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Interpretation of history at F. Schiller and Novalis (to a question of the concept "Universalgeschichte" and an era of the Middle Ages)



yu.Yu. Danilkova

INTERPRETATION of HISTORY U F. SCHILLER And NOVALISA (to a question of the concept "Universalgeschichte" and an era of the Middle Ages)

In the center of our research - two personalities - F. Schiller and Nova foxes, writers belonging to different generations. We will be interested them ideas of story, in particular, about era of the Middle Ages. It is obviously important to us to investigate these representations in the context of outlook of everyone.

Before starting a research, it is necessary to outline the general context of the relations of F. Schiller and F. fon Gardenberga. In the winter of 1790/91 in Yen F. Schiller who occupied in 1789 department of history at the Iyensky university submits to the judgement of scientific public an open lecture about an era of crusades, and the eighteen-year-old student of Iyensky university F. a background of Gardenberg1 becomes one of F. Schiller's listeners. This remarkable fact of a meeting in itself of two poets allowed the famous translator, V. Mikushevich, meaning the subsequent hobby of Novalis for an era of the Middle Ages, to conclude: "Under the influence of Schiller Novalis begins to think historically, and history for him will never be past, extending also to the present and to the future that we clearly see in an essay "Christianity, or Europe". So, the problem studied by us in brief can be formulated so: whether was (if yes, that in what degree?) Novalis Schiller's pupil?

The fact that the youthful attitude of F. fon Gardenberga towards the teacher was reverent and delighted his sincere attachment, do not leave doubts. In January, 1791 F. fon Gardenberg is on duty at hard sick Schiller's bed. Under the influence of F. Schiller in

a winter semester of the same year Gardenberg goes to the Leipzig university with the purpose to improve the knowledge in the field of law to which study he never felt the true tendency. Change of the place of study was caused by a strange, at first sight, circumstance: Gardenberg's father through mediation and other persons asks F. Schiller to affect the interests of the young man and to convince him of need to study the right, to get a profession for the sake of bread nasushchnogo4. At this vital stage Gardenberg perceives Schiller not critically, it is confirmed by his letter to Schiller of September 22, 1791, here only a few words from it: "One your word had on me influence bigger, than constant manuals and lectures of others" 5. For Schiller Gardenberg was only one of students who was not causing, besides, big simpatiy6.

At the beginning of the 90th Schiller and Gardenberga's personal relations stop, still the letter dated on October 7, 1791 in which Gardenberg reports to Schiller about the studying Homer is known. Same year Gardenberg reads shillerovsky "Don Carlos" 8.

In January, 1792, in Leipzig, Gardenberg meets F. Schlegel, and owing to again entered relations the old flames recede into the background; and later, in 1797, Novalis does not interfere with polemic which was conducted by Shlegeli's brothers with Shillerom9.

The subject "Novalis and Schiller" is rather studied in the German literary criticism, it is enough to call works of P.-A. Viola, G. Uerlings, G. Schultz, U. Stadler. Researchers are uniform in opinion that from the moment of Gardenberga's moving to Leipzig and acquaintances to F. Schlegel it gradually ripens as the independent personality, as the thinker. In 1796 when Gardenberg criticizes the novel And. - V. Goethe about Wilhelm Maister, in notebooks he mentions nothing works authors of the previous eras. So, F. von Gardenberg who since 1798 began to sign the proiz-

maintaining in the Ateney magazine the name "Novalis", it is formed as the thinker whose outlook is other than shillerovsky, during this period become closer to it Ya. Byom and T. Gemstergeys10.

We will return, nevertheless, to starting point of our reasonings, to a problem of understanding of history at two authors. As V.B. Mikushevich fairly writes about Novalis, "history for him will never be past, extending also to the present and to the future". Novalis in the works creates the concept of "universal" history. Certainly, when Novalis writes about history, for him it is history "general", that is history of all people and all times, he offers the concept of development of humanity. Schiller also enters the term "Universalgeschichte" (in work "In what studying world history and what purpose of this study consists").

