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The Soviet power and Muslim education system in the 20th of the 20th century.

 © 2004 H.B. Mamsirov

The SOVIET POWER AND the MUSLIM EDUCATION SYSTEM In the 20th of the 20th century

The Muslim education system had a number of features in the North Caucasus. Starting consideration of a problem, it is necessary to remember that in the Russian Empire the power strictly divided the religious organizations into the dominating church, tolerant and persecuted religions. Islam was tolerant religion. Because of rather recent accession of the North Caucasus to Russia the religious attachments of the people living in its territory remained slaboizuchenny unlike the Volga region. Local religious figures were less actively involved in all-imperial political process. The Caucasus, ancient intersection of many civilizations, religions, cultures, remained also at the beginning of the 20th century surrounded with "a mystery haze". Its population was represented by "fancy mix of tribes and adverbs", "the Caucasian human chaos" [1]. Because of geopolitical Caucasus value became at once the territory where at a boundary of the XIX-XX centuries the government actively moved the Russian peasantry. Contact of two worlds - Caucasian and Muslim and slavyanopravoslavny unlike the same Tataria happened the accelerated rates. It coincided with reforming of Russia, search of the liberal ways of economic development. Revolutions brought new calls and ideology in this process. It to the same extent had to be mastered hastily and to the autochthonic people of Central and Northwest Caucasus Mountains, rather recently accepted Islam, and orthodox Russian and to Ukrainians. Added complexity and the fact that at the people of the North Caucasus paganism elements still were distinctly noticeable. The neighboring, even related tribes could practise different religions or a fancy combination of elements of different religions: both Christianities, and Moslem, and Judaism.

In the social relation the situation was complicated also by the fact that Islam, getting into the center and on the West of the North Caucasus from the Ottoman Empire (mainly through its outskirts - the Crimea), faced resistance of the highest estates, defenders of common law, i.e. centuries the fulfilled system of the social relations. Each ethnic group had the adats. Fight reached the highest degree at the imam Shamil, but also in the 20th century still "it was difficult to distinguish where the rights of Sharia came to an end, and the competence of an adat and vice versa" [2] began. Boundaries of distribution of the separate ethnic cultures formed on signs of language proximity were literally broken off and owing to results of the Caucasian war, and owing to rather amorphous (more precisely, weakened) internal communications. The Monokonfessionost of any ethnic group should be perceived taking into account axioms nali-

a chiya, say, Christians and Muslims among Ossetians and Kabardians [3].

The fundamental importance for Modern times of the attitude towards the nation at Muslims was closer not to European, and to that what to it was given by Bolsheviks. The concepts "nation" and "country" of Muslim ideology were below religion - the main ethical and cultural index. Therefore the mountain revolutionaries who graduated from madrasah with enthusiasm apprehended the Bolshevist idea of world revolution in the east. Not so sharp as to Shamil, but also continuous fight of supporters of Sharia and supporters of an adat was the fertile field which was used by both a tsarism, and Bolsheviks for split of mountain societies in own political and ideological goals.

We will stop in brief on the heritage received by Bolsheviks from the empire in its relation to tolerant it to Moslem. It is useful as an initial position in our analysis, bases for the certain analogies helping to understand many features in relationship of both the population, and religious figures already with the new, Soviet power. Owing to the fact that Orthodoxy was official ideology, other faiths including Moslem, did not enjoy its strong support. The power also really suffered this religion that is caused substantially and the fact that the orthodox church never got into a theological argument with Muslim. The term contained the pejorative meaning of the relation to Islam. However economic and political interests forced to pay attention to an ethnoconfessional and educational situation in the region, in the Muslim environment in particular.

The leaders of Bolsheviks who came to the power adhered to an europocentristsky zapadnichesky view of ways of development of the world in general, Russia and Islam in its limits in particular. On their representations the East has to join a world civilization which they, naturally, considered western [4] rather.

But at first Bolsheviks showed exclusive care and foresight in a Muslim question. In days of revolution and civil war they managed to win, relying on all dissatisfied with former orders. It fully concerns also Muslims: a lot of things did not suit them in the Russian Empire [5].

"The address to all working Muslims of Russia and the East" helped to avoid disintegration of the country and direct confrontation with the main part of the Russian Muslims. Bolsheviks used intonation of the tolerant relation, useful to themselves to Islam.

