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To a question of social movement in Novozybkov at the beginning of the XX century (historiography problem)

UDK 930.1 (09)


V.A. Snytko

In a historiography of this period it is possible to allocate three stages. The first stage - the 20th years of the last century. In the mid-fifties the second period in a historiography begins. Its main feature - interest in the social democratic movement, in the history of the CPSU. At the third stage of a historiography (since the beginning of the 90th years) Yu.V. Anisin and A.G. Kublitsky's local history essays "Three impacts of a storm" (1991) became the most considerable research on the matter. Certain attention during this period began to be paid also to the history of the liberal political parties and movements.

The history of social movement in Russia of the beginning of the 20th century drew attention of researchers for many decades. Collections of official documents, reminiscence of participants of events, monographs, scientific articles, publications in the central and local press - all this results of long-term laborious work of scientists, journalists, local historians. Certainly, and in essays on the history of the cities of the Briansk region (Bryansk, Pochep, Surazh, Klintsy, Starodub, Klimovo, etc.) certain attention was always paid to events of the beginning of the 20th century, the history of political parties and movements. However deeply and comprehensively only the history of Bolshevik party was investigated.

A special role in studying events of the specified period is played by the published written sources. The city of Novozybkov in this plan is considerably allocated against the background of other cities and the regional centers of the Briansk region. At the beginning of the 20th century the solid brochures telling about the industrial output which is turned out in the city on trade, about the service industry, about national education were published. (For example, the calendar reference book "All Novozybkov" published in Klintsy in M.D. Lykov's printing house in 1914).

It is necessary to recognize that the history of the city since the beginning of the XVIII century and is studied up to now very thoroughly. It fully belongs also to the period of revolution of 1905 - 1907. Then the western Briansk region gave striking examples of the revolutionary, liberal and conservative movement. Activity of the local organizations of social democrats, Social Revolutionaries, cadets, right-wing parties and movements was distinctly shown. At the same time both the all-Russian, and national parties and movements worked in the region.

In a historiography of this period it is possible to allocate three stages. The first stage is the 20th years of the last century when the city and the county were a part of the Gomel province. About events of the beginning of the 20th century in Novozybkov it was published several works which are of considerable interest to modern researchers at this time. So, in 1925 in Gomel Worker publishing house there was a book "1905 in Gomel and the Polesia district" containing materials on the history of the social democratic movement in the region in 1893 - 1906. A considerable part of this book is occupied by Ya. Drapkin's article "1905 around the Polesia committee of RSDRP" written generally according to unpublished archival documents. Novozybkov is shown in article as the important center of social movement where the local organizations of social democrats and Social Revolutionaries actively worked, printing houses of the Polesia committee worked. Ya. Drapkin gives examples of mass demonstrations, meetings, wide circulation of illegal literature. It is interesting that the liberal movement, in particular, the period of a "banquet" campaign at the end of 1904 also is brightly shown in article

Same year in Novozybkov P. Eremenko's work "Novozybkov-sky County" - a handbook on study of local lore for schools was published. log huts-chitattr, N ь&птето миппГ^спп^


Bulletin of the Bryansk State University. Sq.m (2008)

niya. The population in the cities and villages of the county for 1923 (19058 people lived in Novozybkov) was specified in the brochure, city educational institutions are listed. Events of the first Russian revolution are brightly shown also in such publications as the collection of documents and the materials "1905 in Ukraine", V. Scherbakov's work "Naris1 z yutorn of a soshchal-demokrata on ChernYvshchish (1902 - 1917) which were published in Kharkiv respectively in 1926 and 1931. Then interest in events of the beginning of the 20th century in the Briansk region and in the country sharply falls.

In the mid-fifties the second period in a historiography of social movement begins. The main feature of this period - interest in the social democratic movement, in the history of the CPSU. The famous monograph by E.D. Direnk "The Polesia organization of Bolsheviks in fight against a tsarism" [1] became the first large publication. Special attention along with Gomel, Mogilev, Klintsy, Rechitsey, Hills, Orsha is paid to Novozybkov in this monograph. Problems of social movement and the history of the CPSU are considered also in the book by A.G. Volny Novozybkov [2].

At the third stage of a historiography (since the beginning of the 90th years) local history essays J) became the most considerable research on the matter. V. Ania-sina and A.G. Kublitsky "Three impacts of a storm" (1991) [3]. In them the history of the novozybkovsky social democratic organization was studied rather deeply and in details. Certain attention during this period began to be paid also to the history of other political parties and movements. These are, in particular, articles of the collection of the sixth conference "Social Thought, Movements and Parties in Russia XIX — the Beginnings of the 21st Centuries." held in BGU in 2004

It is necessary to recognize that the history of the novozybkovsky organization of party of Social Revolutionaries is studied insufficiently. However articles of the Revolutionary Russia newspaper speak about considerable influence of novozybkovsky group of the Party of Social Reforms on country and labor movement in the city and the county. Social Revolutionaries acted as organizers of strikes at the local enterprises, conducted broad explanatory work in working circles. Also positions of Social Revolutionaries extremists were considerable that was confirmed by A. Savitsky's activity in the region after defeat of revolution of 1905-1907. It is also necessary to mean that in Novozybkov the local party organizations Bunda, national parties of the Jewish proletariat, the liberal parties actively worked. The history of the local organizations of these parties is also studied insufficiently.

