The Science Work
History
Site is for sale: mail@thesciencework.com
Category: History

Sociocultural functions of the church museums: history and the present (on the example of a church and archaeological office of the Tomsk theological seminary)



the ky house of Navarre considered Heracles the ancestor on the ground that one of Hercules's sons was the legendary ancestor of a dynasty. In this regard the hero began to play especially important role for glorification of kings of a dynasty of Bourbon which united France and Navarre. With the images and objects related to Hercules - the legendary founder of both dynasties, Henry IV surrounded himself (1553-1610). According to interpretation of the contemporary, the king represented as & #34; Hercules bared and who put a club on the shoulder the left hand, right attracting a dog of the Cerberus from the underground world with a rope, means that thanks to the excellent virtue the prince eradicates defects from the people by means of blessed and fair законов" [11, page 183-184]. On one of medals the Oat-flakes striking a centaur symbolized Henry IV triumphing a victory over the duke Savoy (1562 - 1630). The popularity of the myth about Galsky Hercules reached top in Louis XIV's government (1638-1715). The medals which are beaten out during government of the king sun quite often represented Louis on the face and Heracles - on reverse [7, page 260].

The aspiration of the hero to self-determination, to the free choice of living position was the second important line of an image of Hercules promoting his popularity in Renaissance and the beginnings of Modern times. This line was connected with an antique legend about & #34; Oat-flakes on распутье" meeting for the first time at the sophist Prodik (apprx. 465 - apprx. 395) and developed in more detail by Xenophon (apprx. 444 - apprx. 356). According to a legend, the young hero met two women personifying & #34; Добродетель" and & #34; Наслаждение" (or & #34; Порок"), each of which convinced the hero to follow in its way as the most right way fortunately. The young man after reflections chose a way & #34; Добродетели". Subsequently antique authors treated Hercules's choice as belonging also to election of worthy calling. So, Lukian described Heracles's choice as otnosyazshchiysya to preference of education or a sculpture, and Cicero (106 - 43 BC) interpreted an allegory in the sense of opposition of will of parents and natural bent of the young man in the choice of its course of life [3, page 42].

In the Middle Ages this allegory was in oblivion as it contradicted the idea that rescue of the person is impossible without action of Divine grace - the Creator's gift. Whether besides the highest virtue was associated with the Second -

Bibliography

tsy Trinities and in this regard the abstract figure personifying & #34; Добродетель" did not find to itself a positive response in public opinion. In the culture of the Renaissance the legend of Hercules at the intersection of roads became extremely popular. Philosophers, poets and artists addressed it. Female characters were associated not only with virtue and vice, but also with an active and contemplate way of life. They could be personified by antique goddesses Minerva (or Juno) and Venus, and an allegory & #34; Oat-flakes on распутье" sometimes approached the myth about Paris's choice as in both cases the young man faced the hard decision what to prefer: glory, power or possession of the finest of women; difficult way of virtue or easy way of pleasures [12, page 98].

Especially often addressed an allegory of the choice of Hercules in case of manual of the young man. So, Stefan Vinandi Pigkhius (1520-1604), the writer and the mentor of young prince Karl Friedrich Klewe, chose as the title of the description of life and travel of the prince & #34; Prodika" Oat-flakes; (Negsi^ of Prodicivs) [12, page 95]. In painting a characteristic example is the central part of painting of Kamerino in the Palace Farnez in Rome executed by Annibale Carracci (1560-1609) for the young cardinal Odoardo Farnez (1573-1626). If to consider that the cardinal was compared in verses with & #34; young Alkidom" Carracci's composition, certainly, was perceived as Odoardo's glorification and, at the same time, as a parting word to follow it on the correct way - Hercules's way [12, by page 95].