However declarations did not cancel the main postulate of Bolsheviks: they saw the future of the Russian state as the state secular in which the religion is separated from the state, as it is formulated in January 1918 the decree of SNK RSFSR "About freedom of conscience, church and religious societies" [6]. This synthesis did not touch the interests of Muslims because they, at last, were equalized in the rights with orthodox church.

Naturally, there was a question of the relation of Bolsheviks to the developed system of Muslim education. The detailed analysis of educational structures of the Muslim people began before revolution. The important contribution to assessment of the situation was made by territorial figures, among them there were enough liberally adjusted people. From the beginning of Stolypin reforms which important component was a resettlement policy the zemets noted that "foreign school only sad attack from the Russian life" [7]. Nevertheless also the fact that "Muslim foreigners is recognized... throughout centuries practising uniform, advanced religion of Magomet, scooping material for training of development from a treasury of the Arab-Persian religious philosophical thought. made to themselves the closed special world avoiding quite often temptations of the European culture" [8]. It was understood that heads of Muslims "were and there are considerably ecclesiastics, being kind of carriers of national traditions" [8]. The Muslim education system was estimated as "the tool for preservation and accumulation of richness of the national spirit. Everything was perceived under the sign of religion, under the direct guide of teachers of the people - mullahs. Foreigners... have to be grateful, of course, to the spiritual heads for full preservation of the national type" [8].

But also the fact that "time of these heads "irrevocably dashed away is stated"". Processes of the begun reforming of an education system testified to that: starometodny to a mekteba and madrasah began to enter secular objects into the system of training. Such schools were called novometodny. In Kazan the level of knowledge gained at them already began to approach that which the Russian educational institutions gave. Noting these positive shifts, territorial figures urged to think of why Muslims prefer to resort "to difficult, interfaced to various surprises and complications, ways of adaptation of old confessional school to new conditions". Why they do not address "services of the usual elementary school called foreign (Russian-Tatar, Russian-Bashkir, etc.)" [8]. They were concerned that the school offered "foreign Mohammedans" was perceived "by something alien, something from the outside imposed". At the initiative of Muslim fraction of the State Duma, public figures and MNP in May, 1911 the meeting which recognized that "the school for the foreign population has to serve only the purposes of education" [8] took place.

Considering a positive vector of reforming, during almost whole year (from November, 1910 to October, 1911) there was also a so-called "interdepartmental meeting" convened at the initiative of P.A. Stolypin. There was a discontent that royal ministers and the public began to pay attention to a situation in the Muslim environment. Arguments moved forward, also N.I. Ilminsky's experience was remembered: "The Russian population is pushed into the background, and the ministry deals with issues of education of the outskirts, foreigners" [8]. As we see, both in royal, and in Stalin empires very there were similar motives soon - need "raisings of cultural level first of all of Russians" [9].

The meeting developed the legislative principles of activity of kofenssionalno-foreign school. They came down to the fact that "education is impossible without religion". Admitted that inoslavny and inoverny pupils need to provide "religious training". Nevertheless in the course of training the school has to acquaint pupils "with a present condition of the Russian state as powerful world power, stretched on enormous space" [10].

But also behind training of the beginnings of belief the control was established. Religious teachers were approved in positions by the corresponding educational administration. It was guided by appropriate theological training and "moral qualities" of the applicant. Programs and textbooks have to be approved by the spiritual power and are allowed to the use of MNP. Teaching articles of faith has to be made on "natural on which usually speak in family, language of pupils as far as writing and literary processing of the last allows statement of dogma on it". In the absence of that condition, teaching has to be made "in a state language". For Muslims the exception in the form of assumption of creation and activity of "confessional comprehensive schools of the raised type and city schools" became [11]. The fate of Islam and the Russian Muslim society were considered by both religious, and public figures only in moral and ethical and cultural and educational aspects.

The situation considerably changed with coming to power of Bolsheviks. Decree of SNK RSFSR of January 20, 1918. "About freedom of conscience, church and religious societies" at the same time separated also school from church. From this point of view it significantly infringed on the interests of Muslim clergy and believers as the national secular education system at many people practising Islam actually did not exist. Besides in May, 1918. The decree of SNK RSFSR ordered to transfer all educational institutions of Narkomprosu of RSFSR [6, 12]. Fully it belonged also to a Muslim mekteba and madrasah which before revolution there were in Russia about 11 thousand.