What was put in the concept "Universalgeschichte" F. Schiller and No-valis? At a research of this problem we will rely on F. Schiller's works "In what studying world history and what purpose of this study", "About resettlement of the people, crusades and the Middle Ages" and the novel by Novalis "Heinrich von Ofterdingen" consists.

"Compositions on world history" ("Universalhistorische Schriften") F. Schiller is included by five works of the writer which Schiller did not publish as a unit. The first attempt to print these works together belongs to the Dresden friend of Schiller, the Centre punch. In the first edition of works of F. Schiller it reconstructed interrelation of these five compositions which in fact reflected an unrealized plan of the writer to write "universal" istoriyu11. Over this project F. Schiller worked in 1789-90

The first work of F. Schiller was called "In what studying world history and what purpose of this study consists" and represented the introductory lecture of the poet given by it at the Iyensky university. Already in

this composition F. Schiller appears as the opponent of Aristotle who sharply differentiated actually historical and philosophical knowledge.

The first, according to him, is engaged in the description of isolated facts, the second -

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creation of a system is directed to knowledge general. Schiller offers the new opportunity unknown in the Western European tradi-hitherto

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tion, a possibility of knowledge of the truth, thanks to studying history. Schiller connects actually historical and philosophical knowledge, and such association seems to him necessary for a number of reasons.

The question of sources became one of questions which Schiller raises in the first work. He comes to the following conclusion: any sources which we have can give us only fragmentary knowledge of history, some of them are tendentious, others cover an event only partially, the third in general are lost. Besides there was a long unwritten period. How the limited mind can the person learn history? By means of philosophy: "The philosopher early makes sure that in the field of intelligence as well as in the sensual world, everything is in internal communication, and its powerful aspiration to unity cannot be reconciled with separate pieces and scraps of whole. All its aspirations are directed to perfection and completeness of his knowledge" 14. There is more: "Thus, our world history could never become something to others, except the unit of fragments, and would not deserve the name of science if it was not come to the rescue by philosophy. Connecting these fragments artificial intermediate links, the philosophy turns the unit into a system, into reasonable and naturally connected whole. The basis for this purpose is the fact that laws of the nature, as well as laws of human spirit, are uniform and invariable" 15. Thus, Schiller most of all is interested not in the analysis of a concrete historical event, but interrelation of events in the history. Of course, Schiller cannot but understand and dangers of creation of a rough system, he warns philosophers and is-

torik from hasty conclusions and actually carries the fact of creation of such science as world history, to far budushchemu16.

F. Schiller's attempt to write a general story was not in XVIIIm century single. Among important sources of its work it is possible to call "General history" of A.L. Shlyotser's ("Universalhistorie"), "The idea to philosophy of history of mankind" of I.G. Herder, I. Kant's works. The concept "Universalgeschichte", thanks to A.L. Shlyotser's works, by the time of emergence of works of Schiller already strongly entered its historico-philosophical use epokhi17. The subject of communication of the past and the present was one of relevant, understanding of this communication also caused further progress of mankind. From all works essentially important for Schiller became A.L. Shlyotser's work in which that entered concepts of "unit" and "system",

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which F. Schiller used already in the first treatise. A.L. Shlyotser understood accidental accumulation of isolated historic facts as "unit", they can be transformed to organized "system", but only thanks to the philosopher. On Shlyotsera, it is possible to tell about history doubly: at first as about the isolated facts which are not connected by any system knowledge ("Realzusammenhang") - then as about elements whole sistemy19.

The XVIII-e century in general characterizes aspiration to creation of monumental works on stories, and it grew ripe far outside Germany, in Great Britain. Between 1736 and 1765 in England there is a huge work "General world history from so far", since 1744 it could be found in the translation into German in Germanii20. Nevertheless, the theological principle was the basis for reasonings on history in this work, history in the 18th century appeared before is-

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investigators in the context of bible representations. Polemic with bible, theological tradition Voltaire in the work opens "Philosophie de l’Histoire".

Young Schiller, as we know, read not only Montesquieu and Voltaire's works; since 1785, it gets acquainted with the works belonging to figures of the Anglo-Scottish Education (U. Robertson, E. Gibbon) who began to understand science about mankind as the term "Universalgeschichte". On their representations, the mankind was a certain species which goes in the development through necessary stages on the way to civil obshchestvu22.