Thus, to Renaissance and the beginnings of Modern times of Ercole it was presented as the virtuous husband and the tamer of the monsters serving as an allegory of defects and also the fighter against unworthy people, & #34; risen against разума". The image of the antique hero began to be associated in many respects with humanists of the Renaissance, with their belief in beneficial influence of the humanities and, in particular, rhetoricians on education of the person and development of society. Oat-flakes as the legislator, the founder of the cities and royal dynasties and also as the defender of the earth and the patron of arts, became a symbol of the ideal governor. The image of the great hero approached the idea of search of knowledge and finding of wisdom. Also Hercules symbolized the person Renessans with his individualism and belief in own forces, in an opportunity to dominate over destiny.

1. Candelaria, L., & Hercules and Albrecht Durer&s & #34; Das Meerwunder" in a Chantbook from Renaissance Spain&, in Renaissance Quarterly, 2005. - Vol. 58. - No. 1.
2. Diadora Sicilian. Historical library. - Messenger of ancient history. - 1986. - No. 2.
3. Reff, T., & C? zanne and Hercules&, in The Art Bulletin, 1966. - Vol. 48. - No. 1.
4. Wood, C.S., & Maximilian I as Archeologist&, in Renaissance Quarterly, 2005. - Vol. 58. - No. 4.
5. The Works of Lucian of Samosata, tr. by H. W. Fowler and F. G. Fowler, Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1905. - Vol. 3.
6. Morreale, M., & Coluccio Salutati&s & #34; De Laboribus Herculis" (1406) and Enrique de Villena&s & #34; Los Doze Trabajos de Hercules" (1417) &, in: Studies

in Philology, 1954. - Vol. 5. - No. 2.

7. Hallowell, R.E., & Ronsard and the Gallic Hercules Myth&, in Studies in the Renaissance, 1962. - Vol. 9.
8. Waddington, R.B., & The Iconography of Silence and Chapman&s Hercules&, in Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, 1970. -Vol. 33.
9. Wind, E., & Hercules& and & Orpheus&: Two Mock-Heroic Designs by Durer&, in Journal of the Warburg Institute, 1939. - Vol. 2. - No. 3.
10. Steinberg, R.M., & The Iconography of the Teatro dell&Acqua at the Villa Aldobrandini&, in The Art Bulletin, 1965. - Vol. 47. - No. 4.
11. Vivanti, C., & Henry IV, Gallic Hercules&, in Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, 1967. -Vol. 30.
12. Martin, J.R., & Immagini della Virt?: The Paintings of the Camerino Farnese&, in The Art Bulletin, 1956. - Vol. 38. - No. 2.

Article came to edition 14.07.10

UDC 130+006.91:261

E.A. Polyakova, edging. cultural science, dots. ALTGAKI, Barnaul, E-mail: elena2873@mail.ru

SOCIOCULTURAL FUNCTIONS of the CHURCH MUSEUMS: HISTORY AND the PRESENT (on the example of the CHURCH and ARCHAEOLOGICAL OFFICE of the TOMSK THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY)

In this article the author on the example of a church and archaeological office of the Tomsk theological seminary considers the history of development of sociocultural functions of the church museums during the pre-revolutionary and modern periods. On the basis of historical reconstruction and the analysis of sociocultural functions, the author defines the prospects of development of communicative opportunities of the church museums.

Feature of each single sociocultural institute are its functions in relation to society. Since the Ancient Greek temple protomuseum meetings there were those functions which became main for the modern museums - documenting and educational and educational. But as the museum in essence establishment ideological, it very sensitively reacts to all changes happening in society. In this regard during each single period any given function gains a certain value. For confirmation of the aforesaid it is necessary to address experience of the church museums which are at the present stage in process of creation or reconstruction. The Church and archaeological office of the Tomsk theological seminary chosen as an example (further CAK TDS) is most indicative as it allows to track in a complex development of sociocultural functions during the different historical periods.

