-trial detention of the lower ranks of sea department consisting under the investigation and court. The naval charter about punishments provided establishment for the lower ranks of the fleet of single naval prisons of one type with military. In fact there were two military and corrective prisons with the general daily upkeeping: one - in St. Petersburg, another, floating, - in Sevastopol.

The first correctional facility of Navy of Russia received the official name "Military and Corrective Prison of Sea Department in St. Petersburg". It was placed in the building of a so-called prisoner tower,

3 A.A. Bocharov, M.P. Iroshnikov. From the history of formation and activity of correctional facilities of Navy of Russia (1864 - 1916) / / the Criminal messenger. 1997. No. 2. Page 28.

Series History. Political science. Economy. Computer science. 2010. No. 19 (90). Release 16

constructed in 1828 - 1829 on the island New Holland especially for keeping of the condemned sailors and received the name thanks to the prisoner companies of the St. Petersburg port which were in it in 1829 - 1855. The prison was counted on simultaneous stay up to 200 prisoners and, according to the order of the managing director of Morsky of the ministry, had to begin the activity on January 1, 1865. Actual start date of activity of prison it is necessary to consider on January 3, 1865 since this day the first prisoners came to it.

The prison submitted to the director of Inspection department of Morsky the ministry (subsequently, after transformation in the first half of the 80th of the 19th century. Inspection department in the General sea staff - to the chief of this headquarters). Direct management of prison, her employees and prisoners was entrusted to the warden appointed to this position by the Royal order on the fleet and sea department from among naval the headquarters officers. Besides the chief, 2 chiefs of offices, the commissioner (the official managing money and property of prison), 2 sergeant-major, a set of corporals (on 1 on 14 prisoners), 2 buglers, the priest, a prichetnik, the senior doctor (who was at the same time managing in the medical relation prison infirmary), 2 paramedics and the civilian pismovoditel4 were on the staff of prison.

The warden, besides the general management it of activity, maintained a register of the prisoners coming to prison and leaving it, the magazine about all incidents in prison and the alphabetic sheet about moral behavior of each prisoner, presenting three times a year an extract from it at the official report about a condition of prison to the director of Inspection department. It was specified in the provision on prison that her chief, "without being content with the superficial review or some orders on prison, penetrates into all details and parts of a prison order and improvement". As required the chief convoked the prison council consisting of him, chiefs of offices, the priest and when the considered problem concerned health of prisoners, the prison doctor. Council could make proposals on change of a system of the conclusion, an order of contents and classes of prisoners.

For detailed survey of prison of times a year the management of sea department appointed one of the flagships of the Baltic Fleet submitting on results of inspection the official report about a condition of prison to the managing director Morskim ministerstvom5.

The military and corrective prison of sea department in St. Petersburg long remained the only correctional facility in Navy of Russia. Creation of the second same prison (for the Black Sea Fleet and the Caspian flotilla) which, under the initial assumption, had to be in Nikolaev, a long time was postponed because of a lack of means. Only at the beginning of the 80th of the 19th century the decision on re-equipment under prison of one of old sailing courts of the Black Sea Fleet was made. The choice fell on the former corvette "Memory of Mercury", and in June, 1883 works on adaptation of this vessel put on dead anchors in the southern bay of Sevastopol to placement on it floating prison began. It had to begin the activity on April 1, 1884

The military and corrective floating prison of sea department (such is there was its official name) acted under the provision on it approved on April 11, 1883 and repeating the provision on the St. Petersburg prison mentioned above. Feature of activity of the Sevastopol prison was the fact that it submitted not to the director of Inspection department, but the chief commander of the Black Sea Fleet and ports of the Black Sea who was in Nikolaev. The immediate superior of prison appointed from sea the headquarters officers

4 A.A. Bocharov, M.P. Iroshnikov. From the history of formation and activity of correctional facilities of Navy of Russia (1864 - 1916) / / the Criminal messenger. 1997. No. 2. Page 29.
5 In the same place. Page 30.

the order of the managing director of Morsky of the ministry, it was subordinated to the captain over the Sevastopol port. In 1900, in view of transfer of management of the Black Sea Fleet and ports of the Black Sea from Nikolaev to Sevastopol, double subordination of prison it was abolished, and since March 3, 1901 her chief began to submit directly to the chief commander of the Black Sea Fleet and ports of the Black Sea.