About novozybkovsky liberals only fractional information is provided in the published works of the first period of a historiography. But the liberal movement began before revolution of 1905 - 1907. As it was already noted, in Novozybkov in Commercial club the members of "The union of release" organized on December 7, 1904 a banquet in which also the famous lawyers who arrived to the Gomel trial participated. It were Mikhail Mandelstam, Samuil Kalmanovich, Nikolay Sokolov. Maxim Genfman and assistant to the barrister Krasilshchikov. From Gomel there arrived also doctors - the brother and the sister Brook. At the station in Novozybkov they were met by the local liberal notary Bogolyubov. Except clubmen, also strangers came to the meeting. In total about 100 people gathered.

The banquet was opened by the speech of the chairman, local territorial figure. He emphasized that "it is necessary to express but to the questions revolting nowadays all Russia". Then the writer V.G. Bogoraz-Tang, the correspondent of the capital newspaper sent to Gomel for publicizing of trial read the poem "Freedom". The barrister S. Kalmanovich delivered a speech under the name "What It Is Necessary for Us?", the barrister M. Genfman spoke about territorial fight for freedom and about last St. Petersburg territorial congress, M. Mandelstam - about inevitable reaction from the government to the held events and about need to prepare for open fight. The barrister N. Sokolov demanded the immediate termination of the Russo-Japanese war and convocation of the Constituent assembly, the accountant local territorial

Snarsky in the speech pointed justices to constants of constraint of the government in territorial self-government. The teacher of Novozybkovsky real school Radzimovsky demanded freedom for science and teaching. He explained disorders in educational institutions with constant "stesneniye of pupils". Acted then Bogoraz-Tang drew a parallel between liberating fight in the past and the present.

In the final performance the Gomel social democrat (according to Ya. Drapkin, it was Alexander Arnoldovich Ekk) reminded the audience of the imaginary force of the government and of the valid force of the proletariat. The speaker urged to include in the liberal and democratic program of the requirement; 1) general, direct, equal and secret suffrage; 2) freedoms of the unions and strikes. The mood at a meeting was raised, to speeches of speakers it is a lot of and hotly applauded, and bright speeches of Mikhail Mandelstam and social democrat caused "standing ovation" [4, page 77].

From two submitted draft resolutions more radical which was immediately signed by all participants of a banquet and is sent to the Chernihiv territorial meeting was accepted. In the resolution there were five points: 1) the immediate termination of war with Japan; 2) total freedom of the press; 3) freedom of religion; 4) amnesty of everything, bearing punishments for political and religious crimes; 5) participation of representatives of zemstvo in legislative works.

Political activity of territorial bodies in the county, especially the day before demands also further study and in days of revolution of 1905 - 1907 It is known that the Chernihiv zemstvo always differed in opposition, was famous for the liberal traditions. Events of December, 1904 quite confirmed it. The address of the Chernihiv territorial meeting addressed to Nicholas II whose text is cited in the monograph by A.G. Kublitsky "Means the sort is uniform - the general future!" (2001) [5].

Also activity of the deputy of the first State Duma of A.A deserves attention. Mukhanova. An important step on this way - article in the collection "Social Thought, Movements and Parties in Russia XIX — the Beginnings of the 21st Centuries." (conference sixth). Some data on a political situation in Novozybkov in 1905 contain in books by L.M. Vykochko "As it was" [6] where history of national education in the city and the area reveals. At last, on the basis of data on events in Novozybkov after publication of the Manifesto on October 17, 1905 (the telegram from Kiev which arrived addressed to the territorial doctor Ivanov, the notary Bogolyubov, the petty bourgeois Aybinder and the subsequent distribution of its text on the city means) it is possible to draw the general conclusion that the liberal movement in the region reached the considerable level of development.

Separate data on the novozybkovsky organizations of the liberal political parties contain in HARPS funds G 523 (Constitutional democratic party) and 515 ("The union on October 17") and also in fund 1439 Chernihiv GZhU CGIA of Ukraine in Kiev.

Also the history of the chernosotenny organizations of the city and county is insufficiently investigated. At the same time activity of right-wing parties was brightly shown in events of October, 1905. In the report of the Chernihiv governor in Department of police it was indicated existence of department of "The union of the Russian people" in Novozybkov. in which 200 people consisted (leaders - Yurchenko. Shevernya) and also four sections in the county. Events of October, 1905 emphasize close connection of the right forces with certain representatives of local government, including local police (Lobko-Lobanovsky, etc.), show considerable influence of the right forces on the Old Belief population of the city.

At the final stage of revolution of 1905-1907 in the city proved local the organizations of the Ukrainian social democratic Labour Party of "Split". This subject found the continuation in A. Riesch's article "Essays on the history "Splits" (See. "Chronicle of revolution", No. 2, 1925).

1M in the way, a lot of things in the history first of all right and

St. Petersburg,


1. E.D. Direnok. The Polesia organization of Bolsheviks in fight against a tsarism. Mn, 1965.
2. Free AT. Novozybkov. Tula, 1989. 3 Yu.V. Anisgsh, Kublitsky, A.G. Three impacts of a storm. Tula, 1991. 4.1905 year in Gomel and the Polesia district. Gomel. 1925.
5. Kublitsky AT. The sort is uniform - the general future! Novozybkov, 2001.
6. Vykochko L.M. As it was. The first book. Novozybkov, 2001. The second book. Novo-2005.

In, A. Snytko - an edging. used up. sciences, dots. Bryansk state university of the academician I.G. Petrovsky, guashk§i @

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