The church and archaeological office of the Tomsk theological seminary, was open on October 4, 2008 at the initiative of the archbishop Rostislav, the rector of the Tomsk Theological Seminary. Blessing was given by the patriarch Alexy P who is considered the chief founder of the museum [1]. Emergence of CAK at TDS is not accidental, and carries on pre-revolutionary tradition. In 1916 in Tomsk the diocesan archaeological museum of church antiquities which idea of opening arose in 1913 was created [2, page 1462]. The reasons of its creation are in the all-Russian trend of preservation of trees departments. Since the end of the 19th century the pamyatnikookhranitelny activity of the Saint of the Synod was stirred up. The imperial archaeological commission of preservation of antiquities noted that in 1884 the highest church administration gave guarding orders in which it was offered: & #34; to make restoration of monumental monuments of antiquity only under the preliminary agreement with the Imperial archaeological commission and.... with Imperial academy художеств".

In 1903 the St. Synod published the instruction & #34; to make special inventories of antiquities on monasteries and churches where those antiquities are available and to concentrate copies of these inventories in Moscow patriarchal библиотеке". In the instruction it was stipulated that to alienate any antiquities specified in the inventory without the permission of St. The synod it is forbidden, and Decrees of 1909 and 1910 ruled & #34; at resumption of ancient churches, ancient, both external and to keep an interior carefully and not to allow without the permission of the spiritual power of any amendments and перемен". In this regard, in 1912 the St. Synod called dioceses for universal creation of archaeological societies & #34; for acquaintance of clergy with the known antiquities, and it is equal also to its zainteresovaniya in protection church старины" and measures for theoretical preparation were soon taken - in seminaries the course of church archeology began to be given [3, page 329].

Activity of the Tomsk Church Historical and Archaeological Society (TCHAS) opened at the initiative of Me-fodiya Preosvyashchenneyshy the bishop Tomsk and Altai became one more reason of emergence of the museum. On March 17, 1914 Mefodiy Preos-vyashchenneyshy gave to St. The synod the official report with & #34; the petition for an approval of the presented draft of the charter Tomsk church historical and archaeological общества" [4, page 469]. In the Tomsk diocesan sheets of November 1, 1914 (No. 21) it was published, claimed by St. The synod the Charter of the Tomsk church historical and archaeological society in which it was emphasized that main objectives of Society was joint with the Altai Spiritual mission & #34; studying church and religious life Tomsk епархии" and & #34; inspection, protection and collecting of monuments of local church antiquity and истории" [5, page 471]. In the Charter ways of achievement of goals according to which members of Society had to investigate archives of churches, monasteries, spiritual educational institutions and & #34 were also stipulated; to do выемки" the most important in istoriches-

a lump the relation of written documents, and at the obligatory consent of the owner to transfer them in drevlekhranilishche, being the place of storage & #34; monuments of church old times, antiquities of primitive history and in general objects archaeological and historical значения" [5, page 471-472].

In May, 1916 the ceremonial opening of Tomsk Church Historical and Archaeological Society at which there were Anatoly Preosvyashchenneyshy, the Bishop Tomsk and Altai (Mefodiy Preosvyashchenneyshy's successor), Gabriel Preosvyashchenneyshy, the Bishop Barnaul, the companion of the minister of national education V.T. Shevyakov and representatives of local educational and spiritual institutions was held [6, page 335-336].

On the general organizational social gathering, taken place on May 22, were chosen the chairman who became Preos-vyashchenneyshy the bishop Gabriel, members of council of society and managers of library and drevlekhranilishchy. In terms of the present research the fact that at this meeting the decision on opening of the diocesan archaeological museum of church antiquities (drevlekhranilishch) was made is represented interesting. The reasons of opening of the museum reveal in publications of the year-book & #34; Tomsk diocesan ведомости" for 1914-1916 in which it is told that, TTsIAO is simply obliged to arrange drevlekhranilishche, & #34; as church antiquities imperceptibly perish in the natural way, giving way to the movement of culture: instead of small churchlets there are big temples... all old decays and разрушается" [7, page 409]. In this regard at this general organizational meeting the manager drevlekhranilishchy - the archpriest S. Dmitriyevsky was elected. The charter of TTsIAO, demonstrates that exhibits of this museum became & #34; monuments of church old times, antiquity of primitive history and in general objects archaeological and historical значения" [5, page 472] which were collected as a result of a research of archives of churches, monasteries, spiritual educational institutions.

