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Projects of reforms of the public and municipal administration of P.A. Stolypin: unrealized ideas




P.A. Stolypina:


A.B. Miz

MIZ Alexander Borisovich -

candidate of historical sciences, associate professor

Volga region academy


of P.A. Stolypin

\. / redi great statesmen and reformers of Russia P.A. Stolypin took the honourable and deserved place for a long time. In the history generally connect the well-known agrarian reform, practical activities on posts of the Minister of Internal Affairs and chairman of the board of ministers with his name. However P.A. Stolypin's activity was wider and many-sided. In particular, he worked on improvement of the local territorial self-government which is pressed down by bureaucratic counterreforms of Alexander III, and on May 6, 1911 dictated to the secretary, professor A.V. Zenkovsky, the general project of transformation state unitary enterprise -

a ravleniye in which planned creation of the new specialized ministries and reorganization of already existing - for the solution of the practical questions which were imminent by then.

Creation of seven new ministries was provided (work; local governments; nationalities; social security; confessions; inspections, use and operation of natural wealth and subsoil; health care). Further it was supposed to create the eighth ministry - resettlements (from department of the Ministry of agriculture). However behind specific questions of creation and reorganization of the ministries problems of functional division of powers between public institutions, relationship of public administration and local government, training for the device, research of new funds for treasury and the territorial system, prevention of national and social shocks, a raising of economic and military power of the state, increase in the standard of living of the population were looked through.

First of all it was supposed to create a number of the ministries which did not have analogs in Russia. Extremely necessary P.A. Stolypin considered the Ministry of Social Welfare as workers and employees were not provided in case of disability, a disease, unemployment at all. The new ministry had to study carefully experience of the advanced countries of Europe and America and to submit to the government the relevant bill of social security.

As in Russia the ethnic question always was difficult, was planned to create the Ministry of nationalities. It was supposed that it will be headed by the public figure holding authority with all Russian population. Thorough study of cultural, religious soobshchnost, social problems of the non-russian people of the country, carrying out policy of equality, irrespective of nationality and belief, creation of conditions for cultural and religious development of each ethnic group were imputed tasks of the ministry. It, according to Stolypin, had to keep the uniform state and not allow the partition of Russia. This offer has in many respects something in common with the idea of "cultural-national autonomy" which is the cornerstone of state system of many modern multinational states.

In 1912 it was planned to create the Ministry of Labour which had to deal with problems of working class and on the basis of the best European practices, with the assistance of the Ministries of Trade, the industry, social security, local governments and all zemstvoes to draft the bill of improvement economic

and cultural position of workers. According to the author of the project, it could weaken significantly social tension in the country.

The important role in spiritual life of the Russian people and prevention of the social conflicts was allocated for Orthodox Church, situation in which P.A. Stolypin considered unsatisfactory. The ministry of confessions headed by the highly educated ecclesiastics devoted to Orthodoxy (the minister and Council of spiritual hierarches), had to be engaged not only in affairs of Orthodox Church, but also to monitor activity of other religions. It was supposed to increase number of spiritual schools, seminaries, academies, to expand their training program, to lift a salary of priests, to prepare restoration of patriarchate liquidated still by Peter I. The last idea could become a step to a certain independence of Church.

As the country had huge resources of minerals, the Ministry of inspection, use and operation of riches and the subsoil of Russia could promote increase in revenues of the state and a raising of the standard of living of the population. Development of the railroads, attraction of the capitals of businessmen, creation of joint-stock banks and concessions was for this purpose pressed. In this regard already existing Ministry of Railways had to develop the construction plan railway and highways for 1913-1930. Roads of strategic value were planned to be constructed at the expense of the government budget, highway, soil and, whenever possible, the railroads in provinces - at the expense of means of territorial self-government and the private capitals on the terms of concession. Use of capable Jewish entrepreneurs and financiers from whom it was necessary to lift the existing limits was supposed. All this, according to P.A. Stolypin, could give an impetus to development of joint-stock companies in the industry, keep import, increase export and currency receipts.

Creation of the Ministry of Health had to keep development of territorial and not territorial medicine by allocation of the state grants for construction and the maintenance of hospitals, development medical, including free, the help to the population. The special attention of the ministry and zemstvoes addressed on fight against epidemics and coordination of actions of all medical institutions (holding the All-Russian and regional congresses of territorial and not territorial doctors for development of programs of fight against epidemics and rendering free medical care, the organization of business trips for studying foreign experience, etc.) [1, page 402-411].

