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Category: History

Udzhigita ancestors of hoshut

d. G. Kukeev


Work is presented by the sector of the Far East of the St. Petersburg branch of Institute of oriental studies of RAS.

The research supervisor - the doctor of historical sciences, professor E.I. Kychanoye

In article on the basis of a wide range of sources of east origin history of oyrat before formation of the Dzungarian khanate and also hoshut as one of the main parts in the oyratsky union is traced.

Basing on numerous oriental sources, author of the article traces the history of the Oirats before the formation of the Dzungarian Khanate and of the Khoshuts as one of the main parts of the Oirat union.

History oyratovdo formation of the Dzungarian khanate and the more so the story of the tribes which are a part of oyrat is represented pretty complicated as in a domestic, and foreign historiography. It is obvious that a considerable part of oh-ratsky and Mongolian sources on stories of oyrat in view of a nomadic way of life, wars and the numerous shocks transferred oyrata and Kalmyks on the historical way did not remain. Therefore to fill these losses, it is necessary to attract the most wide range of sources of east origin, namely the sources relating to the history of those countries and the people, with which

oyrata on an extent mno-1 faced

gy centuries.

Nevertheless this topic is still hot, and over time we face various interesting hypotheses, the stories of oyrat promoting more or less fair idea, despite scarcity of historical material.

The historical science knows that hoshu-you rank themselves as Bordzhigitam, i.e. as lineal descendants of the sort Chingis-hana where hoshutsky possessors conduct the origin from Dzhuchi Hasar - the younger brother of Chingis-hana. It is known that specific lands of Dzhuchi Hasar were west of the Nonni River, respectively, kochevya hosheu-

t had to be originally somewhere in East Mongolia. In this regard some researchers had an assumption that claims of east Mongols who were Hou's descendants -

white, on syuzersniteg over oyrata showing 2 yutsyatsya by quite reasonable.

Hoshuta as one of the main parts in the oyratsky union enter on the historical arena at the time of the Minsk dynasty in China. "Man-gu-yu-mu-tszi" fixes one of the Chinese sources about Mongols that "hoshota, Zunghars, durbota and the bargaining - you are four oyrat of times of the Minsk dynasty" &.

However it is necessary to consider that the data describing structure of oyrat in the period of the Minsk dynasty probably reflect breeding structure of oyrat of the middle or the end of the period of board of this Chinese dynasty, i.e. XV nachaloXVI century. In the Mongolian sources concerning the period of history of Mongols and oyrat of the 15th century no word is told about ho-clowns. From here we can draw a conclusion that hoshuta in the 15th century or were not created as the tribe yet, or they appear in sources under other name.

The first mention of structure of oyrat in the Mongolian sources is necessary at that time history of oyrat where they resist to Mongols, namely during the period

Udzhitita - ancestors of hoshut

oyratsky Togon's eminences. Speaking about oyratsky Togon's identity, it should be noted that at first "Mongols broke oyra-t, and their khan Togon was made the shepherd of sheep. Mother of Togon whom Aday-hagan took himself in the wife, a hagan persuaded to allow to go home the son to oyrata", but then "That is rutting, having returned, brought together the oyratsky troops, attacked Mongols and killed with Aday-


hagan". Lubsan Danzan in the chronicle reports: "After Togon-taysha arrived there, to him oyrata, oge-gathered

leta, bagatuta and hoyita - all four that are

5 T

exchange". And apparently, he does not specify hoshut as a part of oyrat. Proceeding from it, we can draw the corresponding conclusion that hoshuta were not a breeding part of oyrat at least in the 20th of the XV century.

However in sources there are mentions of those tribes from which hoshuta were created, - the sort udzhigit it which were a part of oyrat subsequently played also further not the last role in this oyratsky union. "Altan Tobchi" of Lobzan Danzan reports: "Hutul of hagan had three sons - Dzhochi, to Kermikh and Altan. (From them) there was a sort udzhztet". On the basis of the Mongolian and Chinese sources, the surname of hoshut of Bordzhigit, and udzhigit, most likely, the ancient name of a sort, it is one of appeals to hoshuta. Hutula had a famous son Habula-hagan, Bord-zhigit and if in the chronicle Lobzan Danzana "Altan the tobcha" is not available mistakes, then ud-zhigit - the ancient name of the tribe.

Udzhigita lived together with uryankhayets of three military districts of the Minsk dynasty, and, according to the researcher of history of oyrat of the People's Republic of China Altan-Ochir, "for certain ho-clowns consisted mostly of those people who were a part Fuyu Wei".

Here, speaking about three military districts on northeast border, it is necessary to clear that these districts were. "Several Mongolian tribes of northwest Manchuria, podchi-

nivshiyesya to minets, were united in military structure of the empire as Uryankhaysky military districts, and also called as three military districts ( By DZ). Some of them were at war for the emperor throughout civil war and gained his trust". D. Pokotilov specifies that "in 1389 it was founded three, so to speak, foreign districts - Do-yan, Tye-nin and Foo-yuy, which territory Kai yuan lasted a narrow strip from present Kalgan in the east to the city, occupying all northern part of Zhi-whether and the western corner of the province Shen jing (Mukden). Management of these districts was entirely provided to the Mongolian patrimonial chiefs who were granted at the same time officer ranks" &.