The chairman, members of council of society and the manager drevlekhranilishchy discussed priorities of joint activity which came down, first, to studying literature of the concerning history of the Tomsk diocese, secondly, to work with bibliographic indexes on archaeological subject for clarification of degree of study of provincial antiquities, thirdly, to direct collecting monuments of antiquity with forces of clergy and researchers of society, fourthly, to scientific studying collected materials. At a meeting also potential subjects to museum documenting which could be presented by icons, church utensils, manuscripts, vestments, descriptions of monuments of antiquity from places of their stay, photos of churches, chapels and those valuable icons which could not be withdrawn in drevlekhranilishche were stipulated [7, page 408-410].

The history of Siberia as parts of Russia, begun since the time of Ivan the Terrible, gave the grounds to assume existence in its territory of monuments of HUKHUSh of centuries. By members of Society it was established that in Tomsk there was a church, modern to its basis; monastery of times of Alexey Mikhaylovich. Besides, the historical and cultural heritage such cities as Kuznetsk (1618), Barnaul had (1730). The conducted preliminary researches demonstrated that in the territory of the province it is possible to find various antiquities from the central part of Russia. First, in the territory of the diocese, rather long time there lived the Moscow sluzhily people whose social and property status was at rather high level. They imported a significant amount of liturgical objects which after their departure were transferred to other persons. Secondly, in the diocese there arrived patriarchs - bishops and metropolitans who proceeding from the status, could not but have church rarities. Thirdly, to Siberia, Old Believers dissenters ran and referred ime-

nity citizens who, considering psychology of people of that time, refused house belongings rather, than icons and prayer books.

In this regard, members of society hoped to find diplomas, acts and monuments to activity of Saint Patriarchs; icons of the best Moscow masters Prokopy Chirin and Nikita Pav-lovts; icons of stroganovsky school; icons of royal icon-painting school under control of S. Ushakov. Besides, Siberia had also own unique collection which testified to life and a spiritual feat of local metropolitans, saints, monks. In the province the century educational activity of orthodox preachers among pagans was conducted - in the territory of the Tomsk diocese about 90 years the orthodox spiritual mission worked [3].

The speech of the director of the Tomsk Institute of Technology Mr. Kartashov who not only predicted possible difficulties in work of Society testifies to the serious relation and scientific approach to documenting and studying monuments of antiquity, but also proposed concrete measures for their overcoming: & #34; clergy and even specially sent members of society initially will be in difficulty by determination of archaeological value of monuments therefore it is necessary to publish popular brochures, whenever possible with drawings for acquaintance with signs of monuments of antiquity. And as church monuments to antiquity are various: manuscripts, buildings, icons, St. clothes, utensils and as assessment of their archaeological value demands various experts, it would be useful to charge drawing up the necessary brochures on different specialties to different persons. Therefore for efficiency of work the Society has to allocate from itself the commissions: for development of literature of a question, for studying architecture and an iconography, for a research of manuscripts, etc. & #34; [7, page 409].

Speaking about educational activity, it was peculiar to Society, but not a drevlekhranilishch and was carried out in the form of the public readings and lectures of survey character focused on unprepared Tomsk public and also by means of the edition of results of scientific research on church history and archeology of local edge [5].