P.A. Stolypin, being an important government official, paid considerable attention to support and development of local territorial and city government. This position was directly connected with its agrarian reform and support of strong peasants ("farmers"). Alexander III's counterreforms considerably weakened local government, strengthened in it nobility positions, strengthened intervention of administration to such an extent that the governor could cancel decisions of territorial meetings, being guided not by the law, but "expediency". Rural and volost management remained class and country and actually was operated by the district nobility (territorial chief). The Stolypin government in 1906-1907 suggested to create classless self-government at the level of the settlement (settlement management), the volost (volost meeting and management) and the county (district council). From the state behind volost bodies the local commissioner, in the county - the chief of district management, appointed by the Minister of Internal Affairs and the emperor had to exercise supervision. At the same time the court had to be separated from administration of all levels, and the government had to limit the intervention in local affairs to control of legality of actions [2, page 248-258]. Thus, the system was based on interaction of large, small landowners and government officials.

In the last projects of 1911 P.A. Stolypin went further away, considering necessary cooperation of the state departments with more effective, flexible and brought closer to the population territorial and city system of self-government. Its efficiency was provided with the selectivity "from below" determined by financial independence, independent staff recruitment, the reporting of executive bodies before administrative. Not accidentally Stolypin noted that employees of self-government have a good salary and "for 47 years of existence of zemstvo in Russia the life showed that in zemstvoes, as well as in judicial authorities, bribery did not take place that where there are no zemstvoes, the medicine is in a deplorable state, they possess the leading role in development of education on places" [1, page 409-425].

Stolypin, highly appreciating reforms of the emperor Alexander II, suggested not only to restore the law on self-government of 1864, but also to expand the rights of zemstvoes, especially provincial, to the level of the rights of states of the USA, to enter self-government throughout the country. Decrease in territorial qualification by 10 times all persons since 21 could take part in territorial management, irrespective of nationality and religion, including - owners of farms and workers was planned,

owning the small real estate. It was offered to create the uniform closed system of self-government. Volost, district and provincial zemstvoes (meetings and justices) had to become its main links, each of which at the level would resolve economic, social, cultural needs of the population. At the same time provincial zemstvoes had to assume obligations for insurance, implementation of financial actions for the benefit of all zemstvoes, to development of statistics (bureau) for clarification of needs of the population and revaluation of real estate for the purpose of exact taxation, the organization of congresses of territorial experts, to creation and the maintenance of higher educational institutions.

Self-government was supposed to be brought out of guardianship of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and to transfer him to the Ministry of local governments. Along with other ministries it was intended to help zemstvoes with expansion of their activity, to try to obtain the state grants, to find new sources of financing for support of self-government and satisfaction of needs of the population. The device of the All-Russian congresses of territorial experts for coordination of their work in all provinces of the country was under authority of the called Ministry too [1, page 403-406].

The similar program could strengthen self-government, give an impetus to development of the province, create more other base for parliamentarism. In the same 1911 P.A. Stolypin tried to extend the first option of classless zemstvoes on the outskirts of the country (western provinces). However the nobility saw in it threat of the local authorities and blocked all projects in the State Council [3, page 68-70]. The idea of the closed system of self-government only after falling of the monarchy in 1917 was realized by Provisional governments which went further away, having created the All-Russian territorial and city union instead of the ministry. However the Bolshevist revolution put the end to self-government development [4, page 152].

B 1911 P.A. Stolypin made a number of recommendations and about improvement of work of the old ministries. The Ministry of Internal Affairs had to focus on protection of law and order in the state. The ministry of agriculture was with zemstvoes in contact has to keep development of strong country farms.

The military and Sea ministries to ensure a victory of Russia in case of war, had to develop a detailed plan of reorganization of army, especially its supply, arms and construction of strategic means of communication.

Assessing positively judicial reform of Alexander II which

gave to vessels a certain independence, P.A. Stolypin suggested to lift sharply a salary of all judicial workers that they did not seek to go to private legal profession.

The head of the government attached great value to development of education and training. The ministry of national education had to not only attend to getting (together with zemstvoes) allocations for development of the lowest schools and transition to free primary education, but also to keep development of secondary and higher education. For this purpose it was required to organize preparation of teacher's shots for high schools and especially professors for higher educational institutions which number was planned to be increased at 10-12 times to fill vacancies in the higher education institutions created by provincial zemstvoes. In 20-25 years, that is approximately by 1933-1938 the total number of average educational institutions had to reach five, and the highest - one-one and a half thousand. Payment for study had to be such that needy layers could give to children an average, and whenever possible and the higher education.