This prison was counted on the maintenance of smaller number of prisoners, than St. Petersburg, and the state it, respectively, was small. In it, except the chief, consisted the assistant to the chief as the senior officer of the vessel, the officer - the holder of prison property, the priest, the doctor - the manager in the medical relation of prison and prison infirmary, the paramedic and the clerk. The team of prison consisted of the boatswain, two botsmanmat, 5 quartermasters and 10 sailors. All employees of the prison, except the priest and the doctor, had to live on the prison vessel and had no right to leave from it without the permission of the chief. The prison (as well as St. Petersburg) was subject to annual inspection survey by one of the flagships of the Black Sea Fleet submitting the report on its state to the chief commander of the Black Sea Fleet and ports Black morya6.

Give after the description of punishments for the lower ranks we will return to the schedule of their day by the ship, i.e. to distribution of "a wine portion". Every day in certain time - before a lunch and at six o'clock in the evening - on the deck the huge tinned endova (a stocky vessel with a wide throat - the Bus) with vodka (in the Russian waters) or rum was taken out (in foreign swimming). Then there was a bataler with a measured semi-cup which included about 60 ml. drink. Under the authority of a bataler there was a so-called "uniform book" where also nondrinkers were marked out drinking.

The first an endova approached the owner of the deck - the senior boatswain whom the corporals who were called in those days as "the tank aristocracy" followed. Directly sailors approached an endova according to the list, the same concerned the persons equated to the lower ranks - the workmen, the victims of ship-wreck which are by the ship, etc.

The last the wine portion was drunk by a bataler and removed an endova under the lock. In general, acquaintance to a bataler was for many representatives of "the tank aristocracy" and other fans of alcohol great happiness so the wine portion was not always distributed in strict accordance with duty regulations.

It is remarkable that the sailor could refuse a cup and not come off the loser. In this case he received monetary compensation ("merit") which was given also for refusal of consumption of other products, for example, of butter and tabaka7. For long swimming the lower ranks saved the sums, considerable for them, at the expense of "merit". So, at the beginning of the 80th of the 19th century for each not drunk cup to the sailor charged five kopeks. As a result in two years of a global cruise 36 rub 50 kopeks of a rise to a salary were got. And this sum does not consider possible nagradnykh8. Undoubtedly, such considerable sums were inaccessible to the army soldier or the corporal that was the next reason for understanding by the lower ranks of the Russian fleet of "elitism".

Before a lunch the ritual of test of food which was made by the senior on a rank the officer by the ship was always observed. For example, on the imperial Standard yacht the daily test of food was personally removed by Nikolay II9.

Test of food was followed by a lunch. Tarpaulins were displayed on the deck and on them sailors with spoons took seat. Eaters made "artels" of people on ten everyone which of environment barrel got out. The duty of barrel was in receiving at the cook full wooden capacity - a tank - the first and the WTO -

6 Set of sea resolutions. SPb., 1886. Page 79.
7 RGA Navy. T. 1613. Op. 1. 4. L. 21.
8 In the same place. L. 34.
9 A.K. Selyanchev the fleet under a red flag of revolution. M, 1983. Page 12.

Series History. Political science. Economy. Computer science. 2010. No. 19 (90). Release 16

dish horns. Barrel paid special attention to that the cook put due amount of meat or corned beef for artel. Sometimes, however, meat was put not directly in a tank, and strung on a splinter, taking a shish kebab form. Sailors of the Russian fleet not bad ate. Probably, the axiom when on June 14, 1905 on the Potemkin battleship the team refused a lunch because by the officer in Odessa it was bought rotten myaso10 is memorable to all. The people who got used to daily sound food are capable of similar disorders.