As show the above-stated facts, the main role of the undertaken TTsIAO and drevlekhranilishchy, there was a preservation of monuments of church old times. In 1916 in the Tomsk diocesan sheets article of the manager drevlekhranilishchy, the archpriest S. Dmitriyevsky in which the short review of church and guarding activity was given was printed. Referring to works of the Novgorod church and archaeological society, it describes a case as one monk to facilitate to itself(himself) work on analysis of archive, got away ancient manuscripts to the Volkhov River. Arguing on a problem of protection of the monuments and factors promoting their destruction S. Dmitriyevsky notes that & #34; written monuments got that to the river. on a subfire chamber of furnaces, on markets as unnecessary stuff and how many still archives smolders without prizor under bell towers and on attics of monasteries. icons peremalevyvatsya often, temples were destroyed or so & #34; реставрировались" what from a former look did not remain and следа" [3, page 334]. One more problem, there were speculators who using illiteracy of society, bought up for nothing icons, utensils, books and took out them abroad where resold to foreign collectors. The actual material analyzed by the archpriest Sergius led it to a conclusion that one of ways of a solution is creation of diocesan archaeological committees which will have to & #34; to bring into popularity, to describe, collect and protect these памятники". But, as the archpriest S. Dmitriyevsky noted, it could become effective only in the presence of well organized supervision and understanding of value of the protected objects, and the Russian clergy did not receive within the formation of data on archeology and respectively was not prepared for the solution of objectives. In this regard, absolutely reasonable and important became the order (1912) St. The synod about universal creation of diocesan archaeological societies

& #34; for acquaintance of clergy with the known antiquities, and it is equal also to its zainteresovaniya in protection church старины" and also theoretical training of clergy.

In December, 1917 the manager drevlekhranilishchy appealed to clergy and laymen of the Tomsk province about the help in protection of monuments of church old times, in connection with increasingly frequent cases of infringement of monuments of historical and art value and also cases of damage and plunder of church property. Referring to the order from the center, S. Dmitriyevsky on behalf of archaeological society appealed to the Tomsk diocese, & #34; that all prichta and parish councils took measures to preservation of monuments, and from someone's party immediately to notify on infringement of them общество". Besides, Dmitriyevsky recommended & #34; for the best сохранности" to send the ancient things which left the church use, books, diplomas, icons, skladn, antimensions. Also he suggested to make detailed inventories and to photograph church buildings outside and inside and to provide all to archaeological society as, quite so people & #34; will relieve from themselves great responsibility to the homeland and science for safety valuable ancient памятников" [8, page 338]. Other data on the fate of a drevlekhranilishch of TTsIAO the author it was revealed not and, most likely, after establishment of the Soviet power it was destroyed as having a direct bearing on Russian Orthodox Church.

Thus, on the basis of the above-stated facts it is possible to claim that primary museum function - documenting, consisting in identification of objects of museum value, their study and preservation within the added to the category of museum objects collections was peculiar to the Tomsk drevlekhranilishch. The concrete data confirming (or disproving) existence in drevlekhranilishche visual and verbal forms of museum communication by the author was revealed not, in this regard it is not possible to establish whether there were meetings of a drevlekhranilishch closed (share) or open for general public. But considering experience of others drevlekhranilishch that period it is possible to assume that materials were shown to rather narrow circle of visitors (to clergy, scientists) and were grouped by means of the complex and thematic principle and a systematic method, and display of icons, perhaps, it was carried out by means of & #34; ковровой" weighings (for example, as in drevlekhranilishche Moscow spiritual academy).

During the Soviet and Post-Soviet periods of the museums similar to the Tomsk drevlekhranilishch, in the territory of the region did not exist up to the end of the first decade of the 21st century. The museum at the Tomsk theological seminary which is classical type of a church and archaeological office became the successor of pre-revolutionary tradition. This museum has the special structure caused by the created thematic collections, the largest of which is the collection of icons. Also collections of prayer books, church metal, fabrics and a memorial collection of the Most Saint Patriarch Alexy II are presented to expositions of the museum.