At a meeting of the State commission on national education on September 26, 1918 it is established that the Muslim school needs to bring programs and methods of teaching into accord with the ideological concept of Bolsheviks: uniform labor school [13]. At a meeting there was a head of department of mountaineers Narkomnatsa B. Tuganov. In practice it meant practical liquidation of religious schools owing to their absolute incompatibility with each other. This decision demonstrated so far only to how Bolshevist heads poorly imagined a real education system. The Muslim mountain people of the North Caucasus remained in the system of patrimonial structures and the Sufi communities, were substantially isolated from external influences. This circumstance defined also position of local school in which the significant role was played by the local intellectuals acting as "probuditel" of national consciousness as national storytellers, experts on the mountain epos. It is necessary to be surprised to the fact that Bolsheviks were limited to permission, "in view of the taken roots prejudices among Muslims, it is possible to make some concession in favor of the last in the sense of temporary cancellation of coeducation" [14].

With strengthening of the Soviet power in the North Caucasus the Bolsheviks passed from "Muslim" tactics to implementation of strategic objectives of communism. In Muslim regions the wave of protests swept. Replacement of Muslim schools by the Soviet power became a natural cause of discontent of the mountain population. On April 21, 1920 the chairman of the Tersky revkom V. Kvirkeliya and the head of department of national education B. Etingof, referring to the Decree about separation of school from church, cancelled teaching and training in the Quran and exempted religious teachers from posts [15, l. 6]. In May, 1920 Kirkeliya together with the head of department of justice founded the commission on carrying out in life of this Decree [15, l. 10]. Muslims extremely painfully reacted to these measures, considering them as a persecution form on trust. They literally filled up Spiritual management of complaints to oppressions and requests to pay attention to it the highest institutions of the country. Spiritual management addressed with the corresponding submission to Narkomnats, and through it the question was brought to Presidium of VTsIK, but at once did not get permission [16, l. 102].

"Cavalry" attempts to a descent did not manage to reform Muslim schools, and in 1921 in Sovnatsmen's theses "About reform of Muslim school" the attempt of the analysis of the reason of failure is made. Theses were sent to the Central Committee of RCP(b). Admitted that the Muslim school before revolution was in a transition stage from "a religious and scholastic state to secular scientifically type of school". It had propaganda value as "cultural novelty". Young teaching was inclined to undertake and further reforms, turning Muslim school into "the cultural leader of all nation".

At the same time in theses it is noted that innovations which were brought with itself by the Bolshevist educational doctrine "forced" to turn school in "Muslim uniform and labor". In it "progressive national elemental motions" disappeared. New as was considered, stronger class incentives for it remained "unattainable and alien". Such school "was the pathetic parody of national school". Muslims were left (without distinction of classes) to it "are indifferent and inert", considered it "not, and alien, Soviet". In "time of .obshchy misfortune" they if sent to it children, then "for an excess piece of bread". Further in theses it was noted that the sharp separation of religion from school stuns the heads of believers and creates irreconcilable hostility them to the Soviet school. There comes the period of spiritual isolation and despair.

Council for education of ethnic minorities of Narkompros of RSFSR was the main body which tried to minimize somehow costs of radikalist. He recognized that acquisition of the rights of the organization by religious schools led to the fact that the schools hastily reformed in "Soviet Muslim" came to be "on the deathbed". The haste led to the fact that "nowadays... purely religious schools by a medieval method of training were organized". Muslims "were culturally rolled away" by "the 90th years of last century". With introduction of the New Economic Policy when schools transferred to the local budget, the Muslim parents the first condition of the help put introduction of training of religion at school with which as Sovnatsmen believed, "after all, it would be possible to reconcile tactically". These claims as it is established in the document, have "intentionally no thought-over political character", and are "spontaneously - household social movement". In this regard it was offered "to create a transitional era for Muslim school". Admitted that "direct denial, exile of religion from school we did not defeat her, it opposite, repeatedly amplified". The offered transition period promises "right result over public ignorance eventually" [17].