Special attention was paid to training for the central and highest government. P.A. Stolypin considered that in the ministries persons have to work with the higher education, and the capable people who are knowing not less than two foreign languages and received after higher education institution special preparation in any branch of management not just. For this purpose the Ministry of Public Education in cooperation with others was offered to create the two-three-year academy consisting of 11-12 specialized offices which could train highly qualified personnel for each ministry separately. The relevant higher education institution delivering candidates for training from among graduates was assigned to office.

For example, in office on training of responsible officials for the Ministry of national education the graduates of the universities who graduated historical and philological or physical and mathematical faculties in office on the Ministry of Defence - graduates of Academy of the General Staff or other military academy, in office on the Ministry of Finance, National bank, the State control, the Ministry of Trade and the industry - graduates of commercial institutes or economic office of the St. Petersburg polytechnic were accepted. All this, according to the author of the project, could improve sharply quality of administrative shots [1, page 416-418].

In spite of the fact that P.A. Stolypin was a supporter of preservation of the monarchy, the United and indivisible Russia, often exaggerated a reformative role of bureaucracy, nevertheless in approach to state unitary enterprise -

to a ravleniye he adhered to the all-European principle of division of powers between various parts of government. It was shown in recognition of need of independent court, in attempts to deprive the Ministry of Internal Affairs of economic and administrative functions, to limit direct intervention of government officials in self-government affairs, in movement of the center of gravity of work of the ministries from administration on cooperation and the help to local bodies.

He adhered to the same principle also when forming the government. P.A. Stolypin considered that all responsibility for work of the government and its formation has to lie on the chairman of the board of ministers whom the emperor would appoint from among outstanding statesmen. Ministers, in turn, would be appointed not the head of state, and were claimed and deviated by him on representation of the chairman. All the actions, even the report before the head of state, ministers have to coordinate with the head of the government [1, page 412-415]. Such approach could strengthen executive power significantly.

The project of the extensive transformations demanded increase in the budget more than by 3 times (from 3 to 10 billion rubles). Therefore the Ministry of Finance together with financiers, scientists and territorial figures had to find new sources for treasury and local government, in particular carry out real revaluation of all real estate (in 1911 underestimated by 10 times) by means of territorial and city statistics. Respectively, a number of the measures including directed to increase in direct taxes, introduction of a small sales tax, substantial increase of an excise at alcoholic drinks was provided. The progressive tax for large-scale industry and prosperous classes had to eliminate consequences of inevitable inflation. At the same time needy could be exempted from all taxes.

For exact definition of necessary means, for keeping of employees the special commission of financiers had to determine the level of the minimum compensation, proceeding from a living wage of family of three people and parameters of possible inflation. On the basis of it salaries for more highly paid officials, for employees of self-government, industrial workers and agriculture have to be established. Stolypin suggested to carry out increase in salaries for the high-ranking officials carefully not to cause damage to a financial position of the state. At the same time growth of a salary at railway and post and cable employees was assumed due to increase in railway tariff. Dopolnitel-

domestic and external loans could be a ny source of means [1, page 412-415].

Thus, P.A. Stolypin's proposals on transformation of internal management in Russia were aimed at more clear split of functions and powers between various parts of government, creation of the new, not having still analogs of the ministries, implementation of the qualified management training, development and support of local government. Also the main activities of public institutions were defined: stabilization and strengthening of financial and judicial systems, sciences, education, transport, army, development of peasant farms, mining industry and business in general.

Not all proposals of P.A. Stolypin can be estimated unambiguously, but in general their realization could bring Russia to the all-European way of development, including in the sphere of public administration, having turned it into the developed power. The tragedy by P.A. Stolypin as reformer was that in the country with insufficiently developed social and economic structure and traditional domination of the state bureaucracy of reform were generally carried out "from above", and it always created problems at their realization. Stolypin's projects encountered the strongest resistance of noble oligarchy headed by the monarch, misunderstanding from the State Duma and the population, hatred of revolutionaries. As a result many offers remained on paper, and begun was reforms after P.A. Stolypin's murder were buried by the device, world war and the subsequent social shocks. Studying Stolypin heritage demonstrates that many problems facing the country at the beginning of the 20th century still remain current. How they will be solved, the future of the Russian state in many respects depends.


1. Stolypin. Life and death (1862-1911): Collection. Saratov, 1997.
2. O. Ezhova. Reforms of local government in the Russian Empire (1864-1917)//Federalism. 2000. No. 1.
3. Russia at the turn of the century: historical portraits: Collection. M, 1991.
4. L.V. Gilchenko. From the history of formation of local government in Russia//the State and the right. 1996. No. 2.
Moore Aldous
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