Characterizing activity of CAK TDS it is possible to note that the documenting and educational and educational sociocultural functions are characteristic of it. If to compare functions of documenting of the pre-revolutionary and modern museums, then there is obvious a fact that completing in drevlekhranilishche was conducted more systemically and provided not only storage, but also scientific research of collected materials [7]. The modern museum is interesting that the sphere of its documenting is not limited only to the Tomsk region, and covers Siberia and some regions of the European part of Russia; as for studying collected material, it is not conducted yet. From the point of view of the author, the reason of it consists in short lifetime and in absence in staff of research associates or professional art dealers.

As for educational and educational function, in drevlekhranilishche it was absent - lectures and readings lips -

raivatsya by TTsIAO and had survey character. According to Anatoly Preosvyashchenneyshy, in the field of an iconography the substantial party of lectures had to concern the all-Russian tradition, the Siberian material had to enter episodic, in the context of development of church art [9, page 744-747]. Lectures on architecture had to have comparative character for fuller understanding of differences between the Russian and western tradition of cult architecture (for example, & #34; Church Western European and Byzantine architecture) & #34; [10, page 768].

Characterizing the CAK TDS educational and educational function, it should be noted that it is carried out within exposition and exhibition activity and it is presented by a classical museum and pedagogical form - a sightseeing tour. Despite this at the museum own circle of visitors was created. The analysis of reports of attendance of the museum showed that in the first year of existence (from October, 2008 to October, 2009) the audience of the museum was made by two big groups. The people who are professionally connected with ROC (611 people) among which there are students of seminary (61 people), members of the orthodox communities and the organizations (550 people) entered the first. The second group - the secular visitors (816 people) presented by school students (110 people), students (404 people), teachers of higher education institutions (18 people) and single visitors (284 people) [1]. Even at existence of one control text of an excursion made by the archbishop Rostislav excursion material adapts for each specific group on degree of its votserkovlennost. For those visitors whose educational, professional activity is directly connected with church (43%) process of museum communication more has the local history and personified character. For other part of the audience (secular) making its majority (57%), communication is conducted for the purpose of education, education, formation of new knowledge and has more concrete character.

In spite of the fact that the educational and educational capacity of the museum is very considerable that is caused by wide thematic structure, but it is not realized even on a half. So, for example, about 120 icons distributed on four thematic complexes are presented to expositions of the museum. In the first Christ Redeemer's icons are presented (14 units hr.), the most ancient among which is the image of the beginning of the 16th century - Saviour - the Wet Beard with which, presumably, Cossack pioneers went on the Tomsk earth. The second complex includes the icons of the Mother of God (21 units hr.) presented by three main types an odi-gitriya, the orant and affection. Existence in the section of a Catholic icon - & #34 is remarkable; Coronation of the Maiden of Marii". The third section represents icons of Saints (16 units hr.). There is the oldest icon insert & #34; Nikolay Ugodnik" (a face - the first quarter of the 16th century, a frame - 19th century). In terms of the equipment the Novgorod tablet & #34 is interesting; Prophet of Iliya". The last complex is devoted to icons of holidays (14 units hr.). The uniqueness of this section is that in it works of the first Tomsk icon painters of Krotov (& #34 are presented; Вознесение" 1604) and Pankry-shev, founder of the Tomsk icon-painting school, (& #34; Finding of Life-giving Kresta" & #34; Благовещение"). 2 models of the temple of Holy Trinity Church of 1604 and 1654 and the marching iconostasis of the 19th century made on samples of the 16th century are thematically connected with this section. A royal gate of the 17th age of the Yaroslavl and Rostov school (attribution of GTG) are considered as a pearl of a meeting. This gate sawn on 6 parts was found during customs inspection in attempt of export them abroad. The patriarch Alexy II gave a gate to the Tomsk lord, and they after restoration took a place of honor in the museum. The variety of iconographic monuments of the Tomsk museum can form base for carrying out various thematic lectures (or other forms), for example, for the purpose of studying plots of an orthodox iconography. The ability to present an icon as prepared, and unprepared audience can become one of the main features of the church museum. Unlike secular, often treating an iconography as a type of the fine arts, an ancient art, the church museums are capable sfor-