Many interesting data are in 328 tszyuena "Mines shi" which, is directly devoted to statement of events in the history of oyrat and uryankhaysky three military districts: Do-yan, Tye-nin and Foo-yuy. The fact that security nomadic settlements of Mongols which appear in the Chinese sources as "Uryankhayskiye three Wei" very willingly met requirements of oyratsky leaders both Togon, and his famous son to Essen during rivalry of the last both with the east Mongolian owners, and with the Minsk empire is very interesting.

Some foreign researchers consider that "in east part when Togon undertook a campaign against Alutaya, Togon repeatedly contacted three Wei, and this business induced


hoshut to be a part of oyrat".

Can be assumed that hoshuta were included into the oyratsky union when oyratsky Togon won war with East Mongolian Aruktayem. About oyratsky Togon's communications with hoshuta three Wei we are told also the Chinese sources, in particular "Mines shi": "Then he (Togon) broke Dordzhi-Bo, threats and temptations enticed to himself all doyansky guard (border Mongols) to watch that

occurs behind outposts (i.e. the Great Wall)" & #34;.

The researcher of history of oyrat from the People's Republic of China Altan-Ochir provides interesting data in the work: "Till the period of board of Esen-hana, three Wei were continuously taken away on the West of Gobi. In 1446 (11th year of the motto of years of government of Zhengtong) Essen intruded in limits three Wei - Ty-nin and Do-yan - these two military districts were broken, and Foo-yuy Wei ran in Ni-tszyan. In the 50th of the 15th century, and someone from Mongols Chita (the I-jing Wei) the military settlement informed of the Minsk salting to the yard that Essen from that territory where now modern Hohhot is located. small Hetao and I-tszi-nay and other places, returned to himself people and horses three Wei. It is obvious that Essen, having taken a huge number of people and the cattle,

having passed through a southwest part of Gobi, to -

went before oyratsky possession".

Concerning history of hoshut there is a set of disputed issues including such question logically arises: if after all hoshuta also lived in the territory of the military districts called "three Wei" then why these districts were also called as Uryankhayskimi? The answer to this question is available for domestic researchers G.E. Grum-Grzhimaylo and V. Pozdneev: "Oy-raty were related to Uranga, and it a sort -

stvo were not forgotten by Zunghars. It is visible from the following words of the chronicle & #34; To Tszasakt to the khan aymagun shastirun хуриянгуй" &" "Manchurians constantly were afraid of indignations of the uryankhayets living in Halkh which already on one relationship easily could enter communication with Zunghars". Further developing this thought, G.E. Grum-Grzhimaylo notices: Whether "In this relationship it is necessary to look for the reason of resettlement by the emperor Hubilayem of the uryankhayets who were to it subject from Yenisei to the Far East? The close neighbourhood of oyrat, subject to Hyde, and uryankhayets was

eternal threat to quiet possession for -


padny borders of the state".

Entry of hoshut into structure of oyrat is a big event in the history oh-ratov. After weakening of influence chorossko-go houses in the oyratsky environment the towered hoshutsky tribe slowly amplified, and subsequently descendants of a bordzhigitsky aristocratic family became leaders of the military alliance of oyrat and were called as oyratsky khans. Because ho-clowns were a part of oyrat, they had strong impact on further the course of events in life of the oyratsky and Kalmyk population and also on their direct neighbors - the states and the people of Central and Central Asia.

1 V.P. Satirov. To characteristic of sources on stories of oyrat: "Mines shi" and Chinese sources of the Minsk period (1368-1644)//KIGI RAS Bulletin. 2001. Issue 16. Page 211.

G.E. Grumm-Grzhimato. Western Mongolia and Uryankhaysky region. M, 1926. T. 2. Page 571. The Man-gu-yu-mu-tszi / Lane with a whale. Popova. SPb., 1895. Page 327.


E.I. Kychanov. The narration about oyratsky Galdana the boshoktu-khan. Elista, 1999. C.19. LubsanDanzan. Altan Tobchi / the Lane with mong. N.P. Shastina. M, 1973. Page 261. & & In the same place. Page 61.


Shlz language fnJst (WeilateMengguJianShi) HaKHT. Short history of oyrat-Mongol. Altan-Ochir. 1992. T. 1. Page 26.

4 Frederick W. Mole. "The Cambridge Hystory of China. The Ming Dynasty, 1368-1644, Volume 7. P. 223. PokotilovD. "History of east Mongols in the period of the Ming dynasty. 1368-1634. On the Chinese sources. SPb., 1893. Page 15.

& & #34; llikW fnJ.5t (Weilate Menggu Jian Shi). Short history of oyrat-Mongol. Altan-Ochir.

1992. T. 1. Page 26.

& #34; * FJ5t" A 328 on a whale. language. Ming dynasty history. 328 tszyuan. ЛШ&№ @-whether } st (Weilate Menggu Jian Shi). Short history of oyrat-Mongol. Altan-Ochir. 1992. T. l.C. 27.


Grum-Grzhiiaylo G.E. When there was also what caused a raspadeniye of Mongols on east and western?//News of the state Geographical Society. T. LXV. Issue 1. Page 174.

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