The tradition begun in England gained development and in of an ermaniya. Soon, in 1788, the nineteen-languid composition of K.G. Heinrich about appears

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German right and also M.I. Schmidt's work "History of Germans".

From all authors read to them the greatest impression on Schiller was made by I. Kant's works. F. Schiller begins the studying I. Kant in 1784 with work of "The idea of general history in the world and civil plan".

What is history for Schiller? Let's analyze one of fragments of its work "In what studying world history and what purpose of this study consists": "The person changes and leaves a scene; together with him its views change or disappear. Only a story remains steadily on the stage - the immortal citizen of all times and the people. And on the peace people which are serenely eating milk of the herds she looks at bloody abusive work equally light look of homeric Zeus (wie der homerische Zeus). Kind of randomly human freedom handled the course of world development, history quietly looks at all this confusion because acute she already begins to see clearly a moment when this impetuous and restless freedom is bridled by need. & lt;...> She will not be blinded by no gloss, she does not fall under the power of prejudices of a century because it - the embodiment of original fate of all ve-

Russian cabbage soup".

This fragment one of graphic evidences of how Schiller understood the term "Universalgeschichte". So, first, history is immortal, secondly, history is assimilated in the tranquility and coolness to one of gods of an antique pantheon, thirdly, it is nothing but the truth ("... embodiment of original fate of all things"). History for Schiller is a certain substitute of God, not without reason Schiller, speaking about it, uses a metaphor from antique mythology, it is the truth and absolute Objectivity. Here what is written by Schiller: "For it the laurel wreath won by the valid merits does not wither, and it breaks the obelisks erected by vanity". In the introductory lecture of 1789 Schiller with optimism looks at comprehension of history, comprehension which would be guided by a reasonable basis.

Both, both Schiller, and Novalis, approach history not as professional historians, and as philosophers. Nevertheless, their views on philosophy of history differ in a root as the different philosophy is the cornerstone of their ideas of history. When F. Schiller argues on history important for it there is a category of time, history means development, process of education of mankind.

At Novalis we see absolutely other approach. "Pathos of Novali-sa - pathos of creation of a universum, the infinite, Golden Age, sinkre-

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tichesky life", - F.P. Fedorov notices. The category of time recedes into the background at Novalis. Terrestrial history for early romantics is reflection of the processes happening in vechnosti26. And Novalis in June, 1800 noted that its novel represents "free history, mythology" ("Der Roman ist gleichsam die freye Geschichte -

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gleichsam die Mythologie der Geschichte").

At the heart of historical views of Novalis we find relics of ancient mythological and religious ideas. First of all, it ideas of the Golden Age as about initial and finite border razvi-

Tia of mankind. Let's address the novel "Heinrich Von Ofterdingen". Here is how it is told about the singer in the novel: "He sang about the beginning of the world, about origin of stars, plants, animals and people, about all-powerful participation of the nature, about the ancient Golden Age and about his rulers, love and poetry, about emergence of hatred and barbarity and about conflicts with these kind goddesses

and, at last, about the future celebration of the last, about the end of grief, updating

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the nature and that the eternal Golden Age will return". Already from this fragment it is visible that Novalis sees mankind history through a prism of ancient ideas of loss and return of the Golden Age. For Novalis there is relevant a temporary triad (loss of the Golden Age, its search,

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return), so important in mythology and religion. From Novalis's contemporaries the idea of the returning Golden Age belonged to F. Gemster-geysu30. For Novalis there is important a concept of "the absolute present" ("absolute Gegenwart") which is understood as certain podgoto-

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vitelny time before approach of eternity. On R. Gaym's judgment, "in the novel by Novalis not so much the metaphysics turns into history,

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how many history receives the nature of metaphysics". Unlike F. Schiller Novalis creates the world striving for eternity which every time is created zanovo33. In it there is no central instance guaranteeing absolute, objective and firm znaniye34. The relations between the subject and an object, the person and God, the person and the world as early romantics understood it, develop as a result of dialogue, but not hierarchical

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go submission. As well as early romantics, at Novalis have a special cult of the creative person, artist who is uplifted practically on a pedestal of God demiurge and "beholds from the divine point of view the past and the present in their unity" 36. The way of knowledge of the world, itself for Novali-sa lies through comprehension irrational, through love. Novalis considerably opposes the rational and irrational sphere of life.