to mirovat to it the relation as to special sacred action. The icons placed in an exposition of the museum, by means of the disclosure of the sacral sense, images and plots imprinted by masters are capable to increase the cultural and educational level of visitors considerably. Certainly, the temple situation most precisely corresponds to reading of meaning of an icon, but it is better to comprehend this meaning in the museum whose space is more adapted for cultural and educational activity. To teach, especially secular visitors, to see the Divine Prototype which removes consciousness of the person in inner world in an icon shows & #34; secret and supernatural зрелища" to help to apprehend it as a certain fact of divine reality, to explain reverent attitude to an icon in the orthodox doctrine, to explain its sacral meaning, a plot, symbolics of details and color. All these tasks have to become the most important component of museum and pedagogical activity of the church museums which play a role peculiar & #34; ликбезов" for modern society.

Besides icons, rather various collection of church metal including cast icons and crucifixions of the 19th century, a skladna and next-to-skin obrazk of the 17th century is presented to expositions of the museum. The church utensils of the museum are very interesting as it contains the real rarities, among which the chalice belonging to John of Kronstadt, liturgical objects from the most ancient Tomsk temple (the Trinity Zhivonachalna) and a censer of the 18th century. This section also possesses high degree of informational content: on its base for a secular part of audience it is possible to conduct museum lessons in which to tell about value, symbolics and the main stages of the Divine liturgy, and to acquaint with its material components: censer, chalice, altar cross. An indispensable condition of carrying out the Divine Liturgy is existence of an antimension which in this museum is presented in the section of church fabrics. Besides the antimension belonging to the Reverend Makari (Nevsky) in this section are shown air and the shroud (18th century) given by the Patriarch Alexy II. On materials of this exposition complex in the course of demonstration of church vestments (a sticharion diaconal, stoles, a phelonion; the vestments of the patriarch Alexy II during a time of his service by the Metropolitan Novgorod and Leningrad, a patriarchal corn cockle) are an opportunity to tell about hierarchy of church attendants, up to the patriarch. The materials of this section which are clearly demonstrating difference between diaconal and priestly vestments will help to orient (in the course of the excursion) in their office functions.

Speaking about communication opportunities of the church museums, it is impossible will not stop on the written sources making very important part of information space. In CAK TDS along with rather widespread church books, such as altar Gospel, Psalter, Lives, eromlog written & #34; крюковым" and & #34; топорным" the letter, also the real rarities meet: Ostrozhsky Bible by Ivan Fedorov; Elizabethan Bible; Chetya Minei belonging to the tsarevna Sofya Alekseevna with her records made in the period of the conclusion in the Novodevichy Convent; the published Makari Glukharev's letters with Makari Nevsky's autograph. Materials of this complex are capable not only to expand ideas of prayer books, but also to orient the visitor concerning their use during any given services, having increased that their cultural and educational level.

All above confirms the prospect of development of educational and educational function of the church museums. This type of the museum is capable not only to acquaint most harmoniously visitors with orthodox history and culture, but also to liquidate gaps in knowledge of plots of an iconography, church hierarchy, an order of the Divine liturgy. Such museum is capable to prepare the person who was earlier not in the temple for its visit [11, page 155-157].

Summing up the results it is possible to note that during the periods of formation and reconstruction of the church museums (drevlekhranilishch) the documenting function providing protection of church historical and cultural heritage was paramount. At the present stage when there was already a basis of fund, has to come to the forefront and educational and educational function which potential is caused by concentration in exposition and exhibition space of the times -

begins to come out

the personal museum objects possessing high degree of informational content and expressivity. Visual communication has to be complemented with various museum and pedagogical forms calculated on various categories of audience and use not only monological statement of material, but also the practical methods providing knowledge acquisition & #34; through руки".