After a lunch the small rest followed. Between five and six o'clock in the evening the team had supper. Then there came the period of free time for those who were not engaged at watch. After evening descent of a flag at eight o'clock the ship began to be preparing for a release. The dream of crew was stored sacredly, on the deck of the guilty person could punish for noise severely.

Such situation of service, punishments brought up a special social group - the lower ranks of the Russian Imperial fleet. Coming to the fleet, and conscription service continued 5 years, yesterday's peasants and workmen bore with themselves traditional representations. The system of values worked dozens of previous generations allowed peasants to live and work in the conditions of ethical harmony of the world. Accurate and quite rigid behavioural stereotypes and moral imperatives kept balance of this world: it was simple, clear, available, his understanding required no abstract concepts and speculative images, everything had visible and clear communication.

Conscription immersed the recruit in absolutely other, unknown world. At the same time the fleet for the Russian peasant was, undoubtedly, more alien and unclear environment, than armiya11. Absolutely other rhythm of ship life, the modern language sated with the mass of unclear terms - all this created additional loading. If earlier the tree and sails surrounding the new sailor complete dependence of the ship from elements of the nature had somehow something in common with country life, then after emergence of the steam armored fleet the life of the sailor was put into absolutely other framework. To be fair we will note that such feeling at the Russian person who got on the fleet remained up to the end of the first half of the 20th century, perhaps, and later.

The navy of the end of the 19th century already fully mastered the last achievements of electrical equipment, radio engineering, chemistry. From "a gold timbered log hut", from a plow and a splinter the peasant got to the world of steel, electric light and steam-engines.

The majority of the truth explaining a peace arrangement, the surrounding sailor had purely speculative character, and they had to be taken on trust. Assimilation of new concepts began at schools of training of various ship experts: electricians, miners, drivers, komendor, operators, etc. P.E. Dybenko fairly called them "schools of revolution". Thanks to them sailors were kind of trained for adoption of the ideas of revolutionary promotion - the same conditional truth. As a result consciousness of sailor's weight in general was doubled: the traditional country outlook was complemented with the forced skill of perception of abstract concepts.

It is necessary to tell that soldiers in comparison with sailors presented "the gray weight" since they needed no special technical knowledge in the intellectual plan, and the semi-illiteracy was the additional factor forcing to respect the administration too. By the way, sense of superiority and chosenness before soldiers did not abandon sailors and in the first years of the Soviet power. Sailors had the right to consciousness of own importance before soldiers owing to the education, the best conditions of food, a monetary allowance, but, the main thing, mo-

10 A.K. Selyanchev the fleet under a red flag of revolution. M, 1983. Page 15.
11 A. Kilichenkov. Brothers, it is necessary to blood / / the Homeland. 1996. No. 6-7. Page 71.

ryak for years of service often managed to visit a global cruise and to see the world and that the soldier during service - only saw barracks.

Features of sailor's consciousness were complicated by specific conditions of ship service. Continuous stay in the closed space, frequent and long swimmings created the atmosphere of isolation from full-fledged life.

On the other hand, the specifics of naval service cultivated feeling of cohesion and unity of crew, responsibility for common cause that got a direct response in the country soul which is brought up on traditions of community. At the same time service by the ship when exact performance of the duties by everyone was crucial for life of all crew, woke up self-respect at sailors. Foreign swimmings, the best food, the dress code differing in the known chic - all this led to the fact that sailors felt the superiority over soldiers and, having appeared ashore, did not miss an opportunity it to emphasize. In general, exclusiveness in total with constant readiness for self-sacrifice became feature of all Russian sailors.

Such tradition which reached from time immemorial aimed to emphasize, besides, chosenness of officers and sailors of the fleet. Readiness to accept the ideas of revolutionary promotion and feeling of own "chosenness" turned sailors of the military fleet in attractive an object for the revolutionary organizations.



of The article is devoted to a study of everyday service of the noncommissioned officers and lower ranks of the Russian Emperor&s Fleet. The author considers main criteria of social diversification among the lower ranks of the Russian Fleet.

Voronezh State Pedagogical University

Cuthbert Eustace Paul
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