On October 4, 1922 in the circular Narkomnatsa it was noted that the Decree of SNK RSFSR of 1918 and Narkomyust's instruction receive various interpretation. On the one hand, repressions concerning mullahs for training in Islam doctrines in mosques are observed. With another - sometimes business reaches "full permission to mullahs to training in Islam at the Soviet schools". By the circular it was explained that repressions of mullahs for a sermon of Islam and training in doctrines of Muslim dogma in mosques and also for similar actions at home at themselves, in private, by the invitation of citizens, houses are inadmissible. Also the theological schools opened and which are contained at the expense of voluntary gifts of individuals could not be closed. It was explained that in what full age citizens, but to those not study specially articles of belief are considered as theological schools

"the so-called madrasah and a mektaba" can be carried. At the same time at schools both Soviet, and private where there is a teaching general education objects, teaching doctrines of religion is not allowed. It contradicts the decree about separation of school from church and to bases of the Soviet right [18]. The bureaucracy of Narkomnats as we see, nevertheless reacted to numerous complaints of rural societies, non-party conferences about the prosecutions repaired by local bodies to teaching business even within allowed by the law only in two years. In October, 1922 he considered a question of teaching Islam and is forced to confirm the right of teaching at home and in mosques.

However the Central Committee of RCP(b) stated complaints concerning misunderstanding of a present situation to southeast Bureau and in particular the Adygei regional committee of party [16, l. 15]. It is that recently formed Adygei regional executive committee decided to find out positions progressive efend in development of education of the population. As a result of a meeting with influential efend - the idea of convocation of a regional congress of an efenda, teachers and representatives of the believing Muslims [19, l arose Magomed Sovmiz, Misheust Nabokov, Beslan Kandrov and others-. 2].

The congress took place from September 27 to September 29, 1922 in the aul of Hatukai. For the management the Soviet authorities sent them the chairman of Psekupsky district executive committee non-party Chamokov. It is curious that regional executive committee a number of an efenda, called teachers and "the clergy adjoining a progressive current" on this congress the agenda [19, l. 2]. There arrived 45 delegates from whom 28 efend, 9 teachers and 12 representatives from the population. Chamokov in the report describes mood of a congress as "kind, good". He was surprised pleasantly also by the room where there took place the congress: "Tidily contained, purely bleached in a wall are covered by pictures of educational value, all classes are arranged with absolutely new school desks" [19, l. 6].

The congress urged parents to send children aged from 7 up to 18 years to schools for training, and it was a certain turning point in relationship of parents of pupils with the new power. For highly moral education of children the delegates asked the Soviet bodies of permission to train within the first two years in the native language and the Quran, and further - according to the curriculum of secular school [19, l. 3 about.]. It was declared that needs to be passed to "the thought-over and circumspect policy of gradual involvement... masses to the course of the Soviet development" [20].

Complaints of the center to the Adygei regional committee reflected discontent with attempts of the Adygei authorities to look for an exit from a difficult situation together with religious figures.

Difficulties were added also by the hardest state into which there was an education system in the first years of the New Economic Policy. The catastrophic situation of school was emphasized by the people's commissar of education of RSFSR A. Lunacharsky on November 24, 1922 in the report of the Central Committee of RCP(b). Gosu-

the darstvo could finance only 2 schools on the volost, i.e. one third from the available network. The power hypocritically charged to the reason of current situation of "grimaces of the New Economic Policy" [21]. The same assessment was given in April, 1923 also by the member of board Narkomnatsa M.M. Ibragimov at a private meeting of section on an ethnic question of the XII congress of RCP(b). He noted that after the New Economic Policy on the national outskirts (and in the Caucasus), "literally as mushrooms, spiritual schools grew". The population was indignant: "You do not give either spiritual, nor civic education" [22].

On June 9, 1924 the question of teaching Muslim dogma was considered by VTsIK of RSFSR. After statement of the fact that as a result of policy of persecution and the bans the Muslims appeared in the worst conditions in comparison with other people the Government of RSFSR considered it necessary to increase for them the number of comprehensive schools, naturally, to conduct broad promotion, but not to allow teaching Muslim dogma at the general schools.


Reckoning with features of life for some reason only of the Turkic people, teaching Muslim dogma in mosques was allowed to the persons which ended a full course of the first step of uniform labor school, reached 14-year age and who submitted the relevant documents. The People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs and the National Coalition Party was entrusted to develop in this respect the corresponding instruction [23, l. 11]. After this A.V. Lunacharsky's article of "An education problem in autonomous republics and areas" where the people's commissar recognized that "it is impossible to close religious schools simply was published. When you cannot give some bread, you do not dare to take away a substitute. But nevertheless it is necessary to take measures to neutralize influence of clergy on school all measures, differently together with food children will perceive direct poison" [24].