Bibliography

1. CAK TDS. Reports of attendance of the museum for 2008-2009 uch.
2. Opening of the diocesan house and diocesan brotherhood of sobriety//Tomsk diocesan sheets. - 1913. - No. 24.
3. Dmitriyevsky, Page. The report when opening Church historical and archaeological society//the Tomsk diocesan sheets. - 1916. - No. 10.
4. The decree of its Imperial Majesty, Autocrat Vserossiysky, from the Holy Ruling Synod, to Anatoly Preosvyashchenny, the Bishop Tomsk and Altai//the Tomsk diocesan sheets. - 1914. - No. 21.
5. Charter of Tomsk Church Historical and Archaeological Society//Tomsk diocesan sheets. - 1914. - No. 21.
6. From the diocesan chronicle: ceremonial opening of Tomsk Church Historical and Archaeological Society//Tomsk diocesan sheets. - 191 6. - No. 10.
7. Organizational meeting of Tomsk Church Historical and Archaeological Society//Tomsk diocesan sheets. - 1916.-№ 11.
8. Dmitriyevsky, to S. Vnimany of clergy//Tomsk diocesan sheets. - 1917. - No. 23.
9. From the diocesan chronicle: Meeting of board of Tomsk Church Historical and Archaeological Society//Tomsk diocesan sheets. - 19 1 6. - No. 6.
10. From the diocesan chronicle: Lectures on archeology//Tomsk diocesan sheets. - 1916. - No. 22.
11. Polyakova, E.A. Culturological problems of interaction of the museum and church: history and present//World of science, culture, education. - 2008. - No. 5.

Article came to edition 14.07.10

UDC 130+398.22 (519.3)

S.M. Belokurova, m of N of page of department OONIR ALTGAKI, Barnaul; M.Yu. Shishin, Dr. filos. sciences, prof. ALTGAKI, Barnaul, E-mail: altgaki@gmail.com

The ONTOLOGIC STATUS of the CULTURAL UNIVERSAL (ON MATERIAL of the WEST MONGOLIAN CULTURE)

Culture, thanks to heterogeneity comprises a universal, steady forms which remain in time and are form-building elements of culture genesis. On material of the epos of the western Mongols the universal the axial text, the Homeland, the soldier, a mediator is allocated and their ontologic status, communication with eydetichesky reality is defined.

Article is executed with assistance of a grant of RGNF No. 08-04-92306 and / Yu

Culture philosophy at the moment focuses on a number of large problems, and in particular, on a problem of heterogeneity of culture and detection in it steady formations, a certain universal which play a key role in culture genesis. Some people including the oyrata inhabiting the Western Mongolia and Altai, kept many lines of traditional culture that allows to find easier these constant forms, to open mechanisms of their education and the ontologic status. Researches which are conducted nowadays by ethnographers and historians of culture show that the heroic epos of the people of Altai in which many phenomena of this sort remained can be the fertile sphere of an explication of a cultural universal.

The heroic epos of oyrat is chosen us as subject of the kulturosofsky analysis for the purpose of detection of constant forms of culture for a number of reasons. First, this unique spiritual cultural heritage of Mongols, and many Russian scientists such as G.N. Potanin, B.Ya. Vladimirtsov, S.Yu. Neklyudov and also the modern Mongolian writers of B. Katuu, M. Ganbold who published a number of large researches were engaged in its collecting, interpretation, the translation. By them it was established that epic legends not only reflect real and sacral story of the people, but in it elements 248 are shown

iyerofaniya and teofaniya, anthropo-and a kosmogeneza, ethnoethical representations were reflected. However in the presence of rich empirical material on folklore and the culture of the western Mongols in general, it did not receive philosophical judgment and interpretation, and it in turn leaves not opened important semantic layers of texts, and their value as axial and form-building elements in culture also remains not brightened.

Secondly, kulturfilosofsky approach to texts of the heroic legend allows to see in them phenomena of culture of special value. It is known that in the culture of the western Mongols the large role was played by contacts with Tibet, with its religioznofilosofsky schools. Many spiritual and secular leaders passed under

Spina Ilaria Gerardina
Other scientific works: