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The key indicators characterizing demographic position of Russia of the end of the 20th century.

a nodatelstvo and judicial practice, was the integral element of public life, in many respects defined it. Crime did not disappear, despite promises of political figures, and just owing to the dynamic and initiative character, ability to adapt to the changing situation got new forms and features.

list of references

1. A.F. Gorkin. Tasks of socialist justice in modern conditions//the Soviet state and the right. 1962. No. 8. Page 3 - 14.
2. State Archive of the Penza Region (SAPR). T. Item 1152. Op.1. 173.
3. A.I. Gurov. Professional crime: past and present. M.: Legal literature, 1990. 304 pages
4. Results of the All-Union population census of 1959 in the USSR / Under the editorship of. K.A. Orekhova. M.: Gosstatizdat, 1962. 284 pages
5. Control over crime in democratic society (materials of "A round table")//the State and the right. 1993. No. 10. Page 54-92.
6. N.F. Kuznetsova. Crime and crime. M.: Publishing house of the Moscow university, 1969. 231 pages
7. S. Kuzmin. Wolves of underworld (From the history of fight against crime in Russia)//the Young Guard. 1995. No. 7. Page 252-319.
8. V.V. Luneev. Crime in the USSR: top trends and regularities//Soviet state and right. 1991. No. 8. Page 90-97.
9. V.V. Luneev. Crime of the XX century. Global, regional and Russian trends: World criminological analysis. M.: NORM, 1995. 525 pages
10. K. Marx. Population, crime and pauperism//K. Marx, F. Engels. Compositions. M.: Publishing house of political literature, 1959. T.13. Page 513-518.
11. B.S. Nikiforov. Efficiency of criminal measures of fight against crime. M.: Legal literature, 1968. 256 pages
12. A.A. Piontkovsky. To a question of the crime reasons in the USSR and measures of fight against it//the Soviet state and the right. 1959. No. 3. Page 85-98.
13. R.D. Rakhunov. The general trends of development of the Soviet criminal procedure law//Questions of fight against crime / Under the editorship of I.I. Karpets. M.: Legal literature, 1967. Page 94-111.
14. The Russian sociological encyclopedia / Under the editorship of G.V. Osipov. M.: NORMA-INFRA of M, 1999. 672 pages
15. F.Yu. Safin. From the history of development of the legislation of Russia on criminal liability of minors//History of state and law. 2003. No. 1. Page 28-29.
16. The collection of documents on the history of the criminal legislation of the USSR and RSFSR 1917-1953/Under the editorship of I.T. Golyakov. M.: Gosyurizdat, 1953. 463 pages
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UDC 312

the key indicators characterizing demographic position of Russia of the end hkh century


Penza state pedagogical university of V.G. Belinsky department of the contemporary history of Russia and study of local lore

In article the change of such factors characterizing the general demographic situation in the country as birth rate, mortality, process of demographic aging and depopulation is considered. And also influence of social economic policy of the 1990th on a demographic situation in Russia of the end of XX - the beginning of the 20th century is reflected

Mortality, birth rate, process of demographic aging and depopulation are one of the demographic factors which are most brightly reflecting the level of development of the country and economic and social changes happening in it. The demographic crisis which began at the beginning of the 90th of the 20th century does not weaken. Such situation is caused by the level and distribution of income among the population, the level and price dynamics, security with work, dwellings, extent of development of social insurance, GDP volume per capita, the level of performance and intensity of work, working conditions and some other social and economic factors.

The demographic situation in modern Russia is characterized: high death rate of the population and low indicators of birth rate. From 1982 for 1986 average annual mortality was 10.3 people on 1000 residents of the USSR.

In 1987-1991 - increased up to 10.7 people, and for 1992-2000. Vnastoyashchy time mortality of men of young and average working-age (20-45 years) and women aged from 55 up to 70 years is characteristic of Russia. Such mortality of men, generally is defined by the unnatural reasons, main of which - accidents, poisonings, injuries. In 1990-1991 the average annual size of suicides in Russia was 26.4 people on 100 thousand of the population, in 1992-2000 it rose up to 38.2 people, that is increased by 44.7%. So, the total number of suicides in Russia for 1992-2000 exceeded half a million people (503.8 thousand people). For the same period in the country about 360 thousand people were killed [2, Page 62]. In Russia death probability from the unnatural reasons at the country male half of the population by 4.5 times exceeds a similar indicator of the developed countries of Europe. For women

this indicator is 40% higher. Thus, by 2015 in Russia the population, the going beyond working-age, will exceed almost twice number entering working-age.