On August 21, 1924 the confidential instruction of People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs and the National Coalition Party of RSFSR "About teaching Muslim dogma is developed.". She specified that teaching can be made only in mosques with appropriate permission of local executive committees. The application for delivery of permission is submitted to administrative authority, data on the teacher (a social, social, official and property status, since 1914) and about pupils, hours of teaching and the contract on the right to use the mosque are specified in it. It is necessary to notify appropriate authorities on any change. Permission could be given "only in case to .mechet the .vpoyena meets the health requirements imposed to educational institutions". For this purpose she has to be examined by the relevant commission. People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs and Narkompros have to watch strictly that in mosques under the guise of dogma general education objects [23, l were not taught. 8-9]. On June 2, 1925 the decision of a private meeting of presidium of board of Nar-komprosa of RSFSR the instruction became effective [25].

However the instruction, having provided rules of control, did not resolve the main issue: the power could not -

to capture la secular school of all children of school age, at religious schools she forbade teaching general education objects. An exit from this situation was offered by progressive mood clergy (progressionists) of the North Caucasus: along with secular (state) school to create so-called intermediate schools which the population would support. At them and to organize studying secular objects and fundamentals of Islam. In fact it was offered to continue the positive evolutionary line of development of a Muslim education system which successfully developed before revolution. The population willingly supported this idea, in some places it was put into practice by an attendance order with secret support and the Soviet bodies.

In the center, of course, understood danger: the secular Soviet school did not sustain the competition to "intermediate". The propaganda machine constantly branded mountain efend (which percent in an education system reached 90 in the same Adygea), "yesterday's obscurantists" though they "to an anguish try to prove the devotion to the Soviet power", some even "got through" in party. Branded also those who "really tore with an efendiystvo and seeks to become the Soviet teacher" [26, page 41-43]. Strict measures and abuses did not help. On retraining of teachers "waste" as told in the North Caucasian regional committee, "mad. money", but on retraining courses, for example, in Kabardino-Balkaria, very often lecturers is the same efend [26, page 43]. The power did not want to see that business was not in efend any more, and in the substantial and metodikopedagogichesky bases of its educational doctrine.

We will specify an essence of what concerned according to the authorities, "fantastic sum". In 1925 the department of nationalities at Presidium of VTsIK allocated Adygei-Circassian and Karachay-Cherkess the joint-stock company on 20, and Kabardino-Balkarian to the joint-stock company - 15 thousand rubles for preparation and retraining of teachers, the edition of textbooks for them [27]. As for allocations in general for expenses on national education, and they are executed as stated the regional party meeting devoted to this question in 1928 for 29.7% across Kabardino-Balkaria, for 31.7% - across Circassia, and in places, was emphasized, and they were spent "not for the intended purpose" [28]. However collected for 1925/1926 zakit only in Kabardino-Balkarian the autonomous area made 270 thousand rubles, and following 1926/1927-400 thousand. The size of the zakyat received from each yard equaled to about 12 rubles, i.e. was equal to the amount of an agricultural tax. At the same time a poor man's part of the population brought zakit of 50% [29]. These data it is better than others show that the population relation to the Soviet bodies was incomparable to its attitude towards clergy. In the mid-twenties in theses "Advocacy work among mountaineers" the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) terribly warned: "In the majority of districts of the mountain republics of the North Caucasus there are no schools for children, and on the soil prosnuvshe-

gosya at the population of demand for education we face threat of delivery of one of important command heights in hands of Muslim clergy which before the October revolution was the exclusive carrier and the conductor of scholastic education in the Caucasus" [30].

In 1927 A.V. Lunacharsky's theses "About religious school" were prepared for a meeting of people's commissars of education with a signature stamp "confidentially". On January 11 they were discussed at a meeting of board of Narkompros of RSFSR. Admitted theses that the relation of the Soviet power to religious Muslim schools in the different areas "quite variously". If in Central Asia "considerable freedom of religious schools is allowed", then as the people's commissar claimed, in the Caucasus "this school is exposed to more exact and strict adjustment". The above-provided data though force to doubt correctness of estimates of the people's commissar, but allow to see behind their streamlining work of the Soviet managers together with religious structures.