The philosophy will always be the defining philosophy for Novalis Went -

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Ling - nature philosophy, physiophilosophy.

So, we found out that F. Schiller and Novalis's historiosophical views had a different basis. The subject of perception of the Middle Ages by two authors will become the following subject important for us.

Novalis refers action of the novel to the Middle Ages period. What historical sources formed the basis of its novel "Heinrich Von Ofterdingen"? In the list of books which Novalis in the years of his study in Yen used, works of the historiographers of the educational direction considering history from the rationalistic point of view are mentioned. The keyword used by these authors for characteristic

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the Middle Ages period, there was "barbarity". So, Novalis seeing time close to the Golden Age in the Middle Ages recedes in general from prosve-

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titelsky view of this period.

Among the next sources Funk's works, I.Ya Bodmera, Y. Roth can be called. The question of use of sources by Novalis is connected with that, the Middle Ages era in its novel is how correctly represented and the appeal to historical color is how justified. There are two opinions in this respect. Some researchers (G. Schultz) consider that the choice of an era of the Middle Ages was not decisive, as material with ease could serve and any other epokha40. Others (Zamuel) believe that the Middle Ages picture which was presented by No-valis is rather right as generally, and details. According to the last, "the knightly outlook" is presented in the novel, it is justified, according to this outlook, the idea of crusades, is shown itself medieval religioznost41. But we will return to definition of Novalis understanding the novel as an opportunity to create "free history, mythology".

Such understanding caused Novalis's appeal to mythological, semi-legendary sources.

At chapter 1 of the novel in the latent form there is a legend on Barbarossa. Heinrich's father tells about a certain mountain in Thuringia in which there is a big cave, in a cave the old man whose his beard sprouted through sits, having covered his legs. If to proceed from some geographical comparisons, then the mountain described in the novel can be identified with the mountain Kyffhauser. Though the old man about whom it is told in the novel is not called by name, it was absolutely clear for contemporaries that it is about Barbarossa who, according to the legend, in a cave, in the mountain, expects the return to the earth. The main instruction on the fact that Barbarossa means is a detail - the beard which sprouted through a table.

As researchers show, for all the 18th century this version of the legend according to which Barbarossa in the mountain waits for the return was known. This form of the legend was recorded by G. G. Behrens in 1703. The legend on Barbarossa became known in the 18th century in this epic form, but not in the form of the historical narration. Nevertheless, divergences in Barbarossa's description at Novalis and G. Behrens are obvious. G. G. Behrens, speaking about Barbarossa, does not mention that that was an old man. Whether Novalis knew this written source, it is unknown, is clear only that he was familiar with oral legend Tyuringii42.

According to sketches to the novel, Heinrich had to meet Frederick II. Novalis was familiar with works of K.V.F. Funk who represented the Kaiser as the political genius. Frederick II, according to Funk, supported arts, helped the people to leave a condition of barbarity. Funk calls him the legislator and "the educator of the nation" fighting against influence of church.

Events of the novel are developed during rule of Frederick II. In sketches to the novel it is said that Heinrich had to conduct conversations with Frederick II about the topical issues: about the power and politike43.

So, one may say, that at reconstruction of the atmosphere of the Middle Ages Novalis leans on the legends which had oral existing in its time.

F. Schiller in the work "About resettlement of the people, crusades and the Middle Ages" also argues on a Middle Ages era, but it is not for it self-valuable, for Schiller it is important to speak about the Middle Ages in the context of its ideas of world history. And F. Schiller considers this historical interval in terms of the present and from a reason position. Schiller calls time period from IV to the 16th century "a sad pause" in the history of mankind, nevertheless, its influence on the subsequent development of Europe was positive. Positive impact was already in what the Middle Ages prepared from the point of view of Schiller, emergence of the Reformation. The special part in "education" of the nation is assigned to crusades, exactly thanks to wars, in them the strong, mighty tribe, a stronghold of future Reformation was shaped.