Other factor characterizing a demographic situation in Russia is the birth rate which at the present stage differs in low indicators. The average annual standard of birth rate during the period from 1982 to 1986 was 18.9 children on 1000 people. For 1987-1991 - 14.7 children, and for 1992-2000-9.1 children on 1000 residents of Russia, that is decreased approximately twice in comparison with the beginning of the 80th of the 20th century. In 2000 in Russia the minimum birth rate for all history of the country - 1.21 babies on one woman is noted. Such level of birth rate provided replacement of generations with 57% [3, Page 304]. Small increase in birth rate does not give in recent years the grounds to count on its growth to the level of simple replacement of generations. The low birth rate is caused by convenience of such situation to most of the population of the country.

Result of reduction of birth rate and growth of mortality of the population was significant decrease in its natural increase, and since 1992 - absolute reduction of the population of Russia. According to the forecast of Goskomstat, the population of the country by 2016 will be reduced in comparison with the beginning of 2001 by 10.4 million people (7.2%) [4, Page 403].

Reduction of population is followed by the accruing deterioration in health of citizens, in particular children. This trend is directly connected with such negative social phenomena as abuse of alcohol, drugs, spread of HIV infection and other dangerous diseases.

the share elderly (60 years are also more senior) people in Russia grew from 6.7% in 1939 to 11.9% in 1970, 18.7% in 2001 and continue to grow. Economic and social consequences of aging are discussed not one decade. Special concern is caused by increase in economic load of able-bodied population because of rapid growth of number and a share of pensioners though sometimes call also other consequences (aging of the most able-bodied population, delay of updating of knowledge and ideas, weakening of a pressure of generations, a gerontocracy and so forth).

Transition to new structure of time of life creates problems of adaptation of social institutes to new demographic realities. Development of the pension systems - one of the main responses to rapid growth of a share of elderly people in the 20th century. But the ratio of time lived in "the dependence period" and "the production period" practically does not change. Scientists consider that this factor is enough not to perceive aging as a demographic problem. Elderly people pass into position of dependents after finish working life, - so their consumption is in advance paid with their work.

changes of age structure of the population of Russia will continue for a long time, the population bu-

is put to grow old. It is more important to that to warn against panic dramatization of consequences of this process [1, Page 61]. That redistribution of resources in favor of the late period of life of generations became politically acceptable, the social philosophy and political economy answering to new demographic realities are necessary.

The call of aging has not only economic aspect. Today four representatives of the developing world are the share of one inhabitant in the developed countries [2, Page 63]. But among children and youth aged up to 20 years this ratio exceeds seven:

2.1 one billion children and teenagers in the countries of the South against less than 300 million in the countries of the North.

In 1913 the population of Russia in its present borders made 10 million, in the next decades the most active phases of demographic transition which, as a rule, are followed by the accelerated growth of the population were developed in the country. But at us the potential population explosion was nullified by huge human losses in accidents of the first half of century, and the chance to considerably increase the population was irreversible is missed. Nevertheless, after all cataclysms the population increased thanks to natural increase which long time remained high and helped to close many gaps. Thanks to it, in particular, the country recovered from the demographic crisis caused by World War II. In 1955 the pre-war population was reached, and still approximately within ten years - to the second half of the 60th - its natural increase allowed not only to support the general increase in population, but also "to give" some of its part to other republics of the USSR.

But then, owing to falling of birth rate, the decline in mortality termination and also for the reason that began to let know about himself aging of the population, natural increase began to be reduced quickly. In 1964 the coefficient of natural increase of the population of Russia for the first time fell lower than 10 by one thousand, in 1967 lower than seven. Since then it any more never rose to such level, fluctuated generally ranging from 5.5 up to 6.5 on one thousand, only sometimes going beyond these limits. In the late eighties fast falling of natural increase began, and since 1992 when the population of Russia reached the historical peak - 148.7 million people, the coefficient became negative, as caused the general decline in population by the beginning of 2003 the decrease exceeded

5.2 one million, or 3.5% [1, Page 62].