Especially as Lunacharsky recognized: "Muslim teaching was the only distributor of literacy and as this literacy cannot be quickly raised by sufficient distribution of secular schools, the Muslim clergy gets in case of extreme restriction of its teacher's activity an opportunity politically to speculate with the fact allegedly of decrease in literacy among the population and destruction of islamoarabsky culture by the power without replacement its some other". Recently, the people's commissar reported, bodies of GPU find "the extraordinary growth of Muslim religious schools", and the resolution of VTsIK of 1924 is understood as the "known protection Muslim clergy" considering it as the answer to the loyalty of the new power after the revolution. And indeed, the circular of RCP(b) of the Central Committee of May 5, 1924 in a soft form confirmed that it is possible "not to make difficulties to group teaching dogma in mosques to the children who graduated school of 1 step" [31]. The Adygei regional executive committee in March, 1924 exempted all efend from introduction of a unified agricultural tax, the truth several months cancelled it as later mistakenly recorded [32]. The pupil was granted the right to hold an uraza [33].

The first thought, Lunacharsky writes, came down to answering it with "measures of resolute repression" and to allow to visit dogma lessons only to the children who reached 14 years and ended a full 4-year course of the Soviet school. However according to "the data collected from different places, the percent finishing a 4-letka completely - is not higher than 1%, and places falls up to 0.5% and less than that". Narkompros suggested to organize schools one-year and biennial and also to develop "methods of the correct observation of internal life of Muslim schools, behind performance by them in all severity of instructions of the power" [34].

16 - On June 23, 1925 the II regional conference on questions of culture and education of the people of the North Caucasus took place. In U. Aliyev's theses considerable attention was paid "to the Arab schools among mountaineers and fight against them". It was noted that they "freely exist in some national areas", but it also is "providing to monopoly moral influence and cultural education to "poisonous microbes" to mullahs and myurida" which thus focus "very mighty means" in the hands. The being available school was only perceived by the power as "a den of gloomy cruelty", their purpose - "to slow down mental capacities". The truth owing to the fact that Karachaye and Balkaria, Circassia and Kabarda as the author claimed, Sharia nevertheless did not win against local adats "will damage exile of this school only to mullahs" [35, page 10]. It is curious that in the work published soon after the end of a conference, Aliyev in publicistic "fuse" already ceases to distinguish a Muslim education system from the Arab culture in general, estimates also it as "reactionary" [36].

However such estimates of results of training at the Arab schools discorded with estimates of the head of the North Caucasian regional committee B. Pozern a little. He admitted that he though badly knows local "life, customs and culture", however paid attention that the Russian companions "are struck with performances of mountaineers and a goryanok from far auls". Performances of these people "sometimes in the form and the contents so deep and interesting, so covering and exhausting a question that our Russian companions, listening to them, say: "You deceive us, saying that it is the backward people, you deceive us, saying that it is people from abandoned auls" [35, page 61]. Pozern considered that it "affects heritage of old culture., the seeds of old culture seeded here., undoubtedly give the known sprouts. the thirst of our natsional for culture, thirst for restoration of the national life, the national face is huge". The problem here so to organize the help from the Russian culture that "to awaken even more vigorous movement to culture. Perhaps, many of here attendees far do not divide communism ideals. Not in it business. We speak directly: here to us to go along the road. We in common, are equally interested in passing these next stages with mutual support, mutual aid" [35, page 62].

At a regional meeting of secretaries and zavorg of district committees in January, 1925 the speakers demonstrated: "Madrasah in the village of the village of St. Urukh, Urakh, the Lower Cherek prosper". And though measures to "an obessileniye of madrasah" are taken, they remove to more remote areas because "the Soviet school is badly equipped", at it "very small amount", and in madrasah "90 people" studied [37].