Novalis listening to this lecture at F. Schiller does not share opinion of the teacher on crusades at all, this subject not casually arises on pages of the novel "Heinrich Von Ofterdin-gen". In this novel Novalis carries out a thought that the world of the East is a special world, it cannot be won but only it is understood. Not for nothing one of heroines of the novel, Zuleyma, says that the nations have to reconcile at the Holy Sepulcher, and war "brought infinitely a lot of grief and forever separated the East from Europe" 44.

F. Schiller and Novalis's views on history extremely differ. The concept "world history" is important for both, but Schiller and Novalis fill this term everyone with the contents, the concept world

stories has at everyone a different basis: reason philosophy - at Schiller, mysticism, religion - at Novalis.

1 AltP. - A. Schiller. Leben - Werk - Zeit. [Eine Biographie]. Erster Band. München, 2000. S. 649.
2 V.B. Mikushevich. Myth by Novalis//Novalis. Heinrich von Ofterdingen. M, 2003. Page 193.
3 Stadler U. Novalis - ein Lehrling Friedrich Schillers?//Aurora. Jahrbuch der EichendorffGesellschaft. 50 (1990). S. 48.
4 Alt P. - A. Op. cit. S. 652.
5 The quote from the letter by the edition: Ibid. S. 652.
6 Stadler U. Op. cit. S. 48.
7 Alt P. - A. Op. cit. S. 652.
8 Ibid. S. 652.
9 Ibid. S. 653.
10 Ibid. S. 654.
11 Dann O. Nachwort//Schiller F. Universalhistorische Schriften. Herausgegeben und erläutert von Otto Dann. Frankfurt am Main; Leipzig, 1999. S. 146.
12 Ibid. S. 149.
13 Ibid. S. 150.
14 F. Schiller. In what studying world history and what purpose of this study//Schiller F consists. Collected works: In the 7th TM, 1956. T. 4. Page 12-13.
15 In the same place. Page 24-25.
16 In the same place. Page 26.
17 A.L. Shlyotser's works were familiar to F. Schiller since early years. About it see Dann O. Op. cit. S. 156.
18 Alt P. - A. Op. cit. S. 605.
19 Ibid. S. 605.
20 Ibid. S. 606.
21 Dann O. Op. cit. S. 155-156.
22 Ibid. S. 156.
23 Alt P. - A. Op. cit. S. 606-607.
24 F. Schiller. Decree. soch. Page 27.
25 F.P. Fedorov. Art world of the German romanticism. Structure and semantics. M, 2004. Page 57.
26 In the same place. Page 57.
27 Kasperowski I. Mittelalterrezeption im Werk des Novalis. Tübingen, 1994. S. 459.
28 Novalis. Gejnrich von Ofterdingen; Fragments; Pupils in Sais. SPb., 1995. Page 36-37.
29 Mähl H. Die Idee des golden Zeitalters im Werk des Novalis. Heidelberg, 1965. S. 315; F.P. Fedorov. Decree. soch. Page 56.
30 R.M. Gabitova writes about philosophy of history of Novalis. See its work: Philosophy of the German romanticism. M, 1978. Page 224-256.
31 Mähl H. Op. cit. S. 323.
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R. Gaym. Romantic school. Contribution to the history of the German mind. M, 1891. Page 341.

33 Uerlings H. Novalis und die Weimarer Klassik//Aurora. Jahrbuch der EichendorffGesellschaft. 50 (1990). S. 32.
34 Ibid. S. 32.
35 Ibid. S. 32.
36 Mähl H. Op. cit. S. 319.
37 Uerlings H. Friedrich von Hardenberg, genannt Novalis: Werk und Forschung. Stuttgart, 1991. S. 503-505.
38 Kasperowski I. Op. cit. S. 68.
39 Ibid. S. 78.
40 Ibid. S. 460.
41 Ibid. S. 461-462.
42 Ibid. S.194-195.
43 Ibid. S. 196-197.
44 Novalis. Decree. soch. Page 47.
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