Present - the fourth after 1913 - reduction of the population of Russia strongly differs from three previous, caused by the sharpest social shocks: World War I and civil wars, hunger and repressions of the 1930th, World War II. Now decrease is caused by steady changes in mass demographic behavior of Russians. Therefore it is not necessary to count that in the near future the positive natural increase of the population, at the same time and growth will be restored

numbers of residents of the country. All authors of demographic forecasts agree that decline in population in Russia will accept long character.

In particular, by "average" version of the forecast of the UN, by 2050 the population of our country will be reduced in comparison with 2000 approximately by 30% and will be 101.5 million people. To similar results also the Russian predictors come.

In principle it is possible to find many arguments that reduction of the population - not always a trouble, and its growth - not always the benefit. However, addressing specific conditions of Russia, it is necessary to see that for it decline in population is extremely unprofitable.

Russia still treats the first in numbers of inhabitants to the countries of the world. Russia was always poorly developed multiland country with very low population density, however especially notable these factors became after the collapse of the USSR from which Russia inherited three quarters of the territory, but only a half of total number of inhabitants.

If the European part of Russia on population density is comparable to the USA (in the European Russia-27, in the USA - 29 people on 1, then in comparison with industrial countries of Western Europe even its historical kernel is not too inhabited. One fifth population it is concentrated in the Central economic region occupying less than 3% of the territory. But also here population density (over 62 people on 1 is almost twice lower, than in the European Union (119 on 1 As for an Asian part of Russia, there, in the territory making 75% of the country only 22% of its population live at the density of 2.5 people at 1 [2, Page 61]. Demographic capacity of Siberia and the Far East is obviously insufficient for development of the natural wealth which are available here and creation of the developed, more or less continuous economic and settlement structure.

The general limitation of the Russian demographic potential affects not only accommodation of the population on regions, but also development of structure of the inhabited places. Though on a share of urban population (73%) Russia is at the average European level and not too differs from such countries as the USA (75%) or Japan (77%), its urban population is disseminated through a large number of settlements whereas the network of the large cities is developed poorly. After the collapse of the USSR in Russia there were 13 of 24 former Soviet cities of millionaires (by the beginning of 2002 they were only 10), of them only two — east of the Urals. Only two Russian cities total over 2 million inhabitants. Of course, "underdevelopment" of the large cities - the certificate of shortcomings of regional development of Russia which managed to generate not so many the powerful regional and interregional capitals. But there is also feedback: outflow of urban population to several large centers does not allow to develop to large regional mother countries which could give an impulse to development of the regions.

Only some internal difficulties which Russia meets already now, because of not - are that

sufficiency of the present population and which she will test especially at its reduction. But there are also external difficulties connected with position of Russia in the international community [3, Page 305].

Russia occupies nearly 13% of the world land - it is the biggest in the world, rich with natural resources, but extremely poorly populated territory. It adjoins to the densely populated states some of which have claims for Russian lands.

Thus, on internal, economic, on external, geopolitical, to reasons decline in population is not equitable to the interests of Russia. The reasons of loss of the high place by Russia in world demographic hierarchy are available both within the country, and outside. An external cause - a world population explosion which sharply accelerated growth of the population of developing countries.

In dynamics of such demographic indicators as birth rate, mortality, life expectancy, natural process of gain or decline in population is shown social and biological process of natural change of number and the state of health of the population. And reproduction of direct life is the main component of public process of reproduction and also a key indicator of degree of efficiency of functioning of any given social and economic system.

It is well-known that the factors defining reproduction of direct life as the phenomena of a social and biological order are dual. On the one hand, it is all set of climatic conditions and processes to which refer structure and air temperature, level of precipitation, an ecological situation, etc. With another - actually all socio-economic factors which the level and distribution of income, level and price dynamics, security with work and other factors are.

Influence of socio-economic factors on a demographic situation in Russia is an indicator of efficiency of carrying out the public social and economic policy which since the beginning of the 90th of the 20th century changes. As a result of carrying out such policy the living conditions of the population of the country worsen what confirm reduction of population, deterioration in health of citizens, structure of monetary income and expenses of residents of the country. For example, in 1997 on purchase of essentials, food, and fee 68.7% of income of family, and in 2002 - 73.2% left [4, Page 403].

Thus, the social and economic policy which began in the 90th of the 20th century in Russia led to emergence of a number of negative consequences, one of which is deterioration in a demographic situation in the country. For overcoming the crisis phenomena including demographic crisis, generated by such policy holding the complex actions directed first of all on creation of the complete and effectively functioning social and economic system in Russia is necessary.