Certain "progress" can be noted in "plane" territories of the studied autonomies. Places -

ny chairmen of executive committees wrote the higher administration of the formal reply, reporting in 1925 that "madrasah and also pupils. no, on what I inform" (village of Psynodakha), "there is no madrasah" (colony Brunental), "madrasah and their heads are absent" (Svetlovodsk) [38]. Of course, the colony Brunental and in their Svetlovodsk also could not be, Russians and Germans lived in the majority there. As for settlements where the mountain population (Mountain district) lived, the picture was other. In the village Cuba in 2 madrasahs 120 people, etc. studied [39]. Let's pay attention that by the number of pupils it is big educational institutions with number studying on 50, 60, 100 people. In general Kambiyev managing oblono KBAO reported to the prosecutor of the region in December, 1926 that "activity of these schools at the fanatical population of the area does not give in to account and observations as the population hides them and considerably complicates work of sovtrudovy school" [40]. By 1926. The North Caucasian regional committee developed a detailed plan of inspection of a condition of all religious organizations including schools. And though it was supposed to find out, besides formal data on the room size, the number of pupils, etc. according to what programs the training what objects are carried out is conducted, methods of education of pupils, i.e. purely pedagogical party put, in reality poor data are received. They came down to the fact that as testify supplied the tables "Data across the North Caucasus", mosques and madrasah in all North Caucasus - 1644, Arab schools - 223 [41, l. 110]. However specification of data on autonomies did not confirm the general figure because in Kabardino-Balkaria the madrasah appeared only 10, and the lowest Arab schools - only 100. At only two types of schools of pupils was about 1000. In Adygei-Circassian the joint-stock company of madrasah did not appear at all, the lowest schools up to 10, studying up to 100 people, and those exist illegally. In Karachevo-Circassia the schools of madrasah were also not, the lowest schools up to 10, students - 150, but also there is no their accurate accounting [41, l. 122]. So, taking into account data on Chechnya and Ingushetia, Ossetia, other autonomies, only data about 223 Arab, i.e. the schools training attendants of a cult coincide with the figure specified in the general report. However not without reason authors of data in one line reduced the number of madrasah and mosques: knowing the main point understood: at each mosque, certainly, there was also a school. To consider number of pupils at such approach it was not represented possible.

In June, 1927 the organizational bureau of the Central Committee is offered "to establish for the republics, areas and the provinces of RSFSR monotonous type of the instruction about teaching Muslim dogma". In an essence, it reproduced, but with more rigid regulation, instructions of the meeting held at Stolypin. The number of courses on training of Muslim clergy was limited to "delivery of permission to their opening only in the cities of Ufa, Kazan, Simferopol" [42, l. 68]. It was recommended not to allow "associations of clergy in the uniform centralized organization" and

"distribution of influence of CDU in the North Caucasus". People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs and OGPU was imputed a duty "to take drastic measures for eradication of any ways of monetary and natural oblozheniye by clergy of the believer of the population in favor of religious schools" [42, l. 69]. Narkompros's board of RSFSR, having considered in 1927 situation with national education in the North Caucasus, though estimated "considerable advances" in this question, but noted as "the painful moment" "among mountain nationalities" after all "existence of network of the confessional schools which are openly existing along with the Soviet network. Mullahs all measures promote the schools, bringing in them elements of new life (for example, retraction of girls, etc.)" [43]. Recognizing progress in deprivation of the North Caucasian Muslim clergy of "economic power", the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) in the theses "About advocacy work among mountaineers" and by the end of the 20th "cultural superiority" noted it.

As we see, throughout the 20th the center, concentrating power levers in the hands, undertook powerful actions, undermining both organizational, and personnel, and a financial basis at a Muslim education system. It is clear, that the population in process of forces rendered counteraction of the power. Continued to work and the schools though beginning to take cover under a shade of mosques podpolno worked circles on studying the Quran and Arabic. They will endure both terrible repressions of the 30th, and deportation of the Turkic population (Balkars and Karachays) in the 40th. Post-Soviet autonomous structures should establish contact and cooperation with them in the 21st century


1. Jordan M. Islamization of culture as the embodiment of ethical ideals of Islam//Islam in Eurasia. M, 2001. Page 71.
2. See, for example: B. Laypanov. Islam in the history and consciousness of the Karachay people//In the same place. M, 2001. Page 157-169.
3. Kabardian. About religious and public life of mountaineers//the Caucasian mountaineer. 1925. No. 2-3. Page 108.
4. Doguzh. Almanac of writers of Karachaya//North Caucasus. 1936. No. 27. Page 20.
5. F.G. Landa. Islam in the history of Russia. M, 1995. Page 206-207, 210.
6. Decrees of the Soviet power. T. 2. On March 17 - on July 10, 1918 M., 1959. Page 357-359.
7. RGIA, t. 846, op. 1, 165, l. 27-29 about.

Kabardino-Balkarian state univ?

Nicholas Ezra John
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