1. A. Vishnevsky. The great sparsely populated power//Russia in global policy. 2003. No. 3. Page 61-63.
2. B.B. Prokhorov. Population shift and public health in the Russian past and the present//Russia in the world around: Analytical year-book.

Under the editorship of V.I. Danilov-Danilyan. M, 2002. Issue 5. Page 61-64.

3. Regions of Russia. Socio-economic indexes. Statistical collection. M, 2003. Page 304-306.
4. Social status and standard of living of the population of Russia. 2003. Statistical collection. M, 2003. Page 402-403.

of UDC 9 (C) 28

to a question of FORMATION of the TATAR MERCHANTS

S.S. Mikheyev

Penza state pedagogical university of V.G. Belinsky department of the contemporary history of Russia and study of local lore

In article some aspects of formation of such category of trade estate as national Tatar merchants are considered. The author the attempt of the analysis of the reasons of formation of the Tatar merchants as layers of trade estate becomes.

Conditionally it is considered that occupation trade was traditional occupation of representatives of the Tatar ethnos. To answer a question of why the similar opinion was created, it is necessary to analyze whether it was a consequence of economic prerequisites or validly result of realization of enterprise abilities.

For the territory of the Penza province the occupation agricultural work as major activity of the population was traditional, however not always agricultural orientation was convenient and profitable for owners. In particular, for representatives of the Tatar ethnos since the 18th century the restriction of their economic independence began.

- the beginning of the 20th century agriculture continued to play the leading role in country farms of Tatars in the second half of XIX. The abolition of serfdom and reforms of the 1860th years did not bring with themselves for the peasantry of release from economic servitude. The best lands and grounds of peasants were cut off in favor of landowners. On materials of statistics of 1877 in the territory of the Saransk, Narovchatsky, Insarsky, Krasnoslo-bodsky, Spassky Counties in possession of peasants there were only 53.5% of all land fund. Other 46.5% belonged to landowners, treasury, church, monasteries [1, L. 13].

The number of the earth was reduced by soul as a result of natural increase of the population every year. So, from 1863 to 1878 only on Saransk, to Insarsko-m, Krasnoslobodsky to counties of the Penza province the population increased by 84.9 thousand people, and cropland at peasants remained the same [2]. Especially that group of the Tatar farms where there was a household and hereditary form of land tenure, that is that group where tendencies to stratification were already outlined suffered from malozemelya. Eventually in connection with increase in successors and sections between them hereditary sites crushed so that owners of these lands were the most insolvent owners in the region.

Reduction of acreage had an adverse effect on a property status of the Tatar peasants. So, in January, 1870 in the report of the assistant to the chief of the Saratov provincial gendarme management N.P. Pekarsky "Hvalynsko-go's Tatars of the county owing to a lack of bread are in the distress. From the data collected by me in this subject it turns out that only an insignificant part of peasants eats clean bread, and that not all own, and purchased; the most part eats the bread baked from seeds and plants of a prosyanka with impurity of flour rye and prosyany: both the first, and the last is bought... Disastrous it is put peasants still increases from the fact that since the end of last year arrears on okladny collecting which through inaction of administrative faces reached enormous figure energetic are collected from them; so, on the Atlashinsky volost consisting of 42,002 souls, shortages of 38 thousand rubles are registered; the similar figure exists also in other Tatar volosts" [3, Page 38].

The peasantry could not think of an additional purchase of the earth as the price of it without restraint grew from year to year. Sale of one tithe of the earth increased from 23 rub 55 kopeks in 1871 up to 103 rub in 1902 [4, Page 32].

The difficult economic and social status of Tatars at the end of XVIII - the middle of the 19th century induced them to look for an exit in resettlement and an otkhodnichestvo to earnings. Part of them was employed for agricultural works, others - unskilled workers to various businessmen of the city or went to other provinces. Otkhodniki were formed by different social groups of villagers, however the poor were the basis: an insolvent part of the peasantry represented 58.6%, serednyatsky - to 30%, 10% - a prosperous part [5, Page 68]. An essential role in motivation of an otkhodnichestvo was played by the growing agrarian overpopulation explaining the main reasons awakening search of additional earnings: to a malozemelya, embarrassment debts and shortages. Zazhi-

Ronnie Stewart
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